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Introduction to Call by Value in C++

Call by value is a method in C++ that is used for passing some parameters or arguments to the function which copies the original values of the function to the passed parameters. Changes made to the parameters inside the function have no effect on the passed parameters which means by default C++ call by value method is used for calling arguments that cannot be altered continuously. Any function present within the code cannot change the values passed to the main function. The values can be altered that too after passing parameters outside the main function.

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Syntax

There is no syntax but there is a way to create a function and simultaneous calling happens with the function:

int main() { int dt = 9; func_test (dt);   // Calling function with the value. return 0; } void func_test(int dt)  { dt= 8; }

Explanation:

void func_test(): represents the syntax for the creation of the function and then it passes the formal parameter int it to the function.

int main(): represents the main function which calls the func_test and then initializes the value.

How does Call by Value work in C++?

Call by value and call by reference are the two types of calling functions frequently used by most of the programmers and creates a misconception which is very much needed to be clear. Calling a function by value needs some value to be passed as a copying function and then it is known for calling the values for that function.

Call by value method passes argument as a copy of the formal parameter passed within the function. But the arguments passed have some effect on the function which says that changes made in a copy of the variable do not hamper and do not modify the value of variable outside function. Actual and the formal parameters passed to the function does not alter the value and passes values of the variables using a very simple and direct method.

Moreover, the actual or say the original value never gets hampered or changed. But a question which comes in mind is then where these arguments being passed or how does it function with the memory management techniques. Actual and formal parameters get created at different memory locations with the different locations having different privileges for accessing the parameters or the function.

Taking into consideration the safety of the function and call by value method then it is much safer than call by reference with respect to the parameters as these actual parameters do not get changed or altered even accidentally. C++ values when called by programming languages like C++, PHP, etc. come by its default values and never gets transformed or changed frequently. But the totally opposite situation happens with the call by reference where the values or the arguments passed gets changed with different types of values and transformations.

External pointer variables are needed to be created to store the address of the variables which are declared and defined for execution. Unlike call by value method call by reference passes a variable itself no need to create any external formal parameter to pass values and then check. It is very much needed to keep an important point in mind which means that the parameters changes inside the function should not get reflected outside the function while passing actual parameters.

Examples to Implement Call by Value in C++

Below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

This program illustrates the use of call by value method by calling the values and assigning the values and is then called by the function at the time of execution. One swapper function Is created and then the function is called which gives the output by swapping the values as shown in the output.

Code:

using namespace std; void swapper(int m, int n) { int z; z = m; m=n; n=z; } int main() { int m = 20, n = 21; cout<<“before_swap: “<<m<<“,”<<n<<endl; swapper(m,n); cout<<“after_swap: “<<n<<“,”<<m; return 0; }

Output:

Example #2

Code:

using namespace std; void swapper(int &x, int &y); int main () { int i = 50; int j = 80; cout << “swapped_value_before, value of i: ” << i << endl; cout << “After_swapped_value, value of j: ” << j << endl; swap(i, j); cout << “After_swaping_value, value of i: ” << i << endl; cout << “After_swapping_values, value of j: ” << j << endl; return 0; }

Output:

Advantages of Call by Value in C++

The method containing the data does not get altered as the parameters passed are not having the privilege to change the values.

When the function is called the actual or the formal parameters passed do not get changed which means that the change is not hampering the functionality.

It provides security and a safer means to the programmers by making the overall function and its data preserved from any of the security breaches.

Conclusion

Call by value method in C++ plays a very important role in any programming language as it is a frequent activity to make use of this method as part of the daily code base. It provides programmers the flexibility of reusability and time flexibility as most programs get supported by default by the programmers.

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Market Value Vs Book Value

Market Value vs Book Value

Learn about the key similarities and differences between the two concepts

Written by

CFI Team

Published August 21, 2023

Updated June 27, 2023

What is Market Value vs Book Value?

In this article, we will discuss market value vs book value and determine the key similarities and differences between them. Market value and book value are fundamental concepts in accounting and finance. They represent different aspects of the value of an asset.

Market value is the price currently paid or offered for an asset in the marketplace. Essentially, the market value of an asset is a quantified reflection of the perception of the value of the asset by the market.

On the other hand, book value is a concept related to the value of an asset as recognized by a company on its balance sheet. Book value equals the original purchase cost of an asset adjusted for any subsequent changes including depreciation, amortization, or impairment.

What is Market Value?

Market value is the current prevailing price for an asset in the marketplace.

Unlike the more stable book value, which is rarely adjusted, market value is highly dynamic. For example, the market value of a publicly-traded company may fluctuate every second due to the fluctuations in its stock price.

Market value can be easily determined for highly liquid assets such as equities or futures. The financial assets are generally traded on centralized exchanges, and their prices can be easily discovered.

However, the determination of the market value of illiquid assets is a challenging process. The absence of a constant network of buyers and sellers, as well as the complexity of some of the underlying assets (think about real estate or artwork), requires a time-consuming process to identify the reasonable market value.

The term “market value” is sometimes used synonymously with “market capitalization” of a publicly-traded company.

What is Book Value?

Book value (also known as carrying value or net asset value) is an asset’s value as recorded on a company’s balance sheet. In essence, book value is determined as the original cost paid for the asset’s acquisition, adjusted for any depreciation, amortization, or impairment attributable to the asset.

From basic accounting principles, we can derive that the book value helps determine the value of a company’s equity. In this sense, we’re talking about the equity value that the shareholders should receive in case of the company’s liquidation.

In addition, book value is frequently used to determine whether an asset is under- or overpriced. It can be determined by comparing the difference between the asset’s book and market values.

For example, one of the key applications of the difference between an asset’s book and market values is the company’s valuation. If the company’s book value exceeds its market value, it can be an indicator of a loss of confidence in a company from the investors. It can be the result of the company’s business problems, poor economic conditions, or simply investors erroneously undervaluing the company. Alternatively, if the company’s market value exceeds its book value, it is an indicator of the investors’ belief in its growth potential.

A significant variation between market value vs book value may arise if a company purchased an asset in the past that has markedly increased in value.

Additional Resources

We hope you’ve enjoyed reading CFI’s explanation of market value vs. book value. CFI is the official provider of the global Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)® certification program, designed to help anyone become a world-class financial analyst.

Do While Loop In C++

Introduction to Do While Loop in C++

Do while loop is a control statement that controls the flow of the program. Unlike for loop and while loop that checks the condition at the top of the loop, do-while loops check the condition at the bottom of the loop. Do while loop is similar to the while loop; the only difference is while loop first checks the condition and then execute the loop, where do while first execute the loop and then check that condition. That means that in the do-while loop, the loop will execute at least one time. In this article, we are going to see the working of the do-while loop in C++ with the help of examples. The syntax of the do-while loop in C++ programming is as follows.

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do { statement 1; statement 2; statemen n; } while(condition);

Here, the keyword is outside the loop, and the statement that needs to be executed is written inside the loop. The while keyword is used outside a loop that ends with a semicolon. while the loop contains the condition part that checks the condition.

Flow Chart of Do While Loop in C++

Below is the flow diagram for the do-while loop in C++, which elaborates the do-while loop’s stepwise execution with the diagram.

Examples of Do While Loop in C++

Below are some of the examples of do while loop in C++:

Example #1

Program to print the number from 0 to 10 in C++.

Code:

using namespace std; int main() { int x = 0; do { cout << “Entered number is: ” << x << endl; x++; }while(x <= 10); return 0; }

Output:

Code Explanation: Here, we have written a program to print numbers from 1 to 10 using do while loop in C++ programming. First, we have initialized the variable x to 0. the do loop executes the statement mentioned inside the loop. First, it prints the value of x, and then it increments the value of x by 1 outside the loop while checking the condition to check that whether the value of x is less or equal to 10. If the condition is true, then continue the iteration process; if the condition is false, then stops the execution.

Example #2

Code:

using namespace std; int main() { int n, count = 0, limit; cout << “Enter the value to find the multiplication table: “; cout << “Enter the maximum limit for multiplication table: “; do { cout << n << “*” << count << ” = ” << n*count <<endl; count++; } while(count <= limit); return 0; }

Output:

Code Explanation: Here, we have written a code to print the multiplication table which the user wants to print. Here we have initialized three variables n to take the number from the user and count to count the number and limit to restrict the limit for the multiplication table. Do keyword will execute the statement. First, it calculates the multiple of the values entered by the user and it prints. The count is incremented by 1 per iteration. While checking the condition, whether the count is greater than or equal to the limit or not. Based on the result, it prints the multiplication table.

Example #3

Program to print elements of an array using do while loop.

Code:

using namespace std; int main() { int i = 0; int array[] = {2,7,19,5,8}; do { cout << array[i] << endl; i++; }while(i <= 4); return 0; }

Output:

Code Explanation: Here, we have written a program to print the array elements using a do while loop in C++ programming. First, we have initialized variable I to 0 and declare the array elements. do loop will print the array elements from the list. i is used as a counter to increment the value by 1. While keyword contains the condition which counts, i.e. i must be less than or equal to 4.

Example #4

Program to add numbers until the user enters 0.

Code:

using namespace std; int main() { float f_num, Total = 0.0; do { cout << “Enter a number: “; Total += f_num; } while(f_num != 0.0); cout << “Toatal Sum = ” << Total; return 0; }

Output:

Code Explanation: Here, we have written a program to calculate the total of the entered numbers. For a change, here we have applied a condition that states that it will ask a user to enter a number unit it enters 0, and in the end, it calculated the total of the numbers. Note that, here, we have used a float data type. It enables the user to enter the decimal values.

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How Back_Inserter Method Works In C++?

Introduction to C++ Back_Inserter

The back_inserter method in C++ is used to construct an iterator, which holds the responsibility of inserting new elements to the end of the “x” or the container, with which the method is applied, and this method is defined within the header file of the program. In C++, this is a special type of output iterator designed to let the algorithms overwrite any elements and not make it mandatory to insert new elements.

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Now that we have understood what this C++ back_inserter method is let us learn the syntax and understand it. The syntax for back_inserter is as follows:

std::back_inserter ( Container & x );

When we have to insert the new elements at the end of the container, we pass the container within the parameters, and that is the same container we see here in the syntax. So what this method returns is the list of elements that are inserted at the end of the container. Moving on, we will now have a look at how the method explained works.

How does Back_Inserter Method work in C++?

Understanding how the back_inserter method works is important, and the way it works is that it creates a back-insert iterator, which is responsible for adding or inserting new elements to the list. This back insert iterator is of a special kind which allows the algorithm to overwrite the elements. Moving on, we will now understand the examples and demonstrate the working of back_inserter.

Examples of C++ Back_Inserter

Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1

Our first example is the simple working of back_inserter; here, we add elements to the end of the list. The code is as follows:

Code:

int main() { std::fill_n(std::back_inserter(v), 3, -1); std::cout << “n The output for the code is: “; for (int n : v) std::cout  <<  n  << ‘ ‘; }

Code Explanation:

Simply start with importing important system files and then into our main code. Then we have our std, which is our namespace for the program, followed by defining the scope; we have a vector with integer data type and values of 1 to 10. We then our statement of back_inserter, with container passed as n, just like we learned with syntax and followed by x parameter.

Then we have our first output print statement, which simply prints a string statement, and the back_inserter result will follow it. Finally, we have our for the statement, where we pass our vector holding the numbers as n and then the next line if our final output statement prints the numbers from vector in a negative form. Refer to the below-attached screenshot for a proper understanding of the output.

Output:

As expected, the output starts with the print statement and is then followed by the list of numbers. These numbers at the end include the result of back_inserter, which are the numbers in negative, and now, moving on to the next example.

Example #2

Code:

using namespace std; int main()  { std::copy(v1.begin(), v1.end(), std::back_inserter(v2)); cout << “n Elements of Container 1 are : “; int i; for (i = 0; i < 3; ++i) { cout << v1[i] << ” “; } cout << “n Elements of Container 2 are : “; for (i = 0; i < 5; ++i) { cout << v2[i] << ” “; } return 0; }

Code Explanation:

Started with all the system files needed, followed by initializing main. Then we have our first vector with an integer data type, and it holds 3 values, and the second vector of the same type, but with no specific size or values. Then begins our copy operation, where we are copying the begin and end part of vector 1 and implementing the back_inserter for vector 2.

Now we start printing the list of values that our vectors hold. First, a cout statement followed by the for a statement where we count and print each element of the vector. For our first vector, this for statement will only print 3 values, no more than that. Moving to our second vector, within for, we want it to print 5 values. Here we will have 2 new values, which will be zeros but added to the last part of the vector. Refer to the below-attached screenshot for a proper understanding of the output.

Output:

As expected, we have two print statements with values of 2 vectors.

Example #3

Code:

int main () { for (int i=1; i<=5; i++){ dab.push_back(i); bar.push_back(i*5); } std::copy (bar.begin(),bar.end(),back_inserter(dab)); std::cout << “n Our Container contains: “; std::cout << ‘ ‘ << *it; std::cout << ‘n’; return 0; }

Code Explanation:

Similar to our earlier example, we have system files followed by declaring two vectors of integer type. Then we have our for the statement, to add new value to the list and next statement we have push_back and us multiple our value from the list. These things happen within our first vector, from which we later copy all values into our second vector. Then comes our print statements and for statement for properly printing the values. Refer to the below attached screenshot.

Output:

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This is a guide to C++ Back_Inserter. Here we discuss How Back_Inserter Method works in C++ and Examples along with the codes and outputs. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Count Distinct Elements In An Array In C++

We are given an unsorted array of any size containing repetitive elements and the task is to calculate the count of distinct elements in an array.

Arrays a kind of data structure that can store a fixed-size sequential collection of elements of the same type. An array is used to store a collection of data, but it is often more useful to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type.

For example Input− int arr[] = {1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4} Output − count is 4

Explanation − In the given array there are 4 distinct elements and those are 1, 2, 3, 4 but the size of array is 7 as it contains repetitive elements and our task was to remove the duplicates and then count the array elements.

Input − int arr[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5} Output − count is 5

Explanation − In the given array there are 5 distinct elements and those are 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 but the size of array is 8 as it contains repetitive elements and our task was to remove the duplicates and then count the array elements.

Approach used in the below program is as follows Using sort function()

Create an array of let’s say, arr[]

Calculate the length of an array using the length() function that will return an integer value as per the elements in an array.

Call the sort function and pass the array and the size of an array as a parameter.

Take a temporary variable that will store the count of distinct elements.

Start a loop for with i to 0 till i is less than the size of an array

Inside the loop, run while i < size-1 and arr[i] = arr[i+1]

Inside the while, increment the value of i

And inside for, increment the value of count

Return count

Print the result.

Without sorting

Create an array of let’s say, arr[]

Calculate the length of an array using the length() function that will return an integer value as per the elements in an array.

Take a temporary variable that will store the count of distinct elements.

Start a loop for with i to 1 till i is less than the size of an array

Inside the loop, set j to 0 and start another loop for with j to 0 and j less using namespace std; int distinct_elements(int arr[], int n){    // Sorting the array    sort(arr, arr + n);    // Traverse the sorted array    int count = 0;    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++){             while (i < n – 1 && arr[i] == arr[i + 1]){          i++;       }       count++;    }    return count; } int main(){    int arr[] = { 3, 6, 5, 8, 2, 3, 4 };    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);    cout <<“count is “<<distinct_elements(arr, n);    return 0; using namespace std; int countDistinct(int a[], int size){    int i, j, count = 1;    for (i = 1; i < size; i++){       for (j = 0; j < i; j++){          if (a[i] == a[j]){             break;          }       }       if (i == j){          count++;       }    }    return count; } int main(){    int a[] = { 3, 6, 5, 8, 2, 3, 4 };    int size = sizeof(a) / sizeof(a[0]);    cout << “count is “<<countDistinct(a, size);    return 0; }

Output

If we run the above code we will get the following output −

count is 6

Ways To Copy A Vector In C++

There are different ways to copy a vector in C++.

1) std::copy

std:: copy is inbuilt to copy the elements from one vector to another.

Syntax std::copy(first_iterator_o, last_iterator_o, back_inserter()): first_iteratot_0 = First iterator of first vector. last_iteratot_0 = Last iterator of first vector. back_inserter() = To insert values from back. Algorithm Begin    Declare v1 of vector type.       Initialize some values into v1 vector in array pattern.    Declare v2 of vector type.    Call copy(v1.begin(), v1.end(), back_inserter(v2)) to copy all    elements of v1 to v2.    Print “v1 vector elements are :”.    for (int i=0;i<1.size; i++)       print the all element of v2 vector.    Print “v2 vector elements are :”.    for (int i=0;i<2.size; i++)       print the all element of v2 vector. using namespace std; int main() {    copy(v1.begin(), v1.end(), back_inserter(v2));    cout << "v1 vector elements are : ";    for (int i=0; i<v1.size(); i++)       cout << v1[i] << " ";       cout << endl;       cout << "v2 vector elements are : ";    for (int i=0; i<v2.size(); i++)       cout << v2[i] << " ";       cout<< endl;    return 0; } Output v1 vector elements are : 7 6 4 5 v2 vector elements are : 7 6 4 5 2) assign operator

This is also used to copy values from vector 1 to vector 2.

Syntax std::assign(first_iterator_o, last_iterator_o): first_iteratot_0 = First iterator of first vector. last_iteratot_0 = Last iterator of first vector. Algorithm Begin    Initialize a vector v1 with its elements.    Declare another vector v2.    Call assign() to copy the elements of v1 to v2.    Print the elements of v1.    Print the elements of v2. using namespace std; int main() {    v2.assign(v1.begin(), v1.end());    cout << "v1 vector elements are : ";    for (int i=0; i<v1.size(); i++)       cout << v1[i] << " ";       cout << endl;       cout << "v2 vector elements are : ";    for (int i=0; i<v2.size(); i++)       cout << v2[i] << " ";       cout<< endl;    return 0; } Output v1 vector elements are : 7 6 4 5 v2 vector elements are : 7 6 4 5 3) By assignment “=” operator

It is a simple way to copy values from vector 1 to vector 2

Algorithm Begin    Initialize a vector v1 with its elements.    Declare another vector v2.    Call assignment operator “=” to copy the elements of v1 to v2.    Print the elements of v1.    Print the elements of v2. using namespace std; int main() {    v2 = v1 ;    cout << "v1 vector elements are : ";    for (int i=0; i<v1.size(); i++)       cout << v1[i] << " ";       cout << endl;       cout << "v2 vector elements are : ";    for (int i=0; i<v2.size(); i++)       cout << v2[i] << " ";       cout<< endl;    return 0; } Output v1 vector elements are : 7 6 4 5 v2 vector elements are : 7 6 4 5 4) By push_back method Algorithm Begin    Initialize a vector v1 with its elements.    Declare another vector v2.    Make a for loop to copy elements of first vector into second vector by Iterative method using push_back().    Print the elements of v1.    Print the elements of v2. using namespace std; int main() {    for (int i=0; i<v1.size(); i++)       v2.push_back(v1[i]);       cout << "v1 vector elements are : ";    for (int i=0; i<v1.size(); i++)       cout << v1[i] << " ";       cout << endl;       cout << "v2 vector elements are : ";    for (int i=0; i<v2.size(); i++)       cout << v2[i] << " ";       cout<< endl;    return 0; } Output v1 vector elements are : 7 6 4 5 v2 vector elements are : 7 6 4 5 5) By passing vector as constructor Algorithm Begin    Initialize a vector v1 with its elements.    Declare another vector v2 and copying elements of first vector to second vector using constructor method and they are deeply copied.    Print the elements of v1.    Print the elements of v2. using namespace std; int main() {    cout << "v1 vector elements are : ";    for (int i=0; i<v1.size(); i++)       cout << v1[i] << " ";       cout << endl;       cout << "v2 vector elements are : ";    for (int i=0; i<v2.size(); i++)       cout << v2[i] << " ";       cout<< endl;    return 0; } Output v1 vector elements are : 7 6 4 5 v2 vector elements are : 7 6 4 5

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