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What is Accumulated Depreciation?

Accumulated depreciation is the total depreciation recorded for an asset over its useful life. For Example, Max, a businessman, buys a private plane for $3,000,000. After using it for three years, its value depreciated to $2,700,000. Thus the accumulated depreciation for three years is $300,000.

It is the cumulative asset depreciation up to one point. Each period starts with the depreciation cost applied to the total. One can choose not to use MACRS for depreciated assets if one uses a method other than straight-line depreciation over a set number of years. For example, the unit-of-production method is one such method.

Key Highlights

Accumulated depreciation is an accounting method that allows for the gradual deductibility of long-term assets.

It applies to tangible assets like machinery and equipment and intangible assets like goodwill and patents.

To find it, subtract the salvage value from the asset’s original cost, divide the result by the asset’s valuable life, and multiply by the number of years.

It helps the company’s administration make informed decisions about when to replace and repair the assets.

How Does Accumulated Depreciation Work?

Depreciation is a way to track the spread of the cost of an asset over its useful life.

It includes wear and tear on a business’s equipment, which can affect the asset’s value over time.

It can be subtracted yearly from the business’s taxable income, reducing the company’s taxes.

It helps lower taxes and net profits resulting from this taxable income reduction.

Its basis is that an investment will last longer than its estimated lifetime, even if one uses it only half the time. Depreciation allows a more accurate reflection of the asset’s value over time.

It allows a more accurate reflection of the asset’s value over time by spreading its cost over its useful life.

Formula

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Accumulated Depreciation= ((Asset’s Original Cost – Salvage Value)/ Useful Life) * No. Of Years

Where,

The initial cost of goods is the initial cost at which one purchases the goods and determines its initial value.

The salvage cost of an asset is its book value after deducting all depreciation.

Useful life is the product’s rough lifespan in years.

The number of Years refers to the period the company has used the product.

Accumulated Depreciation= Accumulated depreciation at the beginning of the year + Depreciation expense for the period – Accumulated depreciation on disposed of assets

Where,

Depreciation at the beginning of the year refers to the depreciation of the asset until the beginning of the year.

Depreciation for the period means the amount of asset depreciation in the particular year.

Depreciation on disposed of assets refers to the depreciation associated with the company’s assets, either disposed of or sold.

Examples of Accumulated Depreciation

You can download this Accumulated Depreciation Template here – Accumulated Depreciation Template

Example #1

Lily purchased a new car worth $500,000. The company has a useful life of 6 years and a salvage value of $50,000 at the end of its useful life. Calculate the accumulated depreciation after 2,4, and 5 years of use.

Given,

Solution:

Let us calculate the depreciation for the year 2,

Similarly, for the year 4,

Next, for the year 5,

Example #2

An US corporation ABZ purchases heavy industrial machinery for $2,500,000. At the beginning of the year, the depreciation was $600,000. During the period, the machinery’s value depreciated by $470,000. Value of the disposed assets is $235,000. Calculate the Accumulated depreciation.

Given,

Solution:

Implementing the formula,

Thus, the accumulated depreciation is $835,000 as a result of adding the aggregates of depreciation till the start of the period and during the period and then subtracting the depreciation of assets disposed of from the sum.

Methods to Calculate Straight-line Depreciation Method

Multiply the valuable life of a fixed asset by the depreciable base to determine straight-line depreciation.

The difference between an asset’s total expenditures and its anticipated salvage value at the end of its useful life is known as the depreciable base.

The years that the asset will provide financial benefits indicate the useful life.

Formula: (Asset cost – Estimated residual value) / Anticipated years of use = Accumulated Depreciation

Decreasing Balance Method

A decreasing balance approach accelerates the reporting of depreciation expenditure for assets in their early stages of useful life.

It means they will incur less depreciation expense later in their useful lives.

Formula: Total annual depreciation = Depreciation factor x (1 / Asset life) x Remainder value

Double-Declining Balance Depreciation Method

The double declining balance (DDB) depreciation method is an accounting approach that involves depreciating some assets at twice the rate specified by straight-line depreciation.

As a result, depreciation is most significant in the first year of ownership and gradually decreases over time.

Formula: Total annual depreciation = 2 x Depreciation factor x (1 / Asset life) x Residual value

Depreciation vs. Accumulated Depreciation

Depreciation

It is the total amount recorded up to a specific date and reported on the balance sheet. Depreciation is the amount of the decrease in value for a given period and is typically recorded as an expense on the income statement.

It is the total depreciation that has occurred up to a specific date. Depreciation is the amount of depreciation for a specific period for example, 1 year.

It is the total depreciation taken over the asset’s lifetime, subtracted from its cost to calculate its book value.  To figure out depreciation, take the asset’s cost minus its expected salvage value and divide it by how long it is expected to last.

It is an asset’s total depreciation since purchase.

 Objectives

To give an accurate record of an asset’s historical cost and depreciation over time.

Matching an asset’s price with the income it generates is a crucial principle of accounting.

To provide a way to assess an asset’s remaining useful life and value.

To help management make informed decisions about when to replace or repair assets.

To assist in tax planning, it can help reduce taxable income.

To provide a means of allocating the cost of a purchase over its useful life systematically and rationally.

Importance

It reflects the wear and tear on an asset over time, which is a critical component of the asset’s value.

It provides a way to match the cost of an asset to the income it generates, which is a crucial accounting principle.

It helps companies make informed decisions about when to replace or repair assets.

The company can use it in accounting for tax purposes, reducing their taxable income.

It is also used in financial statements such as the balance sheet to indicate the depreciation worth of assets over time.

It also aids in budgeting for future expenses for the replacement of assets.

Final Thoughts

Accumulated depreciation is a way for businesses to track the decrease in the value of their assets over time. The most common method is the straight-line method, which considers the asset’s initial cost, scrap value, and valuable life. This method assumes a steady decrease in value over the asset’s life. Businesses should regularly check and update their depreciation calculations to ensure their financial statements are correct. It will help them make intelligent decisions about replacing assets and managing their money.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q1. Are depreciation costs a current asset?

Answer: No. The company reports depreciation expenses in the income statement and other typical business expenses; it is not a current asset. The balance sheet includes accrued depreciation.

Q2. Is accumulated depreciation an expense?

Answer: No. The total amount of asset wear and tear is measured by cumulative depreciation. In other words, it represents the sum of all depreciation costs incurred up to this point.

Q3. Where does accumulated depreciation go on a balance sheet?

Answer: Balance sheets include detailed information about a company’s assets and their original and current value. It is the dollar amount in which an asset’s value decreases from actual to present value.

Q4. What is the difference between depreciation and accumulated depreciation?

Answer: Accumulated Depreciation is the total amount of depreciation in previous periods. Depreciation expense, on the other hand, is the amount of depreciation in a particular period.

Q5. How frequently should the balance sheet’s accumulated depreciation be updated?

Answer: Since most cumulative depreciation occurs annually, one might only need to manually calculate new rates if you update his balance sheets monthly. The balance sheet should be rechecked for any significant changes, though.

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How To Use Normsinv Formula In Excel?

Excel NORMSINV (Table of Contents)

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Introduction to Excel NORMSINV

The NORMSINV function in Excel calculates the probability of inverse normal cumulative distribution, which has a mean and standard deviation. Normsinv function can be seen as chúng tôi To find NORMSINV, first, we need to calculate the Normal Distribution; we must have X, Mean, and Standard Deviation. Once we get the value of Normal Distribution, we can easily calculate NORMSINV using the probability we got as per syntax.

Syntax of Excel NORMSINV

Argument:

Probability – Which is nothing but probability corresponds to the normal distribution.

How to Use NORMSINV Formula in Excel?

Microsoft Excel categorizes the NORMSINV built-in function under the statistical function. This is illustrated in the screenshot below, which calculates the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for a given probability.

Go to Formulas Menu.

Choose a Statistical category under that we will find the NORM. The DIST function is shown below.

Example #1 – Using chúng tôi and NORMSINV

To use chúng tôi function, let’s start with an easy example where we need to find out the Student’s Grades; suppose we have the class exam with an average grade of 70, i.e., mu=70 and class standard deviation is 3 Points, i.e., sigma=3 here we need to find out what is the probability that students got the marks 73 or below, i.e., P(X<=73). So let’s see how to find out the probability using the chúng tôi function.

X=3

Mean=70

Standard Deviation=3

Apply the chúng tôi function as below.

Suppose we apply the above chúng tôi function, we will get the probability of 0.0807.

Now apply the NORMSINV function to find the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution, as shown below.

Result –

In the below result, we can see that we got negative values -1.40067 for the given probability, i.e., the inverse of normal cumulative distribution.

Example #2 – Mean and Exact Standard Deviation

Let’s see another example with curve-based data to get to know the mean and exact standard deviation.

Mean =7

Standard Deviation=1.3

Standard Deviation Increment as -3

To get the bell curve, we have to add a 0.1 to standard deviation increment where the data is shown below.

After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

Drag the values to get more ones until we get the positive ones to get a left curve.

We must apply the formula as =mean-standard deviation * 3 to get the exact curves to get the right curve.

After using the formula, the result is shown below.

As in the above data for standard deviation increment to get the left curve, we have incremented the values by 0.1

The same scenario is used by applying the formula as =3.1+STANDARD DEVIATION/10 to get the curve increment of 0.1

After using the formula, the result is shown below.

Drag the values to get the exact result shown in the screenshot below.

Now apply the normal distribution function with the formula = NORM.DIST(DATA value, mean, standard deviation, false).

We will get the below result as follows.

Drag the values to get the exact result which is shown below.

As shown in the above screenshot, we calculated the NORMAL distribution from the mean and standard deviation. Now let’s see what will be the inverse of NORMAL distribution by applying the NORMSINV, which is shown below.

Here, Value Zero (0) has a standard deviation of 7.

Applying scattered graph to look at how the left and right curve appears.

First, select the data and the Normal column.

Go to the Insert tab and select the scattered graph as follows.

We will get the below curve graph as shown below.

Here we can see that Mean value 7 has a standard deviation shape, and we can show that by drawing a straight line to represent it.

Mean =7

1 –Standard deviation indicates 68% of Data.

2 –Standard deviation indicates 95% of Data.

3 –Standard deviation indicates 99.7% of Data.

Normal Distribution Graph:

NORMSINV Graph:

Select the data column and NORM SINV from the above figure to get the graph below.

First, select the data and the Normal column.

Go to the Insert tab and select the scattered graph.

We will get the below graph which is shown in the below screenshot.

From the above screenshot, we can see that we got an exact inverse of a normal distribution which shows the same value figure below.

Example #3 – Configuring the Left and Right Curve

We will configure the left and right curves using the normal distribution function in this example. Consider the data below, where x has negative values and gets incremented to positive values.

Apply the formula =NORM.DIST(A2,0,1,1).

After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

Drag the formula into other cells.

Apply formula =1-B2.

After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

Drag the same formula into other cells.

The result of the above-applied formula is shown below.

Left curve values have been calculated by applying the NORMAL DISTRIBUTION formula by setting the cumulative value as True, and the NORMSINV has been calculated using the left curve.

After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

Drag the same formula into other cells.

As we can see that we got the same value for NORMSINV, which is nothing but the inverse of the normal distribution. In the same way, we will get the right curve value by calculating the 1-left curve value. In the next step, we will check how we get the x’s height using the scattered graph.

Select the left cure and right curve columns.

Go to insert menu.

Select the scattered graph as follows.

We will get the below graph result as shown below.

NORM SINV Graph:

The graph below shows that the NORM DISTRIBUTION value left curve has the exact match for (0, 0.5 ), which lies at the center of the line where we will get the same graph if we apply for NORMDIST.

Here in the above graph it shows very clearly that we got the exact mean at a center point which denotes:

X=0

Left Curve=0.5

Right Curve=0.5

We displayed it to view the NORMSINV values in a graphical format, as shown below.

Things to Remember About Excel NORMSINV

#value! The error occurs when the given argument is a non-numeric or logical value.

In the Normal Distribution function, we usually get #NUM! Error due to the standard deviation argument is less than or equal to zero.

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How Takeif Works In Kotlin?

Introduction to Kotlin takeIf

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Syntax

In kotlin language has many default classes, methods, and keywords used to implement the mobile-based application. Like that takeif() is one of the default methods and it is mainly used to filterate the data. It has its own syntax below.

fun functionName(parameters) { val varaiableName:datatype? = kotlinNullable.takeIf(predicate) -----some logic codes--- }

The above codes are the basic syntax for using the teakeIf() method in the kotlin codes. It can be called upon the parameter values and their methods based on the predicate conditions. If the condition is satisfied it continues else it returns the null value.

How takeIf work in Kotlin?

In kotlin language, it has many defaults and standard libraries contain the functions like takeIf, and these functions are let you combined and the value is embedded with checks of the object state and its status. The object state infrequent call chains the called objects with the predicate condition provided and takeIf it returns the object if it is matched with the specified conditions. Else it will return the null values so that the takeIf() method as the filtering function for every single object. If returns the object and if it does not match the predicate condition the null value if it is does also the object is to be called and available as the lambda argument(it). While chaining other functions like after takeIf and other default functions like takeUnless is also to be performed with the null checks conditions and the safe call like ‘?.’ Operator because the return value is null. The takeIf() function is specially used together with the scope functions so that the chaining link is checked with them for running the code blocks on the specified object that can be matched with the given predicate conditions. We can do this and call the takeIf() method it returns the null and other local variable types like ‘var’ and ‘let’ are not be invoked.

Examples of Kotlin takeIf

Below are the different examples of Kotlin takeIf:

Example #1

Code:

abstract class Fans(fans:String){ abstract var fansname: String abstract fun fandetails() init { println("Fans fansname is: $fansname") } fun demo(){ println("Thank you the Fans fansname is") } } interface Crompton{ var vars: String fun demo1():String fun details2() { println("Have a Nice day users") } } class Havelles : Crompton { override var vars: String = "Welcome To My Domain its the first example taht related to the kotlin takeIf() method" override fun demo1() = "Thank you for choosing the Havelles fan" } class Bajaj(fans:String): Fans(fans) { override var fansname: String = "Thank you for choosing the Bajaj fan" override fun fandetails() { println("Thank you users your Fan name is $fansname") } } sealed class Usha { class demo : Usha() { fun show() { println("Welcome To My Domain its a Usha example regarding kotlin sealed class combined with the takeIf() method") } } class demo1 : Usha() { fun show() { println("Its a child sealed class so it cant change and its a fixed thing") } } } fun main() { fun firstExample(strinp1: String, strinp2: String) { println("The substring $strinp2 is found in $strinp1.") println("Its start position is $it.") } } firstExample("010000011", "1") firstExample("110000011", "2") firstExample("011000011", "3") firstExample("110000011", "4") val eg = Usha.demo1() eg.show() val eg1 = Usha.demo() eg1.show() val m2 = Bajaj("June Month") println("Your curent Fans is : ${m2.fansname}") m2.fandetails() val j = Havelles() println("Your latest Fans is = ${j.vars}") print("Keep on spent your valuable time time with our application: ") j.details2() print("Nice day users please try again ") println(j.demo1()) }

Output:

The above example is the basic example we used for the takeif() method in kotlin classes.

Example #2

Code:

import kotlin.random.* enum class TV(val exam: Boolean = true){ Samsung, Sony, Onida, Philips, Vu, Airtec, Airtel; companion object{ fun TVDetails(obj: TV): Boolean { } } } fun details(tv: TV) { when(tv) { } } fun main() { val num = Random.nextInt(5) val evn = num.takeIf { it % 2 == 0 } val odd = num.takeUnless { it % 2 == 0 } println("The given number is even: $evn") println("The given number is odd: $odd") val i=2 var flag=false while(i<=num/2){ val prm=num.takeIf{it % i == 0} flag=true break ++i } if(!flag) { println("The given number is prime number") } else { println("The given number is not prime") } println("Welcome to my domain its a second example regarding the kotlin takeif() function") val out = mapOf(123 to "Samsung", 345 to "Sony", 678 to "Onida",901 to "Philips",213 to "Vu",141 to "Airtec",516 to "Airtel") println(out) println("Thank you users have a nice day please keep and spent time with our application") }

Output:

Here, we used enum, and companion classes with the takeif() method for users to calculate the prime and odd, seven numbers.

Example #3 fun main() { fun ThirdExample(num1: Int, str2: String) { println("Welcome User Integer is the first input and string type is the second input.") println("$it.") } } colmap["Model Name"] = "Lenovo" colmap["Model Price"] = "8000" colmap["Model ID"] = "1456" for ((k, v) in colmap) { println("Thank you users your inputs are $k = $v") } val news = mapOf("Model Name" to "HP", "Model Price" to 8032, "Model ID" to 1678) println("Your input Keys are:" + news.keys) println("Your input Values are:" + news.values) println("Thank you users have a nice day please keep and spent time with our application") ThirdExample(13, "Siva") ThirdExample(14, "Raman") }

Output:

In the final example, we used the collection class additionally with the takeif() class.

Conclusion

In kotlin language has many default methods for implementing the application logic and its operations which is needed on the user requirement. The takeif() method is one of the built-in methods for validating the condition like if to execute the chain-link condition if the condition is true it returns the object else it returns a null value.

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How Stream Works In Scala?

Introduction to Scala Stream

Scala Stream is also a part of scala collection which store data. This is similar to list in scala only with one difference. In scala stream value will only be calculated when needed Scala Stream are lazy list which evaluates the values only when it is required, hence increases the performance of the program by not loading the value at once.

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Syntax:

valstream_name = value1 #:: value2 #:: value3 #:: Stream.empty valmyStream = 10 #:: 20 #:: 30 #:: Stream.empty

So in this way we can assign value to s stream, but it will only calculate the first value.

How Stream works in Scala?

As we have seen that scala stream is lazy list, they are like list on scala with only difference is that their element are computed lazily not at once. Only the element’s which we request are computed thus increases the performance of our program. But stream in scala is fast.

Example:

varmystm = 10 #:: 20 #:: 30 #:: Stream.empty

In this the head of the stream is 10 and 20, 30 are the tails of the stream. So in output also the head will be printed but not the tail because they have not been computed yet. In this we have 3 elements in the stream.

In scala we have Sequence, List and Stream.

1. Sequence 2. List

This is also a part of collection in scala. This is also used to store group of elements and this is the sub class of sequence in scala. List in scala are the default implementation of sequence. List process its all elements one by one. It is not strict to compute only one value.

3. Stream

This is also part of collection except one change it is based on lazy approach. That means only one element will be computed at a time. Otherwise it has all the characteristics like list in scala. Stream is also a sub class for sequence.

Performance Characteristics: As performance point of view we cannot decide which can be better but as we know stream is based on the lazy approach which computed elements when it is required so we can say it can provide us better performance compared to other collections.

Immutable Head Tail Apply Update Prepend Append Insert

Stream C C L L C L –

List C C L L C L –

We can have a look at it performance characteristics of stream and list collection in scala. In case of immutable.

L: This symbol defines that this operation depends upon the size of collection, we can say it is proportional to length of collection it is liner in nature.

C: This will take constant time.

-: This symbol means this operation is not supported in the mentioned collection.

Examples of Scala Stream

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

In this example we are creating different stream list.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty val mystm2 = "abc" #:: "aa" #:: "bb" #:: Stream.empty val mystm3 = 150 #:: 250 #:: 350 #:: Stream.empty val mystm4 = 401 #:: 509 #:: 687 #:: Stream.empty println("Values in stream first  ::" + mystm1) println("Values in stream second  ::" + mystm2) println("Values in stream third  ::" + mystm3) println("Values in stream four  ::" + mystm4) }

Output:

Example #2

In this example we are retrieving head of each stream list.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty val mystm2 = "abc" #:: "aa" #:: "bb" #:: Stream.empty val mystm3 = 150 #:: 250 #:: 350 #:: Stream.empty val mystm4 = 401 #:: 509 #:: 687 #:: Stream.empty println("Head of first stream  ::" + mystm1.head) println("Head of second stream  ::" + mystm2.head) println("Head of third stream  ::" + mystm3.head) println("Head of fourth stream  ::" + mystm4.head) }

Output:

Example #3

In this we are retrieving tail of the stream.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty println("Head of first stream  ::" + mystm1.tail) }

Output:

Example #4

Print all value of stream.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty val mystm2 = "abc" #:: "aa" #:: "bb" #:: Stream.empty val mystm3 = 150 #:: 250 #:: 350 #:: Stream.empty val mystm4 = 401 #:: 509 #:: 687 #:: Stream.empty println("all elements of the stream ::" + x) ) println("all elements of the stream ::" +x) ) println("all elements of the stream ::" + x) ) println("all elements of the stream ::" + x) ) }

Output:

Conclusion

In Scala Stream we computed the value of element one at a time not all at once. This can be used where performance is a concern. It follows the last approach while it comes to accessing the element of a stream.

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Aggregate In Excel (Formula, Examples)

AGGREGATE in Excel (Table of Contents)

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AGGREGATE in Excel

Aggregate function comprises multiple mathematical functions such as average, sum, max, min, mean, etc., along with the conditions which are customized for each of these sub-functions available under aggregate function. We can even ignore the different cells or rows, such as a blank row, error value, etc., and get the desired output. We have 19 sub-functions available in the Aggregate function with different Options.

Definition:

“Returns the AGGREGATE in a database of values or list”

It means it performs several calculations (19 Excel statistical functions)

AGGREGATE Formula in Excel

An AGGREGATE function has two types of formula

It can be noticed when you type the AGGREGATE function in an Excel cell

1) AGGREGATE in Reference form

2) AGGREGATE in Array Formula

Function_num: It is a number; it can be from 1 to 19. It depends on which specific function you want to use in the below-mentioned list

Here each number represents a function; it is a compulsory argument

1 to 13 are Reference forms, and 14 to 19 are array form

1: AVERAGE

2: COUNT

3: COUNTA

4: MAX

5: MIN

6: PRODUCT

7: STDEV.S

8: STDEV.P

9: SUM

10: VAR.S

11: VAR.P

12: MEDIAN

13: MODE.SNGL

14: LARGE

15: SMALL

16: PERCENTILE.INC

17: QUARTILE.INC

18: PERCENTILE.EXC

19: QUARTILE.EXC

Options: is the number 0 to 7 that specifies which values to ignore for the aggregate function Note: If the options parameter is omitted, by default, options are set to 0

0: Ignore nested SUBTOTAL and AGGREGATE functions

1: Ignore nested SUBTOTAL, AGGREGATE functions, and hidden rows

2: Ignore nested SUBTOTAL, AGGREGATE functions, and error values

3: Ignore nested SUBTOTAL, AGGREGATE functions, hidden rows & error values

4: Ignore nothing

6: Ignore error values

7: Ignore hidden rows and error values

ref1, ref2, ref[3]: It is the first numeric argument for the function when using the REFERENCE syntax. It is values or numeric values on which we want to perform the computation. You must provide at least two arguments, and you can include additional arguments if needed; or the second reference, Numeric arguments should be between 2 to 253 for which you want the aggregate value

Array: An array refers to a range of cells when using the ARRAY syntax

[k]: The last 6 functions (under 1 to 19 function list): k value as a fourth argument

It is an optional argument used if we need to find out LARGE, SMALL, chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi or chúng tôi when using the ARRAY syntax

How to Use the AGGREGATE Function in Excel?

This AGGREGATE function is very simple and easy to use. Let us now see how to use the AGGREGATE function with the help of some examples.

You can download this AGGREGATE Function Excel Template here – AGGREGATE Function Excel Template

Example #1

The following table contains yearly sales data (2024)

If you run the =SUM (B8:B16) function directly in cell B17,

It gives the correct value because that column does not contain hidden rows, errors & nested subtotals

Here will calculate the SUM using an AGGREGATE function in cell B19.

=AGGREGATE(9,4,B8:B16),

The result will be 487.

Function_ num: For the SUM function, the function_ num is 9

Option: In Column B, i.e. For 2024-year sales data, all values are given, and we won’t have to ignore any values; it does not contain hidden rows, errors & nested subtotals. so we will select Option 4 (ignore nothing)

Array: is a range for which you want to calculate aggregate functions. Here reference range of values is B8:B16. It is selected as an array of numeric values

‘k’ is an optional argument, and is used only for a function like LARGE, SMALL, chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi or chúng tôi We are calculating the SUM here to omit the value of k. 

Example #2

The following table contains yearly sales data (2024)

In column C, for the 2024 yearly sales data. In the range C8:C16, a cell C11 & C12 contains an error value (#DIV/0! & #N/A); in the AGGREGATE formula, when an appropriate option is used, the AGGREGATE in Excel gives the correct SUM value, neglecting the error value.

It returns an error value due to an error in that range. Because that column contains #DIV/0! & #N/A errors.

To ignore the error values, we have to use option 6 in an AGGREGATE function

=AGGREGATE(9,6,C8:C16).

The result or output will be 334.

Function_ num: For the SUM function, the function_ num is 9

Option: In Column C, i.e. For 2024-year sales data, In the range C8:C16, a cell C11 & C12 contains an error value (#DIV/0! & #N/A). To ignore these errors, we will select Option 6 (Ignore error values)

Array: It is a range for which you want to calculate aggregate functions. Here reference range of values is C8:C16. The system has chosen it as an array of numeric values.

‘k’ is an optional argument used only for functions like LARGE, SMALL, chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi or chúng tôi We are calculating the SUM here to omit the value of k.

When an appropriate option is used in the AGGREGATE function, the AGGREGATE in Excel returns or gives the SUM of the remaining values neglecting the error value in cells C11 & C12. i.e. 334

Example #3

The following table contains yearly sales data (2024)

In column D, for the 2023 yearly sales data. In the range D8:D16, cell D9 is a blank cell or hidden row & D12 contains an error value (#N/A). In the AGGREGATE formula, when an appropriate option is used, the AGGREGATE in Excel gives the correct SUM value, neglecting the hidden row & error value.

If you run the =SUM (D8:D16) function directly in cell D17,

It returns an #N/A error value due to an error in that range. Because that column contains #N/A error & hidden row or blank value.

=AGGREGATE(9,7,D8:D16),

The result or output will be 262

Function_ num: For the SUM function, the function_ num is 9

Option: In column D, for the 2023 yearly sales data. In the range D8:D16, cell D9 is a blank cell or hidden row & D12 contains an error value (#N/A). To ignore these errors, we will select Option 7 (Ignore hidden rows and error values)

Array: It is a range for which you want to calculate aggregate functions. Here reference range of values is D8:D16. It is selected as an array of numeric values

‘k’ is an optional argument and is used only for a function like LARGE, SMALL, chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi or chúng tôi We are calculating the SUM here to omit the value of k.

when an appropriate option is used in an AGGREGATE function, the AGGREGATE in Excel returns or gives the SUM of the remaining values neglecting the error value in cells D9 & D12. i.e. 262

Things to Remember

The AGGREGATE function is applicable only for vertical ranges or columns of data. It is not designed for horizontal range or rows of data.

It has a limitation; it only ignores the hidden rows; it does not ignore the hidden columns.

An AGGREGATE function is applicable only for the numeric value

Function _ num argument value should not exceed 19 or less than 1. Similarly, for option argument should not be greater than 7; otherwise, it will give #VALUE! error

In the AGGREGATE function, if in function number argument, if you are using 14 to 19 (LARGE, SMALL, chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi or QUARTILE.EXC), the “K” argument should be used. g. =AGGREGATE(15, 6, A1:A9, 3). If the “K” value or second reference argument is ignored, it will result in a #VALUE! error

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This has been a guide to AGGREGATE Function. Here we discuss the AGGREGATE Formula and how to use the AGGREGATE Function, practical examples, and downloadable Excel templates. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

Price In Excel (Formula, Examples)

PRICE in Excel

The price function in excel is used to calculating what would be the price need to pay off a bond per 100 units (mostly in Dollars) which also pays the periodic interest. The price function is financial in Excel. This is mostly used when an investor borrows money by selling bonds instead of stocks. It requires a few more attributes, usually more than other financial functions such as settlement, maturity, yield, redemption, and frequency as mandatory attributes.

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PRICE Formula in Excel:

Below is the PRICE Formula:

Explanation of Price Function in Excel

The PRICE Formula in Excel has 7 segments:

Settlement: This refers to the calendar day on which the deal is settled. The argument passed to this bracket is the date following the date of issue when the security or bond is traded on the market to the entity that is the buyer of said security bond.

Maturity: This bracket accepts a date as a valid argument. It is the calendar day on which the security or bond reaches its expiration, and the principal amount is paid back to a person or entity holding the bond.

Rate: This bracket refers to the annual interest rate of the security or bond at which coupon payments are processed or made.

Redemption: This section refers to the security value; every $100 face value is reimbursed to the bond owner on the redemption date.

Frequency: This bracket refers to the rate of occurrence of coupon payments made every year.

Let us understand the Frequency segment a little more:

The payments can be made Monthly, Annually, Semi-annually, or Quarterly. In these cases, the Frequency would be as follows:

Basis: This bracket is optional and refers to any integer argument which specifies the financial day counting basis.

We shall see the possible values for “Basis” in the table below:

How to Use the PRICE Function in Excel?

You can download this PRICE Function Excel Template here – PRICE Function Excel Template

Example #1

Suppose we are given the following data to calculate the price function in Excel.

The following screenshot shows us how the PRICE Excel function prices a bond.

So the Final Result will be :

Things to Remember

For computation, Excel’s Date format is linear or sequential. That means the default value 1 refers to 1st January 1900, so 2 would ideally be the following day, i.e. 2nd January 1900.

All the variables passed as Settlement, frequency, maturity, and basis value should be valid integers, i.e., floating-point numbers.

If the value passed as maturity or the day of settlement is not a rational date, in that case, the formula of PRICE will result in the #VALUE! error.

If rate < 0 or if Yld < 0 or redemption ≤ 0, then PRICE would return a #NUM! error.

If the value passed as a frequency in the formula of the PRICE function is anything other than 4, 2, or 1, then the PRICE function would return the #NUM! error as a result.

If the basis is greater than 4 or If the basis is less than 0, then the PRICE function will return the #NUM! error.

If maturity value ≤ settlement value, in that case, a #NUM! the PRICE function would return the error.

Thus, it might also be wise to enclose the PRICE function with an IFERROR function, i.e., use the PRICE function inside an IFERROR function to handle the various error cases that might arise in the Frequency, Basis, Settlement Value, etc.

So the result will be :

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This has been a guide to PRICE in Excel. Here we discuss the Formula in Excel and how to use a PRICE Function in Excel, along with practical examples and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

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