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Documentation is just as quintessential as discovering bugs, at least from an engineer’s perspective. Not only does it pinpoint the issues with precise articulation, but in the process, saves resources. If there is a well-documented report at your disposal, it serves a lot of healthy purposes in the long run.

Before diving into the specifics surrounding bug reporting and its documentation, you need to understand the basic philosophy behind it—simplification.

The beauty of simplicity here implies that it becomes easier to locate and solve said issues. The simpler your directions are, the easier it is to navigate. With that, here is how you document a perfect bug testing report.

Here’s How You Write a Perfect Bug Testing Report 1.    Feature or Title

Also read: Top 10 Job Search Websites of 2023

2.   Premise

After you have provided a rough idea as to what the nature of the bug might be, you need to throw some light on the premise of such bugs. What this means is, you need to specifically mention what environment your discovered bugs come from, what platform they are based on, and so on.

This can be further categorised into segments for easier understanding. They are as follows.

Device: Mention the kind of device you are using, and where you have found the bug(s). You need to be specific about the hardware, and if possible, the model itself. It would be great if you could also provide other details such as the date of purchase, just to eliminate manufacturing-related doubts.

Platform: You need to then mention what kind of platform the device is running on. First, mention whether it is a handheld device or any other, after which mention the operating system. If you have made modifications such as rooting or jailbreaking in case of mobile devices, mention that too.

Account: Mention whether you have been using a test account or your regular account. If you are creating an app that is rather niche, it is always safer to use test accounts for bug reporting.

Type of Connection: Apps might have bugs wherein inconsistencies in speed can exist based on what connection you are on. This is why you should mention what kind of medium the device is connected to, be it Wi-Fi or cellular data.

Supplements: Mention whether you have used any supplementary tools to prove your stance. For instance, if you have used bug reporting tools like Shake, mention it in your report. This would add credibility to your personal reporting capabilities, as a reporting tool found the same lapses that you personally have.

Rate of Reproduction: Finally, mention how many times you have been able to reproduce the said lapses in your report.

3.   Emulation Specifics

Next, you need to mention how you have reproduced the said bugs. Have you made default estimations, or have you used precise back tracings? Can you pinpoint where the issue or bug exists, or can you just create the path and want to send for further investigation? You need to mention it all here.

4.   Visible Evidence

Next, you need to supplement your claims with valid evidence. It would be great if you can provide screen recordings, screenshots, or any other visible evidence that you can supplement your claims with. Sticking with the idea of frame drops in Reels, you can show video evidence of it occurring.

Additionally, you ought to mention how frequently it occurs in a test space, and whether or not it mitigates after any other action.

Also read: Top 7 Work Operating Systems of 2023

To Conclude

Now that you know how to create a report, the lives of your associates should be easier. Additionally, to end your report, you can mention how severe or urgent the issue is, and how immediately it needs further investigation.

This would not only make your report a high priority but in the clearer set of events, would help solving it in a quicker fashion.

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How To Get A Ntfs Permissions Report

How to get a NTFS Permissions Report [Best Tools] Monitor all permissions on your network with these tools

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To monitor NTFS permissions report, you’ll need a proper software work for your entire organization.

There are many professional as well as free applications that can help you with that.

Create multiple user accounts in one go

Modify the attributes of multiple users at once using CSV file import

Enable or disable users, and set account expiration dates of users in bulk

Change passwords of a single or multiple users

Manage all the Active Directory (AD) processes and workflows with one tool!

System permissions are important, and if you want to keep an eye on them, you’ll need to use NTFS permission report software.

What is the best software for NTFS permissions report?

If you’re looking for NTFS permissions report software, then ADManager Plus is a must-have.  The software allows you to view folder permissions with ease.

In addition, you can easily set, adjust or remove permissions to prevent unauthorized access to partitions. If needed, you can easily view reports on access control and permissions.

You can also export permissions to Excel or automate permission reporting. The software is simple to use, and you can configure your permissions from the user interface with ease.

Overall, the software offers amazing features, and as such, it’s perfect for all professionals that want to see their NTFS permissions reports.

Other great features:

User provisioning in AD, Exchange, Google Workspace, Office 365, and Skype for Business

AD bulk user management

Active directory password management

Active Directory user reports

Controlled automation

ManageEngine ADManager Plus

If you want to manage access permissions in your organization, ADManager Plus is the right choice for you.

Free trial Get it now

To view the NTFS permissions report you don’t need expensive software, especially if you use tools such as Cjwdev NTFS Permissions Reporter.

The software comes with a simple and minimalistic user interface that will help you find the desired settings with ease. With it, you’ll have the ability to easily view group members as well as report permissions for any directory.

This version also has command line support, the ability to create filters, the ability to compare reports, and email notifications once the report is finished.

Overall, it’s a simple and powerful tool, so it’s a great choice if you’re on a budget.

Other great features:

Simple user interface

Fast performance

Ability to export reports in HTML and other formats

Email reporting

Command line support

⇒ Get Cjwdev NTFS Permissions Reporter

Using this tool, you can view permissions for all folders in a table or hierarchical tree view. Permission reports and information regarding file ownership are also available and easily accessible.

Expert tip:

Other great features:

Simple and friendly interface

The free version is also available

Authentication support

Email integration

Ability to import existing report data

⇒ Get NTFS Permission Reporter

Using this software, you can ensure that all employees have proper permissions in your company. With it, you can easily see file share and Active Directory reports and review access rights for each user.

If needed, you can always revoke certain access rights for users in your company right from the software. By doing so, you can reduce the risk of security breaches and data loss in your organization.

The software is available for free, so feel free to download it and take your company’s security to a whole new level with Netwrix Effective Permissions Reporting Tool.

Other great features:

All features are available for free

Ability to easily view membership and permissions

Easily revoke access rights

Reporting feature

⇒ Get Netwrix Effective Permissions Reporting Tool

Another software that deserves a mention is FolderSecurityViewer, and with this tool, you can easily generate permission reports. By doing so, you can see permissions for all folders on your PC.

The software also allows you to view share reports across all servers on your network. That’s not all, you can also view owner or folder reports for all directories. If you want to save your reports, it’s possible to export them in HTML format.

Certain features aren’t available in the free version, so if you want to view user permission reports for example, you’ll need to purchase a license. The same applies to XLS or CSV report export.

Overall, this application offers decent features, and it’s a great option if you want to view the NTFS permissions report.

Other great features:

Permission, share, folder, and owner reports

HTML, XLS, and CSV Export

Ability to save and load reports

Report comparison

Command line interface

⇒  Get FolderSecurityViewer

There are many great tools to view NTFS permissions reports on your PC, and we encourage you to try all of the applications mentioned in this guide.

If you need similar software to monitor your network, we suggest using one of these open-source network monitoring applications.

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How To Perform Regression Testing?

In this article, we will learn what is regression testing, how to do it, when it is required and its types.

What is Regression Testing?

Regression testing is also known as black box testing. It is used to verify that a software code modification does not affect the product’s existing functionality. Regression testing ensures that a product’s new functionality, issue patches, or other changes to an existing feature work properly

Regression testing is a sort of software analysis. Test cases are re-run to ensure that the application’s previous functionality is still operational and that the new changes haven’t introduced any defects.

When there is a significant change in the original functionality, regression testing can be performed on a new build. It ensures that the code continues to function even though modifications are made. Regression testing refers to re-testing the elements of the application that haven’t changed.

The Verification Method is another name for regression tests. Many test cases are automated. Test cases must be run multiple times, and manually repeating the same test case over and over is time-consuming and monotonous.

How to do Regression Testing?

When software maintenance includes upgrades, error fixes, optimization, and deletion of existing functionalities, regression testing is required. These changes may have an impact on the system’s functionality. In this instance, regression testing is required.

The following strategies can be used to perform regression testing −

Re-examine All

One method for performing regression testing is to use Re-Test. All test case suits should be re-executed in this method. We can define re-testing as when a test fails and the cause of the failure is determined to be a software flaw. After the problem has been reported, we can anticipate a new version of the software with the flaw rectified. In this instance, we’ll need to run the test again to ensure that the problem has been resolved. This is referred to as re-testing. This is referred to as confirmation testing by some.

The re-test is quite costly, as it necessitates a significant amount of time and resources.

Regression analysis Selection

Instead of executing a full test-case suit, this technique executes a single test-case suit.

The chosen test case is split into two parts: (a) Test cases that can be reused and (b) Test cases that are no longer valid.

Test cases that are reusable can be used in subsequent regression cycles.

Test cases that are no longer valid cannot be used in subsequent regression cycles.

Test case prioritization

Prioritize the test case based on the business effect, important functionality, and frequency of use. The regression test suite will be reduced by selecting test cases.

Cases When Regression testing should be done

In the following case, regression testing can be performed −

When a Change Requirement exists

Example − Remember password has been deleted from the login page, which was previously relevant.

When the application receives new functionality.

Example − A website offers a login feature that only allows users to log in using their email addresses. We’ve added a new option that allows you to log in using Facebook.

When the flaw has been corrected

Example − Consider the following scenario: a login button on a login page isn’t working, and a tester reports a bug indicating that the login button is broken. Once the bug has been repaired by the developers, the tester verifies that the Login Button is functioning as expected. On the other hand, Testers also test the other functions correlated to login button.

If there is a performance problem to fix

Example − A homepage takes 5 seconds to visit; by reducing the load time to 2 seconds, the page will load in half the time.

When an environment change is there

Example − When the database is upgraded from MySQL to Oracle.

How do you decide which test cases to use for regression testing?

It was discovered during an inspection of the industry. The customer reported multiple faults that were caused by last-minute bug patches. As a result of these side effects, picking a Test Case for regression testing is an art, not a simple operation.

Regression test can be done by −

A test case which has frequent defects

Functionalities which are more visible to users.

Test cases checks the main features of the product.

All integration test cases

All complex test cases

Boundary value test cases

A sample of successful test cases

Failure of test cases

Regression Testing Types

The following are the various types of regression testing −

URT stands for Unit Regression Testing.

RRT stands for Regional Regression Testing.

FRT stands for “Full or Complete Regression Testing.”

Unit Regression Testing (URT)

We’ll only test the altered unit in this case, not the impact area, because it could influence other modules’ components.

Example

The developer creates the Search button in an application, which allows 1-15 characters in the first build. The test engineer then uses the test case design technique to test the Search button.

The customer now requires that the Search button support 1-35 characters, as well as some other changes to the need. The test engineer will just test the Search button to ensure that it accepts 1-35 characters and will not examine any other aspects of the first build.

Regional Regression Testing (RRT)

This is known as Regional Regression Evaluating, and it involves testing the modification together with the effect area or areas. We’re testing the impact area because if there are dependable modules, they’ll have an impact on the other modules as well.

Consider the following scenario:

We can assume that there are four separate modules in the image in our mind which includes Module A, Module B, Module C, and Module D, which are provided by the developers for testing during the first build. Now it’s up to the test engineer to find the faults in Module D. The developers get the bug report, and the development team remedies the defects then after sends the second build.

The preceding flaws are fixed in the second build. The test engineer now realizes that the problem fixes in Module D have had an influence on some functionality in Modules A and C. As a result, the test engineer checks the impact areas in Module A and Module C after testing Module D, where the bug has been resolved. As a result, this type of testing is referred to as Regional regression testing.

Full Regression Testing (FRT)

During the product’s second and third releases, the client requests the addition of three to four new features, as well as the correction of some bugs from the previous release. The testing team will next do an impact analysis and determine that the above change will require us to test the complete product.

As a result, we may refer to testing the updated features as well as all of the remaining (old) features as Full Regression testing.

When the following conditions are met, we will perform the FRT −

When the alteration is made to the product’s source file. JVM, for example, is the JAVA application’s root file, and any changes to JVM will cause the entire JAVA program to be tested.

When we have a large number of modifications to make.

How To Perform Testing In Scala With Benefits And Testing Tools

Introduction to ScalaTest

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

How to Perform Testing in Scala?

We can perform testing in scala by using the ScalaTest library. This library provides us with large support for the various integration test as well. Also, this library can easily be used with the various editor like IntelliJ, Eclipse and many more to make the development fast and easier. Play framework also provides good support to use this library with it. Whenever we develop any application, we have to test it before delivering it to its owner. So in the programming language, we can perform this by using various tools available, which makes our work sometimes automated and faster to execute.

1. We can use this with the play framework.

ScalaTest can be used with the play framework; also, it provides support for various integration to test the application as we know that we keep our test classes inside the test folder only. In every programming language, we have this like java also. Inside this folder, we can create our test classes and place the code inside them. We can also mock our data whenever we want. For this, it provides us integration support as well. So now we will see how to configure this in the play framework.

2. In order to use this in our application, we have to include one dependency in our project to use this library.

org.scalatestplus.play

This is the dependency that is required to include; after that, we can specify the version as well for this. All this changes will be done in the chúng tôi file. After including the dependency, we can now create the test classes in Scala to test our application.

So here we are using the ScalaTest tool to test our application, now we will see how to create a test class in scala using the ScalaTest library:

Create a simple class in scala like we normally create, but this class should extend the PlaySpec class from the ScalaTest library.

Also, we have to include the package as well, like this ‘import org.scalatestplus.play._’, then only we can test our application, and the program will compile.

If you want to assert something, then we can use ‘MustMatchers’ from the ScalaTest library. MustMatchers is used to compare the test result in java; we use assert, but here we are using MustMatchers from scalatest. So after the test case, we can return something based on the result we obtained. In this way, we can implement this in our application.

Benefits for Using Test in Scala

To test our application, we make sure that the functionality is working fine; it makes our application test-driven, which means any error or exception can be caught at the time of build only.

Test cases or test tool makes our application error-free. Also, they are very easy to write and read.

To implement this in scala, we have a scalatest library, which makes it easier to maintain and implement.

By writing test cases, we can detect the error at the early stage of the development; this is also beneficial for developers to save their time.

Test-driven application can be easily scalable also, and different developers can work on them.

Also, we have a mock data creation library, so we do not need to deal and test with the real-time data; we can easily mock out data.

Testing Tools for Scala

JUnit: ScalaTest provides us with the support to write the junit test cases.

Ant

Maven

sbt

JMOCK

EasyMock

Mockito

ScalaMock

Selenium

Eclipse

NetBeans

IntelliJ

Above mentioned tools can easily be used with the scala test library. In this way, we can write or create a test in scala.

We can also mock data in test cases see below:

Mockito: By the use of this, we can mock the data because every time it is not possible and not recommended, you create the instance of the service classes just to test the application so we can mock the data without being using the controller, service classes in the test classes. This can be achieved by using the Mockito api in scala. This is a very common api to use in programming language while dealing with the mock data in test cases. We can also test our controller classes in scala, for this scala test library provide us Unit testing controllers which can easily be used to test them.

Conclusion – ScalaTest

So by testing of our application, we make it less suspect to error, and it will also be easy to detect an error in the application. Nowadays, all applications are built using the test-driven approach because it is reliable and easy for developers to track bugs. Also, we have some tools available which make it even easier to test them.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to ScalaTest. Here we discuss the introduction, how to perform testing in scala? Benefits and testing tools, respectively. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Perfect Posture Doesn’t Exist—But You Can Still Improve Yours

This story has been updated. It was originally published on June 18, 2023.

There’s no such thing as perfect posture.

That’s according to Eric Robertson, a physical therapist and spokesperson for the American Physical Therapy Association. He says that posture is a popular boogeyman—the presumed culprit for everything from back pain, to headaches, to the constriction of blood vessels, to fatigue. But in reality, he says, “People, in general, over-assign posture as the source of their medical conditions.” When it comes to posture and pain, “The research just hasn’t borne that out that there’s a strong correlation,” he says.

Of course, that doesn’t mean posture isn’t something to be conscious of or proactive about. It can cause health issues, although this happens much less frequently than people suppose. More often, bad posture is a symptom of an underlying problem, which your healthcare provider can often help you remedy.

Postural problems

Most people walk around with a vision of perfect posture in their head. Perhaps you picture Audrey Hepburn’s ballerina-like stance or the Brawny paper towel guy’s confident, even-shouldered pose. We form these ideas at a young age, as parents and teachers remind kids to stop slouching and stand up straight.

But, Robertson says, “perfect” posture isn’t possible. “Don’t just assume what you think is good posture is the position you should actually take,” he says. “Good posture for one person is not [good] posture for another person.” (In other words, Audrey Hepburn probably slouched, too.)

Often, bad posture stems from muscular weakness, tightness, or spasms. If you don’t have the requisite strength in your shoulder girdle muscles, for example, it’s no wonder your shoulders tend to hunch forward. Being told to pull them back won’t work for long, as your muscles simply won’t be able to support the new position. Instead of criticizing, a physical therapist will use this information to create a regimen of exercises that strengthen the relevant muscles.

[Related: The three strength exercises everyone should do]

In some cases, Robertson says, problematic postural habits may contribute to future illness. While research suggests posture likely isn’t the source of your current pain, constantly straining your neck toward a computer screen, for example, can elongate the muscles in your neck over time. In some people, this might not cause any aches at all. But in others, it may eventually lead to more weakness, spasms, and discomfort.

“In general, the best approach to posture is to maintain strength, or improve strength where you’re weak,” Robertson says. Depending on your individual needs, your healthcare provider may suggest everything from running and weight training to special physical therapy exercises with a foam roller or resistance bands.

Work out your workday. Dane Wetton/Unsplash

Spinal solutions

For people whose pain is severe, it might be time to reach out to a doctor. Your general practitioner can connect you with a physical therapist, or you can find one through the American Physical Therapy Association’s nationwide Find a PT database.

For people who are simply posture-conscious, or looking to make smaller improvements in their daily habits, Robertson says the key is enhancing your kinesthetic awareness—the understanding of where your body is in space. Exercise of any kind can help with this. And so can some common tools, like a lumbar support roll, which pushes your lower back slightly forward in your chair. While such devices are far from a cure-all, at the very least they remind you to think about how you’re sitting and the physical sensations your behavior is causing.

Most important, you’ll have to move. “There’s nothing inherently wrong with sitting at a desk, but the length of time you sit at a desk is perhaps problematic,” Robertson says. “The answer is to change your posture as often as you can.” Try setting a recurring computer reminder to stretch in your chair, take a lap around the office, or just breathe deeply for a moment. “Our bodies inherently like motion,” he says. “Any single posture—whether it’s perfect posture or not—won’t be good for you if you do it all day.”

Ultimately, pain is a sign that something is wrong in the body. If you experience it regularly, it might be time to reach out to a professional. But many of us falsely blame posture. Fortunately, we have the power to fix it. “Your body is strong and resilient,” Robertson says. “It just likes to move around.”

A Simple Guide To Hypothesis Testing For Dummies!

Result of the experiment

While performing this experiment, an observation is made which is X = 5.

In hypothesis testing, the probability of observing the value of the test statistic by experimentation i.e. X = 5 if the null hypothesis is true is 3%.

Here, the test statistic i.e. X = 5 is the observation which is the ground truth. Hence, this fact cannot be revoked.

So, given that this observation has already been made, the probability of this observation if the assumption is also true is only 3% which is very low.

This probability value is called the p-value; the result of the statistical hypothesis testing.

Typically, the p-value is said to be small if it is less than or equal to 5%. This is just a rule of thumb.

Here the experiment was designed saying the coin was flipped 5 times. What if the coin was flipped 3 times or 10 times? The probability values will change. So, this experiment is dependent on the number of flips. This is often called a sample size.

This probability value is much greater than 5%. Hence, the assumption is failing to reject i.e. the coin is not biased.

The results of the hypothesis testing must be wisely interpreted to make claims about the data. The results can be interpreted in different ways. They are the p-values and critical values.

How to interpret the p-value?

A statistical hypothesis test may return a p-value. A p-value is defined as the probability of making the observation made, given the null hypothesis is true. It is calculated using the sample distribution of the test statistic, under the assumption i.e. null hypothesis.

The p-value is used to quantify the result of the test given the null hypothesis. This is done by comparing the p-value to the threshold value also known as significance level referred to by the Greek letter alpha.

Typically, the alpha value is 0.05 or 5%.

The p-value is compared to the pre-defined alpha value. The result of the experiment is significant when the p-value is less than, equal to the alpha value signifying that a change was detected, rejecting the null hypothesis.

Source: simplypsychology.org

Let us assume, we performed a statistical hypothesis test of whether the data sample is normally distributed and calculated a p-value of 0.9, we can say that the hypothesis test found that the sample is normally distributed, failing to reject the null hypothesis at a 5% significance level.

There is one mistake that a lot of people often make. Some people think that it is the probability that the null hypothesis (H0) is true.

This is incorrect! We cannot state anything about the null hypothesis (H0).

Instead, the p-value is the probability of the observation you have made given that the null hypothesis (H0) is true.

How to interpret critical values?

Not all statistical tests return a p-value. Instead, they might return a critical value and associated significance level along with the test statistic.

The interpretation of the results is similar to the p-value results. Instead of comparing the p-value to a pre-defined significance level, the test statistic is compared to the critical value at a chosen significance level.

test statistic < critical value: fail to reject H0

 

Source: geo.fu-berlin.de

Representation of the results using the critical values are in the same way as they are interpreted using the p-value.

While performing a statistical hypothesis test of whether the data sample is normally distributed is calculated and the test statistic was compared to the critical value at the 5% significance level, we can say that the hypothesis test found that the sample is normally distributed, failing to reject the null hypothesis at a 5% significance level.

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing provides confidence in favor of a certain hypothesis. In other words, hypothesis testing refers to the use of statistical analysis to determine if observed differences between two or more data samples are due to random chance or to be true differences in the samples.

Since we are computing the probability of an experiment it can be deduced that interpretation of the hypothetical test is purely probabilistic. This means that the outcome of the experiment can be misunderstood.

If the p-value is small; rejecting the null hypothesis indicates either of these 2 scenarios:

The null hypothesis is false – we are right

The null hypothesis is true and some rare and unlikely event occurred – we made a mistake.

This type of error is called False Positive – Type I Error.

On contrary, if the p-value is large; failing to reject the null hypothesis indicates either of these 2 scenarios:

The null hypothesis is true – we are right

The null hypothesis is false and some rare and unlikely event occurred – we made a mistake.

This type of error is called False Negative – Type II Error.

There is always a possibility of making these kinds of errors while interpreting the results of hypothesis testing. Hence, we must be cautious of encountering such errors and verify the findings before drawing conclusions.

SUMMARY

In machine learning, mostly hypothesis testing is used in a test that assumes that the data has a normal distribution and in a test that assumes that 2 or more sample data are drawn from the same population.

Remember these 2 most important things while performing hypothesis testing:

1. Design the Test statistic

Design the experiment ingeniously.

Here in the above experiment, a coin is flipped 5 and 3 times. The sample sizes have to be carefully chosen while designing the experiment.

2. Design the null hypothesis (H0) carefully

It should be designed in such a manner that it makes the probability computation easy and feasible.

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