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What Is ICANN? (And a Little History)

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a non-profit private-sector entity based in Playa Vista, Los Angeles, California. This entity, as its name implies, assigns specific ranges of IP numbers to different regional registries (there are five) around the world. It basically gives you the identifier you use to connect to the Internet, whether directly or indirectly.

Prior to its existence, the management of the entire domain name system of the Internet was done by the US government. So, ICANN took this power out of the hands of the government, making the Internet a little less susceptible to state control. Notice the use of the words “a little” before “less.”

Does ICANN Have a Relationship with the US Government?

Yes. ICANN was actually created by a federal mandate. A document called the “Green Paper” created the corporation as a non-profit entity whose purpose was the privatization of the management of Internet names and addresses. This on-paper privatization, however, still doesn’t completely shield ICANN from state influence.

For example, the US Department of Commerce (DoC) has received the authority to gain oversight over some of ICANN’s operations due to a memorandum written by the corporation.

How Does This Relationship Affect You?

After the revelation by Edward Snowden about the National Security Agency (NSA) spying on foreign packet transmissions, it seems that the EU has grown a bit worried.

This isn’t a surprise, considering that each continent (and country) wants their Internet access to be completely sovereign and regulated (or unregulated) by their own standards. Considering the NSA’s actions, it seems as though foreign leaders worry about what else the United States government can do, including future involvement of ICANN in its projects.

To you personally, I don’t think you should worry too much unless you’re holding top-secret information about your country or a terrorist group. Also, ICANN isn’t your email provider. The worst that ICANN can do is assign you a new IP or take down a domain that you own (well, that last one’s pretty bad). Momentarily, though, I think you can rest at ease that your IP and DNS records are in check. Either way, these things are usually managed by your regional registry (ARIN for US, RIPE for Europe/Middle East/part of Asia, etc.).

Should ICANN Be Globalized?

Definitely! It can run like the UN: The building can be based on US soil continuously, but run as international territory. The system can be a stakeholder system, as EU Digital Agenda Commissioner Neelie Kroes proposes. And that’s that. It’s not a big overhaul, but it’s a good first step. We definitely don’t want to move the building to Antarctica.

It’s Your Turn To Talk

Miguel Leiva-Gomez

Miguel has been a business growth and technology expert for more than a decade and has written software for even longer. From his little castle in Romania, he presents cold and analytical perspectives to things that affect the tech world.

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How Does Ram Affect Computer Performance?

Every part of your computer works together to determine the kind of performance you see on the screen. RAM is a significant consideration because it affects how well requested information is relayed between the various parts of your computer.

However, it doesn’t operate in a vacuum, and its performance can be aided or hindered depending on its paired components. A deeper understanding of how RAM works in your system can help explain exactly how RAM affects PC performance. 

What is RAM?

RAM is short for Random Access Memory. It’s a type of memory designed for only short-term storage, unlike your hard drives that can store information for years. When a program needs a piece of information quickly, that information is often stored in the RAM until it’s used.

The amount of RAM and its speed determine what your computer can do. For example, if you’re only running a word processing application, you may not need much RAM. You’ll need significantly more if you’re running a chat program, screen recording, and playing a video game.

RAM generally refers to the memory sticks installed on your computer’s motherboard. Your graphics card also has memory, but that isn’t the type of memory we’re referring to here. For one thing, it isn’t upgradable like the RAM installed on your motherboard is. 

RAM has a pretty noticeable impact on the performance of your computer. When the RAM is full, the computer can’t efficiently transfer information that might be immediately required. In those cases, the computer will slow down a lot and can impact whatever task you’re doing. 

How Does RAM Work?

RAM holds information about everything you’re doing on your computer. When you jump from ARK Survival to Discord, RAM helps the computer remember where you were on each so they can quickly appear on the screen. It’s involved in almost every active function your computer undertakes and is never unused.

Think of RAM almost like your short-term memory. When you sign into a website with a two-factor authentication code, you forget it almost as soon as you submit it. But when your mother-in-law tells you her birthday, it’s best to keep that in your head forever. Your RAM stores the authentication code while your hard drive stores the birthday. 

RAM always clears when the computer is turned off. Unlike hard drives, it doesn’t store things in the memory during that time. It’s also much faster at transferring information than standard hard drives.

How Can I Know What Kind of RAM to Buy?

Your motherboard is compatible with certain types of RAM, generally either DDR4 or DDR5. It’s essential to get the kind that works with the board because otherwise, your computer probably won’t start at all.

Check the documentation for your motherboard to see what kind of RAM you need. You can also see what speeds it supports. If it won’t support a higher speed, there’s no need to buy a higher speed. 

How Do I Check What RAM I Already Have?

To check whether you’re running the best possible RAM for your computer, check the documentation for your motherboard and then look at what’s running in your system.

You can fill every slot in your computer with RAM. Your motherboard determines how much RAM your computer will support. For example, you can put sticks with 2GB of RAM each in four slots, which means you can only have 8 GB of total RAM in your computer. If you put 16 GB of RAM in each space, you’ll have 64 GB in a computer with four slots. 

The number of slots will vary per motherboard. 

How Do I Check How Well My RAM is Working?

You can stress test your RAM with one of many programs available for such things. However, you generally won’t need to stress test your RAM unless you think it might be having issues.

Windows also has a built-in memory test called Windows Memory Diagnostic. You can run it from the start menu. Your computer will restart during the process, but you’ll have an idea of whether you have any memory problems once the test is complete. 

RAM and PC Performance

Your RAM affects different aspects of your computer’s performance differently. Knowing what areas it affects more than others can help you decide whether a RAM upgrade is worth it for you or whether you can subsist on what you already have installed. 

Since RAM is so active on any computer, more RAM is always better than less. However, some users can get away with significantly less than others, depending on what they do with the computer. 

RAM and Computer Speed

Your RAM has a great deal of influence on the speed of your computer. Since it is the bridge between the long-term memory of the computer and the immediate actions you’re doing, computers with more and speedier RAM generally run faster. You may notice an immediate difference if you go from 8 GB of RAM to 16 GB of RAM, especially if you’re running multiple programs at the same time.

Gamers, video editors, and people who multi-task will benefit more from increased RAM than others. That doesn’t mean there won’t be a noticeable improvement for almost any user when you increase the amount of RAM in your computer. Its significance in computer speed and smooth performance can’t be overstated.


If you want to improve your frames-per-second, take a look at the RAM usage in your computer. When it’s consistently used at a high level, you might need more to get the best performance. Increasing the amount of RAM in your computer can absolutely help boost your frames. 

More frames per second mean better performance in video games. The game will feel more even and smooth. You might even notice that you can do better in games requiring quick reaction times. Higher frames are desirable to most gamers and something to consider if you’re thinking of upgrading your RAM. 

RAM and Graphics

RAM doesn’t have much of an effect on the graphics in your games. While it can have some impact, most of it is on performance, gameplay, and smoothness – not the images themselves. The CPU and GPU determine what kind of graphics your PC can display far more than the RAM does. 

RAM and Bottlenecks

One way to tell whether you should upgrade your RAM is by looking for bottlenecks in your system. If your CPU and GPU show usage rates of 30 percent but your RAM is being used at 90 percent, then the CPU and GPU may be waiting on the RAM. This will slow their performance more than necessary and have a noticeable impact on your PC. 

Keep an eye on the usage rates of your significant components in Task Manager to get an idea of where your bottlenecks are. It’s a good indication of whether you should consider upgrading your RAM or other PC parts. 

Can I Improve the Performance of the Ram I Already Have?

A lot of RAM performance improvement is about streamlining what you’re doing on your PC. Restarting your computer, closing unnecessary programs, and being diligent about not running things in the background can help what you have go further. 

For example, closing Firefox while I wrote in Chrome and had two instances of Discord open took my memory usage from 44 percent to 30 percent in Task Manager. Closing Steam only reduced it by two percent. Keep an eye on how what you’re doing affects your memory usage to better improve the performance of the memory already in your PC. 

Does the Speed of the RAM Matter?

RAM speed is measured in MHz and can vary depending on what type of sticks you buy. The RAM speed doesn’t affect performance nearly as much as the amount of RAM in the computer. However, it does play a role.

People who upgrade their RAM to a higher speed with the same amount of memory generally see minor improvements in computer speed and FPS. The harder on your CPU a program is, the more noticeable that difference is likely to be. If you notice that your CPU is creating a bit of a bottleneck but can’t switch it out yet, faster RAM may help in some programs. 

Some users also say that AMD CPUs depend more heavily on the RAM speed than Intel CPUs do. However, that is not officially supported and is just something some computer enthusiasts notice. 

Is There Any Reason Not to Get More RAM?

There’s no reason to get more RAM if you don’t regularly use a lot of yours. That’s why keeping an eye on its usage is so important. It lets you know whether the amount you have is sufficient for what you do with your PC.

Buying RAM that won’t be used and installing it on your computer isn’t bad for the machine. It’s just a waste of money if you have so much that it’s never in use. However, some users prefer to put as much RAM as possible into their computers to try to future-proof, and there’s nothing wrong with that if it’s what you prefer to do.  

What Does Self Report Mean In Among Us?

Among Us has managed to garner a huge fan base in the past few months. What was popularized by Twitch among audiences is now everybody’s favorite pass time. You are put on a spaceship with other cremates and your goal is to find the imposter.

This might seem like an interesting task but it gets surprisingly complex when you start discussing amongst yourself. Each meeting after a reported death or emergency meeting lasts for a specific amount of time which is usually less than 2 minutes.

Moreover, some part of this time is dedicated to voting which means you are going to get far less time with your teammates. This is the reason why Among Us seems to have developed its own slang where information can be conveyed in a fast and concise manner.

If you have played ‘Among Us’ then you have probably come across the term ”self-report”. Let’s take a quick look at it.

What is ‘self-report’ and what does it mean?

‘Self-report’ is a slang in Among Us that is used to denote that the ‘death reporter’ himself is the imposter. When you kill someone as an imposter in Among Us, you get the ability to report the death immediately. This takes away the risk of hiding in vents or closing nearby doors to prove your innocence.

In the early days, this was a great way for imposters to evade suspicion and blame other players. But now everyone in the community is now well versed in this tactic and when one suspects that the death reporter is the imposter themselves, they use the slang ”self-report”.

If somebody says ”self-report” it means that they are suspicious of the reporter and think that they are the imposter.

How to identify the discoverer of the body

Once a meeting has been called, you will be taken to the player tally screen where you can see all the players that are currently alive as well as those who have died over the course of the game. Here, you should see a speaker icon in front of the person who has called in the meeting.

As for the death, before the meeting is called, you will be shown a splash screen that will show you why the meeting was called. You will see an emergency splash screen if you are being called to an emergency meeting or a ‘Body found’ splash screen if someone is reporting a death.

When you see a ‘body found’ splash screen, you can easily identify the reporter by looking for the speaker icon in the player list.

Is ‘self-report’ safe?

Well, nothing is safe in Among Us. Imposters have been known to misguide crewmates by using the exact phrase ”self-report”. This helps them nullify a legitimate report and sometimes even get a crewmate ejected in the process. This takes them one step closer to their victory.

If you see someone claiming ‘self-report’ then you should ask questions. Ensure that the person has enough proof or suspicion to make the allegations. More often than not, imposters will fail to answer basic questions and make up a story. Their story can then be scrutinized and negated by all the crewmates which should help you identify the imposter much more easily.

How Does The Sessions Work?

Introduction to Laravel Session

Sessions are an essential part of the Laravel PHP framework. It helps to make it possible to store information of the user across multiple requests on the server. Unified API helps to access various session backends that Laravel ships. All the files of the session configuration are stored at config/session.php. Laravel automatically uses the file session driver which is compatible with many applications. Driver configuration is a session that defines where the session data is to be stored for each of the requests. Different drivers available in Laravel are file, APC, array, cookie, Redis, Memcached, and database. They assist in handling session data.

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What are the Laravel Sessions?

The different drivers which are made available in laravel session are as follows:

File: Here, the sessions are stored in the directory – storage/framework/sessions.

Cookie: Secure and encrypted cookies are where the sessions are stored.

Database: Sessions here are stored in a relational database.

Array: A PHP array is where the sessions are stored and they will not be persisted any further.

Memcached/Redis: These are fast and cache-based stores and sessions are also stored inside them.

Given below are the two ways of operating session:

Request instance

Global session helper

Whenever the session data needs to be accessed, it is accessed via an instance of a session with the help of an HTTP request. The get() method is used after getting the instance wherein one argument “key” is used to get the session data.

For, global helper the code is as follows:

The retrieving of Session Data is possible in Laravel. When you store data and want to retrieve it anytime later.

You can do so in two different ways, i.e. with the help of Session Helper and Request Instance.

To retrieve with the help of Global Helper.

$result= session ('key');

To retrieve with Request Instance.

This is how the sessions are retrieved with the help of the key.

To retrieve all the data that is stored in the application, we can use all method on the request instance.

Another option to retrieve session data is with the available default argument.

// Closure Return 'default value'; });

How does Laravel Sessions work?

Laravel session helps you to access session data, store session data, delete session data, and also retrieve session data. There are various designated steps to perform these varied actions in the Laravel application. With the help of sessions, you can handle the data of the users and also store it securely in your application. The data is well organized and saved in the application. The user can refer to the data at any point in time with the help of the retrieving option that is available in the application. Also if there is a need to delete the data from the stored space, it is possible with sessions. Also, the sole authority is in the hands of the administrator. Nobody else can handle data; be it storing, deleting, or retrieving.

Sessions are very crucial for any web application. It is important to know of all its use cases. Even authentication status and similar kind of log data can be stored in the sessions. There can be errors that may arise in the sessions if they are not coded or followed properly by the user. There can be HTTP request errors too. Do not panic during such situations and rework on the following of the instructions carefully.

Has method needs to be used to confirm if a value you want to find about is present in the session. The purpose of the has method is that it helps in returning the true value if it is present in the session and if it is not present the return will be null in confirmation.

// }

How to remove all items from the session?

The flush method needs to be used if you want to flush out all the data from the session. This will wipe every single data present and therefore it is termed as flush symbolically.

When you want to flash all the data that is present in the session you will have to use a different approach. It can be possible that there may be times when you may have to store items in your session only for the next request that follows. Use the flash method when such a demand may arise. Only during a subsequent HTTP request, this data will be available following which it will be deleted.

Example of Laravel Session

Given below is the example mentioned:

1. Create a migration table

first generate a migration file

Php artisan session: table

now, migrate generated sessions table

2. Php artisan migrate

The sample migration file will be generated with the following contents in it.

Schema::create('sessions', function ($table) { });

Once the migration table has been created, open the .env file to change the following line in it.

SESSION_DRIVER=database Conclusion

In conclusion, we can say that Laravel Sessions plays an important role in securing and storing data of the users and the log details which can be stored, deleted, or retrieved when needed. They can be customized as per the need of handling the data in a particular way. The users need to follow the method appropriately to get the correct results.

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How Does Swift Extension Works With Examples?

Introduction to Swift extension


The syntax flow for the swift extension is as follows :

extension Struct_Enum_Extnsion_Type { } Where, extension – It signifies that swift extension is used for performing the swift programming followed by any class name. { Adding functionality helps in making the extension type more enhancing. } How does Swift extension work?

Swift extension has a working pattern which improvises and enhances the entire feature by providing some of the enhanced functionalities to the data structure and its values.

Sometimes the source code does not exist within the repository for access then at that time, the swift extension comes as a savior, which behaves almost like categories of objective C.

It has the property to add some computed instance properties that help in getting instance values and another type of property as well.

It provides many other types of new initializers for support as well.

Initializers present as part of extension helps in many ways as it helps in extending another type of data and customized type of initializer or parameter.

It also helps in making another type of initializers, instance method, and type methods inclined and used with repetition of Int types in the methods indicating to get a return type.

Some extensions which help in mutating have the capacity to modify the self and its type of properties which embarks the change and modification by a mutation on the original implementation.

The addition of subscripts is also possible using the extension as it helps in making the old type of properties added with the new subscript.

Swift extensions also can inherit the properties for the old type into a new type using a type of extension at the time of implementation.

Extensions also get created using conforming protocols with the extension in the methods being implemented within the codebase.

Extensions also help in code separation as they can differentiate the code and give it an edge by segregating and providing enhanced code in the Swift programming language.


Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1

This program demonstrates the Swift extension, which inherits the computed instance and type properties with all types of extensions, specifically int type with various manipulation as shown in the output.

import Foundation import Glibc extension Int { var no_add: Int {return self + 150 } var no_sub: Int { return self - 50 } var no_mul: Int { return self * 20 } var no_div: Int { return self / 30 } } let no_of_addition = 12.no_add print("Addition_includes (no_of_addition)") let no_of_division = 68.no_div print("Division_includes (no_of_division)") let no_of_multiplication = 82.no_mul print("Multiplication_includes (no_of_multiplication)") let no_of_subtraction = 125.no_sub print("Subtraction_includes (no_of_subtraction)") let miscellaneous = 12.no_add + 26.no_sub print("Miscellaneous_makes (miscellaneous)")


Example #2

This program demonstrates the instance class or the method class, which inherits the properties of a swift extension within the subclasses as well as all the properties as shown in the output.

import Foundation import Glibc extension Int { for _ in 1..<self { analyse_and_summarize() } } } print("Control_under_first_sub_block..") }) print("Control_under_first_sub_block..") })

Example #3

This program demonstrates the usage of swift extension for the nested type of data structure, enum, or enhanced classes, as shown in the output.

import Foundation import Glibc extension Int { enum vehicles { case car case truck case bus case scooter case blend } var print: vehicles { switch self { case 0: return .car case 1: return .truck case 2: return .bus case 3: return .scooter default: return .blend } } } func result(numb: [Int]) { for k_0 in numb { switch k_0.print { case .car: print(" Porsche_xl ") case .truck: print(" Mahindra_vi ") case .bus: print(" Volvo+0 ") case .scooter: print(" pep++ ") default: print(" autorick_shaw ") } } } result(numb: [0, 1, 3, 4, 6, 5])


Example #4

This program demonstrates the mutation of the instances, which means that the value can transform themselves according to the requirement within the method as shown in the output for computing the cube area.

import Foundation import Glibc extension Double { mutating func cube() { let val_p = 3.256 self = val_p * self * self * self } } var cube_try_0 = 2.11 cube_try_0.cube() print("Cube_area of a cube is: (cube_try_0)") var cube_try_1 = 3.66 cube_try_1.cube() print("Cube_area of a cube is: (cube_try_1)") var cube_try_2 = 256.12 cube_try_2.cube() print("Cube_area of a cube is: (cube_try_2)")

Example #5

This program demonstrates the protocol extension with some added constraints on the set of declared array and collection conforming to the type and properties of the entire set using the extension as shown in the output.

import Foundation import Glibc extension Collection where Element: Equatable { for Element in self { if Element != self.first { return false } } return true } } let eql_cllcn_no = [213, 108, 206, 105, 150] let spillted_no = [300, 300, 300, 300, 300] print(eql_cllcn_no.equal_all_condn()) print(spillted_no.equal_all_condn())



It plays a very significant and powerful role in a swift programming language as it helps programmers and provides them with the ability to manipulate the elements according to the accessibility. It helps in enhancing the code and making the code in an understandable and readable format. It helps in managing the codebase with the usage of the swift extension.

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How Does Xml Works In Prolog With Examples?

Introduction to Prolog XML

The prolog XML is a part of the document declaration and data management in a structure using tags. It is one of the markup languages which is based on the document-oriented concept. It is a declared document from start to end in format for usability and productivity. It is an optional part of the programming language to display and exchange data in a tag structured or format.

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Syntax of Prolog XML

Given below is the syntax:


The XML contains the attribute and elements for empty elements.

The XML mode creates case-sensitive language.

The XML supports predefined entities such as a “less than”, “greater than”, etc.

The XML mode includes underscore and colon in a namespace.

The XML provides white space mode to preserve.

The basic prolog xml syntax shows below.

The basic with standalone syntax shows below.

url: local/url/ name

It converts into prolog file syntax shows below.

xml( [version = "1.0", standalone = "no"]

It converts into prolog file syntax shows below.

xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"], [ namespace( element( [], [ h. element( i. [] ) j. ] ) k. ) l. ] ). How does XML Works in Prolog?

Create a file with the “pl” extension.


Insert data into the prolog file.

Then, save the object with value into a pl file.

The following commands can use for the “prolog XML” data of the list.

First, write xml version and standalone value in the prolog file.

xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"],

Then, write down the document type with the required link and information.

Write the namespace for store elements.

Write the elements of the required data, such as an image.

element( svg, [width=”250″, height=”250″], [ element( circle, [cx=”20″, cy=”20″, r=”18″,], [] ) ] )

Open prolog console or interpreter.

Set the directory path of the “pl” file.

Use the given prolog file.


You can use the prolog console directly for programming.

Use the “prolog XML” syntax in the prolog console.

xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"], [ element( svg, [width="250", height="250"], [ element( circle, [cx="20", cy="20", r="18",], [] ) ] ) ) ] ).

Combine the working procedure of the “prolog if” function.

Use the “” file.

Use the given prolog console with the required directory path.

[main]. xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"], [ namespace( element( [], [ element( [] ) ] ) ) ] ).

Use the command for “prolog XML” in the prolog console.

The prolog console displays the below data for prolog XML.

xml([version = [49, 46, 48], standalone = [110, 111]], [doctype(public([104, 116, 116, 112, 58, 47, 47, 119, 119, 119, 46, 101, 100, 117, 99, 98, 97, 46, 99, 111, 109, 47])), namespace(element([], [element([])]))]). Examples of Prolog XML

Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1

The basic prolog XML with empty element example and output shows below.

Use the following command in prolog pl file.


xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"]).

Use the following command in prolog console.


| ?- listing.


Example #2

The basic example and the output shows below.


xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"], [ element( svg, [width="500", height="500"], [ element( circle, [cx="25", cy="25", r="24",], [] ) ] ) ) ] ).


Example #3

The basic example and the output shows below.

Use the following command in prolog pl file.


xml( [version="1.0", standalone="no"], [ element( svg, [width="500", height="500"], [ element( circle, [cx="25", cy="25", r="24",], [] ) ] ) ) ] ).

Use the following command in prolog console.


| ?- listing.


Example #4

With the standalone example and output shows below.

Use the following command in prolog pl file.


xml( [version="1.0", standalone="yes"], [ element( svg, [width="500", height="500"], [ element( circle, [cx="25", cy="25", r="24",], [] ) ] ) ) ] ).

Use the following command in prolog console.


| ?- listing.


Example #5

With empty element example and the output shows below.

Use the following command in prolog pl file.


xml( [version="1.0", standalone="yes"], [ namespace( element( [], [ element( [] ) ] ) )

Use the following command in prolog console.


| ?- listing.


Example #6

With the encoding example and output shows below.

Use the following command in prolog pl file.


xml( [version="1.0", encoding="UTF-8", standalone="no"]).

Use the following command in prolog console.


| ?- listing.



It is used for declaring data from start to end in format for usability and productivity. It exchanges the data in the prolog data structure simplification and maintain of the application. It creates attractive, sorted, and elegant prolog applications.

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