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Introduction to Scala Class

Scala Class is basically a user defined blueprint having methods and fields into a single unit from which object can be created. Class is just like a home for the various methods and global variables defined that are used within its scope. We can create an object from the class using the new keyword (by initialing it calling ) using that for calling the methods inside a class. There are fields in a class providing the class state and there are methods defined inside the class that implements the behavior of a class. With the help of Object-defined, we can use all the functionalities defined in a Class.

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Class Declaration

A class in scala is defined with the Keyword Class, followed by the name of the class. Starting with opening the curly braces it contains the body of the class ending with the braces closed thereafter. The class can have some optional parameters also with any superclass extension or trait defined. The public is the default modifier used for the class.

class Class_name{ } Example Class Animal { }

Output:

Defined class Animal

How does Class Work in Scala?

After the declaration of class in scala, we have all the methods and variables that we need to use. So we need to create an object when an object of a class is created the class is known to be instantiated. Once that is done we will be able to take the values and use the method used in the class.

We can create more than one instance for a class, the new keyword is used to define objects in Scala, once that object is created we can access the methods inside the class and can implement it in our code.

Let’s see how to call the class methods with objects.

| defAn() | { | println(“hello”) | } | } defined class Animal

Here we have declared a class named with Animal with a method An inside it.

e: Animal = [email protected]

Then Here in the vale, we are making a new object which can access the methods of the CLASS.

hello

So memory is allocated and a reference is returned invoking the class constructor whenever a new object is created using the new operator. We can create anonymous objects also, anonymous objects are those which doesn’t have any reference.

So constructors are basically called up in a Scala Class when an object is instantiated. Scala Constructors being of two types primary and auxiliary have the same body as that of class so anything inside the class will be the part of that Constructor. So if no constructors are defined scala will automatically take this primary constructor whenever an object is created and that the constructor is called as Default constructor.

Few Points that we need to check about this default class constructor is:-

If values defined inside are var then we can change the value for that.

If the values defined are val inside then it will be considered as final and the values cannot be changed.

If there is nothing defined (val,var) it will have restricted visibility.

We can also use the access modifier while defining the values inside so that will work accordingly as per the definition of the access modifiers.

Let us check this with an example:

| println(“hello”) | } defined class Animals

This will define a class with primary constructor Animals and whenever the object is created the resulted value is called.

hello b: Animals = [email protected]

The auxiliary constructor comes up with a different signature list. The auxiliary constructor comes up with a constructor call this.

classNo_Distinct(i : Int , j:Int) { vark :Int = 0 println("Hello") println(i) println(j) println(k) defthis(i:Int ,j:Int,k:Int)   { this(i,j)        this.k = k } }

If we will call this by creating the object, the Auxiliary Constructor will call both and will do what the method has in it.

Output:

Val o = new No_Distinct(3,4,0)

So from this, we see how Scala Class is useful and helpful in the object-oriented programming model.

Conclusion

Here from the above article, we came across the Scala Class and the feature it exhibits. Having a Class is a very important concept for the Scala Object-Oriented Programming model. Here with the help of Examples, we got to know about the methods a class can have with the functionalities it adheres.

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How Stream Works In Scala?

Introduction to Scala Stream

Scala Stream is also a part of scala collection which store data. This is similar to list in scala only with one difference. In scala stream value will only be calculated when needed Scala Stream are lazy list which evaluates the values only when it is required, hence increases the performance of the program by not loading the value at once.

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Syntax:

valstream_name = value1 #:: value2 #:: value3 #:: Stream.empty valmyStream = 10 #:: 20 #:: 30 #:: Stream.empty

So in this way we can assign value to s stream, but it will only calculate the first value.

How Stream works in Scala?

As we have seen that scala stream is lazy list, they are like list on scala with only difference is that their element are computed lazily not at once. Only the element’s which we request are computed thus increases the performance of our program. But stream in scala is fast.

Example:

varmystm = 10 #:: 20 #:: 30 #:: Stream.empty

In this the head of the stream is 10 and 20, 30 are the tails of the stream. So in output also the head will be printed but not the tail because they have not been computed yet. In this we have 3 elements in the stream.

In scala we have Sequence, List and Stream.

1. Sequence 2. List

This is also a part of collection in scala. This is also used to store group of elements and this is the sub class of sequence in scala. List in scala are the default implementation of sequence. List process its all elements one by one. It is not strict to compute only one value.

3. Stream

This is also part of collection except one change it is based on lazy approach. That means only one element will be computed at a time. Otherwise it has all the characteristics like list in scala. Stream is also a sub class for sequence.

Performance Characteristics: As performance point of view we cannot decide which can be better but as we know stream is based on the lazy approach which computed elements when it is required so we can say it can provide us better performance compared to other collections.

Immutable Head Tail Apply Update Prepend Append Insert

Stream C C L L C L –

List C C L L C L –

We can have a look at it performance characteristics of stream and list collection in scala. In case of immutable.

L: This symbol defines that this operation depends upon the size of collection, we can say it is proportional to length of collection it is liner in nature.

C: This will take constant time.

-: This symbol means this operation is not supported in the mentioned collection.

Examples of Scala Stream

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

In this example we are creating different stream list.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty val mystm2 = "abc" #:: "aa" #:: "bb" #:: Stream.empty val mystm3 = 150 #:: 250 #:: 350 #:: Stream.empty val mystm4 = 401 #:: 509 #:: 687 #:: Stream.empty println("Values in stream first  ::" + mystm1) println("Values in stream second  ::" + mystm2) println("Values in stream third  ::" + mystm3) println("Values in stream four  ::" + mystm4) }

Output:

Example #2

In this example we are retrieving head of each stream list.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty val mystm2 = "abc" #:: "aa" #:: "bb" #:: Stream.empty val mystm3 = 150 #:: 250 #:: 350 #:: Stream.empty val mystm4 = 401 #:: 509 #:: 687 #:: Stream.empty println("Head of first stream  ::" + mystm1.head) println("Head of second stream  ::" + mystm2.head) println("Head of third stream  ::" + mystm3.head) println("Head of fourth stream  ::" + mystm4.head) }

Output:

Example #3

In this we are retrieving tail of the stream.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty println("Head of first stream  ::" + mystm1.tail) }

Output:

Example #4

Print all value of stream.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty val mystm2 = "abc" #:: "aa" #:: "bb" #:: Stream.empty val mystm3 = 150 #:: 250 #:: 350 #:: Stream.empty val mystm4 = 401 #:: 509 #:: 687 #:: Stream.empty println("all elements of the stream ::" + x) ) println("all elements of the stream ::" +x) ) println("all elements of the stream ::" + x) ) println("all elements of the stream ::" + x) ) }

Output:

Conclusion

In Scala Stream we computed the value of element one at a time not all at once. This can be used where performance is a concern. It follows the last approach while it comes to accessing the element of a stream.

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How Groupby Work In Scala With Programming Examples

Introduction to Scala groupBy

Scala groupBy is part of the collection data structure. As the name suggests, it is used to group the elements of collections. This groupBy is applicable for both mutable and immutable collections in scala. Immutable objects are those which are, once assigned, cannot change their value itself, and mutable objects are those whose value is changing very frequently. Also, this groupBy converts the List into Map so we can perform some useful operations on it. It will return us a map that will contain the key-value pair.

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Syntax and parameters:

Scala groupBy function takes a predicate as a parameter, and based on this, it groups our elements into a useful key value pair map. That means we can convert our List object to Map using groupBy function.

groupBy[K](f: (A) ⇒ K): immutable.Map[K, Repr]

In the above syntax, we can see that this groupBy function will return a map of the key-value pair. Also, inside the groupBy, we will pass the predicate as the parameter.

We can see one practical syntax for more understanding:

var l1= List("anc", "ahg", "tyh")

In this way we can define our groupBy function and convert the list into a Map of key-value pair. We can use this function with any collection data structure.

How groupBy work in Scala?

Scala groupBy is used to group elements from the collection. It is also used to store the objects and retrieving of the object. groupBy return us Map collection in scala.

We can have a closer look at groupBy syntax and how it is working:

Let’s have a look at its extended superclasses and some known classes in scala.

Extended classes available:

Iterable[(K, V)]

MapOps[K, V, Map, Map[K, V]]

MapFactoryDefaults[K, V, Map, Iterable]

Equals

Superclasses available:

Equals

MapFactoryDefaults[K, V, Map, Iterable]

MapOps

PartialFunction

Iterable

IterableFactoryDefaults

IterableOps

Map

IterableOnceOps

IterableOnce

AnyRef

AnyRef

Some of the known subclasses available:

AbstractMap

SeqMap

SortedMap

Map

TrieMap

HashMap

IntMap

ListMap

LongMap

Map

Map1

Map2

Map3

Map4

WithDefault

SeqMap

TreeMap

TreeSeqMap

VectorMap

AbstarctMap

AnyRefMap

CollisionProofHashMap

HashMap

LinkedHashMap

LongMap

SystemProperties

ListMap

MultiMap

OpenHashMap

Hierarchy available:

Iterable

MapOps

Equals

UnliftOps

IterableOnceExtensionMethods

ImmutableMap

MutableMap

Example:

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List("amit", "sumit", "vinit", "ajit", "kavit", "lalit", "lalit", "vinit", "vinit") println(g) }

In the above example, we first defined a list containing some objects. This list also contains some duplicate objects as well. After that, we are applying the groupBy function to group by the same elements. So in our list vinit and Lalit, it appears to be more than one time, so while creating HashMap, it will group all these similar list elements against the same key in the map.

This is something weird, but it is helpful if we want to apply some logic on the list based on groupBy of elements on some basis.

Examples of Scala groupBy Example #1

In this example, we are just applying groupBy for beginners to understand. We are using groupBy on List here.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List("amit", "sumit", "vinit", "ajit", "kavit", "lalit", "lalit", "vinit", "vinit") println("list before group by is  ::") println(list1) println("list after group by is  ::") println(group1) }

Output:

Example #2

In this example, we are grouping a list of integers.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List(100, 400, 200, 500, 100, 1900, 2000, 400, 400, 19000) println("list before group by is  ::") println(list1) println("list after group by is  ::") println(group1) }

Output:

Example #3

In this example, we are grouping elements on the basis of contains method as a predicate.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List("amit", "sumit", "sumit", "vinit", "ajit", "kavit", "lalit", "lalit", "vinit", "vinit") println("list before group by is  ::") println(list1) var group1 = list1.groupBy(_.contains("sumit")) println("list after group by is  ::") println(group1) }

Example #4

In this method, we are passing charAt as a predicate inside groupBy method.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List("amit", "sumit", "sumit", "vinit", "ajit", "kavit", "lalit", "lalit", "vinit", "vinit") println("list before group by is  ::") println(list1) var group1 = list1.groupBy(_.charAt(0)) println("list after group by is  ::") println(group1) }

Output:

Example #5

In this example, we are grouped by the list of integers by checking whether the element is divisible by ‘3’ or not.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List(100, 400, 200, 500, 100, 1900, 2000, 400, 400, 19000) println("list before group by is  ::") println(list1) var group1 = list1.groupBy(_ % 3) println("list after group by is  ::") println(group1) }

Output:

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How Does Xml Works In Prolog With Examples?

Introduction to Prolog XML

The prolog XML is a part of the document declaration and data management in a structure using tags. It is one of the markup languages which is based on the document-oriented concept. It is a declared document from start to end in format for usability and productivity. It is an optional part of the programming language to display and exchange data in a tag structured or format.

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Syntax of Prolog XML

Given below is the syntax:

Explanation:

The XML contains the attribute and elements for empty elements.

The XML mode creates case-sensitive language.

The XML supports predefined entities such as a “less than”, “greater than”, etc.

The XML mode includes underscore and colon in a namespace.

The XML provides white space mode to preserve.

The basic prolog xml syntax shows below.

The basic with standalone syntax shows below.

url: local/url/ name

It converts into prolog file syntax shows below.

xml( [version = "1.0", standalone = "no"]

It converts into prolog file syntax shows below.

xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"], [ namespace( element( [], [ h. element( i. [] ) j. ] ) k. ) l. ] ). How does XML Works in Prolog?

Create a file with the “pl” extension.

Example:

main.pl

Insert data into the prolog file.

Then, save the object with value into a pl file.

The following commands can use for the “prolog XML” data of the list.

First, write xml version and standalone value in the prolog file.

xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"],

Then, write down the document type with the required link and information.

Write the namespace for store elements.

Write the elements of the required data, such as an image.

element( svg, [width=”250″, height=”250″], [ element( circle, [cx=”20″, cy=”20″, r=”18″,], [] ) ] )

Open prolog console or interpreter.

Set the directory path of the “pl” file.

Use the given prolog file.

[main].

You can use the prolog console directly for programming.

Use the “prolog XML” syntax in the prolog console.

xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"], [ element( svg, [width="250", height="250"], [ element( circle, [cx="20", cy="20", r="18",], [] ) ] ) ) ] ).

Combine the working procedure of the “prolog if” function.

Use the “main.pl” file.

Use the given prolog console with the required directory path.

[main]. xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"], [ namespace( element( [], [ element( [] ) ] ) ) ] ).

Use the command for “prolog XML” in the prolog console.

The prolog console displays the below data for prolog XML.

xml([version = [49, 46, 48], standalone = [110, 111]], [doctype(public([104, 116, 116, 112, 58, 47, 47, 119, 119, 119, 46, 101, 100, 117, 99, 98, 97, 46, 99, 111, 109, 47])), namespace(element([], [element([])]))]). Examples of Prolog XML

Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1

The basic prolog XML with empty element example and output shows below.

Use the following command in prolog pl file.

Code:

xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"]).

Use the following command in prolog console.

Code:

| ?- listing.

Output:

Example #2

The basic example and the output shows below.

Code:

xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"], [ element( svg, [width="500", height="500"], [ element( circle, [cx="25", cy="25", r="24",], [] ) ] ) ) ] ).

Output:

Example #3

The basic example and the output shows below.

Use the following command in prolog pl file.

Code:

xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"], [ element( svg, [width="500", height="500"], [ element( circle, [cx="25", cy="25", r="24",], [] ) ] ) ) ] ).

Use the following command in prolog console.

Code:

| ?- listing.

Output:

Example #4

With the standalone example and output shows below.

Use the following command in prolog pl file.

Code:

xml( [version="1.0", standalone="yes"], [ element( svg, [width="500", height="500"], [ element( circle, [cx="25", cy="25", r="24",], [] ) ] ) ) ] ).

Use the following command in prolog console.

Code:

| ?- listing.

Output:

Example #5

With empty element example and the output shows below.

Use the following command in prolog pl file.

Code:

xml( [version="1.0", standalone="yes"], [ namespace( element( [], [ element( [] ) ] ) )

Use the following command in prolog console.

Code:

| ?- listing.

Output:

Example #6

With the encoding example and output shows below.

Use the following command in prolog pl file.

Code:

xml( [version="1.0", encoding="UTF-8", standalone="no"]).

Use the following command in prolog console.

Code:

| ?- listing.

Output:

Conclusion

It is used for declaring data from start to end in format for usability and productivity. It exchanges the data in the prolog data structure simplification and maintain of the application. It creates attractive, sorted, and elegant prolog applications.

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How The Ps Command Works In Docker With Examples?

Introduction to Docker ps

The ‘docker ps’ is a Docker command to list the running containers by default; however, we can use different flags to get the list of other containers that are in stopped or exited status. We can also manipulate the output as per our requirement using flags. Docker has used the naming convention of ps from Linux; ps means ‘process status’ in Linux, and containers are actually running as a process on the Linux server; that’s why ‘docker ps’ is used to list the containers.

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Syntax

docker ps [OPTIONS]

Options:

-a, –all: It is used to show all containers

-f, –filter: It is used to filter the list as per the condition applied

–format: It is used to manipulate the output using a GO template that means how the output should look like

-n, –last: It shows last created containers including all states

-l,  –latest: It is used to show the latest created container regardless of the state

–no-trunc: It shows output without truncating the data

-q, –quiet: It only displays the numeric ID of the containers

-s, –size: It shows the total file size of the container

Command:

docker ps --help

How does the ps command work in Docker? Examples of Docker ps

We are going to learn different options used in the ‘docker ps’ command by taking scenarios, but before that, let’s create few containers using the below commands that we will use to perform and test the ‘docker ps’ command options:

docker run -d –name test-con1 alpine

Example #1

List the running containers only.

Solution: We can use the ‘docker ps’ command simply to get the list of the running containers as it shows only the running containers by default.

docker ps

Explanation: As per the above snapshot, we can see that only one container is running right now.

Example #2

List all containers whether it is running or not.

Solution: We have to use the ‘-a’ or ‘–all’ option with the ‘docker ps’ command as below: –

docker ps –all

Explanation: In the above snapshot, we can see that there are 5 containers because if you see the first snapshot where containers were created, I have run the same command twice.

Example #3

Use the ‘-f’ or ‘–filter’ option to filter out the specific container.

Let’s filter out the container based on its container ID as below: –

docker ps -a -f “id=35”

Note: – In the above snapshot, we have used the ‘-a’ flag as well to list the container even if it is not running. It is recommended to use the ‘-a’ flag with a filter. We can also use the short ID, but it must be unique.

We can also filter the containers based on their name as below: –

docker container ls -a -f “name=test”

Note: – we can use a few keywords of the container name, and it will output the containers if the Docker daemon finds any container having those keywords in the name.

docker container ls -a -f “name=con”

We can use labels to filter the containers if containers have labels on them, so let’s create two more containers having labels on them.

docker run -d –label env=prod ubuntu sleep 3600

docker ps -f “label=type=web”

Explanation: In the above snapshot, we can see that we can list the containers which have a specific label; for ex., the first and the second commands show all the containers which have label “env” and “type” respectively on it regardless of the value and the third command shows all the container which has label “type” and the value of the label “type” must be “web”.

We can also filter the containers based on their image name, image ID, tags, and layers.

docker ps -a -f ancestor=3fd9065eaf02

Example #4

Format the output of the ‘docker ps’ command using the GO template with the format option.

Let’s display only the container ID as below: –

docker ps -a –format {{.ID}}

We can output more than one field; just we need to add that field as below: –

docker ps -a  --format "{{.ID}} {{.Names}}"

We can use the ‘t’ to make some space and also provide any symbol in between to make the output pretty as below: –

We can output the fields that are not visible by default as well and use the ‘table’ directives to show the headers in the output as shown below: –

docker ps -a --format "table {{.ID}} t {{.Names}} t {{.Labels}} t {{.Size}}"

In the above snapshot, we can now see the field headers as well.

Example #5

If we have a situation where we want to display the last n number of containers that are created, we can use the ‘-n’ option as below: –

docker ps -n 2

Note: – It includes stopped containers as well, so there is no need to specify the ‘-a’ flag.

Example #6

Solution: We can use the ‘-l’ option to list the lastest created container as below: –

docker ps -l

Example #7

Sometimes data of few columns get truncated because of screen size. List the containers without truncating the columns’ data.

Solution: We can use the ‘–no-trunc’ option to show all columns’ data as below: –

docker ps -n 2 --no-trunc

Note:- We can use this option with other options as well, like format, filter, etc.

Example #8

Show only the container ID of the containers.

Solution:  We can use the ‘–quiet’ or ‘-q’ option to list only container ID as below: –

docker ps -a –quiet

Example #9

Show the size of the container without using the ‘format’ option.

Solution: We have separate options ‘–size’ or ‘-s’ to list the size of the container.

docker ps -a -s

Advantages

This command is very useful while doing troubleshooting, mostly useful with the ‘filter’ option.

It helps to output the list of containers as per our need using the ‘format’ option that we can use for reporting purposes.

It has multiple options that can be used together to filter and format the list of containers.

Rules and regulations for using a ps?

The filter option only shows the running container if we filter based on labels, even if we use the ‘-a’ option.

The output of ‘-n’ and ‘-l’ options show the container whether it is running or not, so no need to specify the ‘-a’ flag with these.

We can use the ‘–no-trunc’ option with almost all the other options available in this command.

Conclusion – Docker ps

The ‘docker ps’ command is easy to use as compared to the ‘docker container ls’ as both commands have the same options and give us the same output, but ‘docker container ls’ is lengthy, so I prefer the ‘docker ps’ command over the ‘docker container ls’.

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How Does Swift Extension Works With Examples?

Introduction to Swift extension

Syntax

The syntax flow for the swift extension is as follows :

extension Struct_Enum_Extnsion_Type { } Where, extension – It signifies that swift extension is used for performing the swift programming followed by any class name. { Adding functionality helps in making the extension type more enhancing. } How does Swift extension work?

Swift extension has a working pattern which improvises and enhances the entire feature by providing some of the enhanced functionalities to the data structure and its values.

Sometimes the source code does not exist within the repository for access then at that time, the swift extension comes as a savior, which behaves almost like categories of objective C.

It has the property to add some computed instance properties that help in getting instance values and another type of property as well.

It provides many other types of new initializers for support as well.

Initializers present as part of extension helps in many ways as it helps in extending another type of data and customized type of initializer or parameter.

It also helps in making another type of initializers, instance method, and type methods inclined and used with repetition of Int types in the methods indicating to get a return type.

Some extensions which help in mutating have the capacity to modify the self and its type of properties which embarks the change and modification by a mutation on the original implementation.

The addition of subscripts is also possible using the extension as it helps in making the old type of properties added with the new subscript.

Swift extensions also can inherit the properties for the old type into a new type using a type of extension at the time of implementation.

Extensions also get created using conforming protocols with the extension in the methods being implemented within the codebase.

Extensions also help in code separation as they can differentiate the code and give it an edge by segregating and providing enhanced code in the Swift programming language.

Examples

Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1

This program demonstrates the Swift extension, which inherits the computed instance and type properties with all types of extensions, specifically int type with various manipulation as shown in the output.

import Foundation import Glibc extension Int { var no_add: Int {return self + 150 } var no_sub: Int { return self - 50 } var no_mul: Int { return self * 20 } var no_div: Int { return self / 30 } } let no_of_addition = 12.no_add print("Addition_includes (no_of_addition)") let no_of_division = 68.no_div print("Division_includes (no_of_division)") let no_of_multiplication = 82.no_mul print("Multiplication_includes (no_of_multiplication)") let no_of_subtraction = 125.no_sub print("Subtraction_includes (no_of_subtraction)") let miscellaneous = 12.no_add + 26.no_sub print("Miscellaneous_makes (miscellaneous)")

Output:

Example #2

This program demonstrates the instance class or the method class, which inherits the properties of a swift extension within the subclasses as well as all the properties as shown in the output.

import Foundation import Glibc extension Int { for _ in 1..<self { analyse_and_summarize() } } } print("Control_under_first_sub_block..") }) print("Control_under_first_sub_block..") })

Example #3

This program demonstrates the usage of swift extension for the nested type of data structure, enum, or enhanced classes, as shown in the output.

import Foundation import Glibc extension Int { enum vehicles { case car case truck case bus case scooter case blend } var print: vehicles { switch self { case 0: return .car case 1: return .truck case 2: return .bus case 3: return .scooter default: return .blend } } } func result(numb: [Int]) { for k_0 in numb { switch k_0.print { case .car: print(" Porsche_xl ") case .truck: print(" Mahindra_vi ") case .bus: print(" Volvo+0 ") case .scooter: print(" pep++ ") default: print(" autorick_shaw ") } } } result(numb: [0, 1, 3, 4, 6, 5])

Output:

Example #4

This program demonstrates the mutation of the instances, which means that the value can transform themselves according to the requirement within the method as shown in the output for computing the cube area.

import Foundation import Glibc extension Double { mutating func cube() { let val_p = 3.256 self = val_p * self * self * self } } var cube_try_0 = 2.11 cube_try_0.cube() print("Cube_area of a cube is: (cube_try_0)") var cube_try_1 = 3.66 cube_try_1.cube() print("Cube_area of a cube is: (cube_try_1)") var cube_try_2 = 256.12 cube_try_2.cube() print("Cube_area of a cube is: (cube_try_2)")

Example #5

This program demonstrates the protocol extension with some added constraints on the set of declared array and collection conforming to the type and properties of the entire set using the extension as shown in the output.

import Foundation import Glibc extension Collection where Element: Equatable { for Element in self { if Element != self.first { return false } } return true } } let eql_cllcn_no = [213, 108, 206, 105, 150] let spillted_no = [300, 300, 300, 300, 300] print(eql_cllcn_no.equal_all_condn()) print(spillted_no.equal_all_condn())

Output:

Conclusion

It plays a very significant and powerful role in a swift programming language as it helps programmers and provides them with the ability to manipulate the elements according to the accessibility. It helps in enhancing the code and making the code in an understandable and readable format. It helps in managing the codebase with the usage of the swift extension.

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