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Definition of PLSQL Replace

PL/ SQL REPLACE is a function which allows the replacement of character string with another set of character strings. This function is widely used while programming in case of some spelling mistakes of the data. Instead of deleting the data and interesting again, REPLACE can be used which will modify the data according to the specific requirements. The REPLACE function takes 3 parameters in which one parameter is Optional. It also works great in case of removal of string characters from the particular input string expression. As this function works on the strings, the return type is also a string type but the char set depends on the input string data type.

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Syntax:

REPLACE (string1, string_to_replace [, replacement_string])

where,

string1: The string or expression where the sequence of characters needs to be replaced with other characters. This is basically an input string.

string_to_replace: The string which will be searched in string1 and will be replaced in the expression.

replacement_string: It is an Optional parameter. It is a replacement string. All the occurrences of ‘string_to_replace’ will be replaced with ‘replacement_string’. If the replacement_string is not present in the string expression, all the occurrences of ‘replacement_string’ are removed from the string1.

Return type: The REPLACE function returns the string value to the user.

How does the PLSQL Replace Function Work?

Below given are some of the important points which needs to keep in mind related to the working of REPLACE function in PL/SQL:

The REPLACE function of PL/SQL is used to replace a sequence of string with another set of string/ characters.

It accepts 3 parameters in which 1 parameter is Optional , i.e. string1( input string), string_to_replace (string to be searched), replacement_string (Optional. replacing string).

In case when the string_to_replace( string to be searched) is null, it will return the same string1 (input string expression).

All the parameters, i.e. string1, string_to_replace and replacement_string can be of any data type, i.e. CHAR, VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2, NCHAR, CLOB. The resulting string is of the same character set as char.

The REPLACE function of PL/ SQL provides the functionality somewhat similar to that of TRANSLATE function, only difference being that TRANSLATE allows one-to-one substitution whereas REPLACE allows replacement of string/ characters, even removal of character strings (in case of omission of Optional parameter).

If the replacement_string is not present in the REPLACE function of PL/ SQL, it works for the removal of string characters. It removes all the occurrences of string_to_replace in the string1. Function returns the removed characters string.

Supported versions Oracle which supports the REPLACE function in PL/ SQL are given below:

Oracle 8i

Oracle 9i

Oracle 10g

Oracle 11g

Oracle 12c

Examples of PLSQL Replace

Some of the examples of PL/ SQL showing the implementation of REPLACE function in the code are given below:

Example #1

Code:

END;

Output:

Explanation: In the above code, string1 or the string expression is ‘hellohello’. REPLACE function used above has 2 parameters, i.e. ‘Tst_String’ which has a string expression and the string_to_replace is ‘h’. There is no replacement_string in the above REPLACE function. So, first, the string ‘hi’ is searched in the string expression and will be removed from it. So, the resulting string expression is ‘elloello’ removing all the occurences of ‘h’.

Example #2

END;

Output:

Explanation: In the above code, string1 or the string expression is ‘hello how are you’. The REPLACE function used above has 3 parameters ‘Tst_String’ which has a string expression, string_to_replace is ‘hello’ and the replacement_string is ‘hi’. Since ‘hello’ is present 1 time in the expression, it would be replaced with ‘hi’ in the input expression. So, the resulting string expression is ‘hi how are you’ in the above code.

Example #3

END;

Output:

Explanation: In the above code, string1 or the string expression is ‘hello how are you’. The REPLACE function used above has the input parameter Tst_String (which is string1), string_to_replace is  ‘are’ and the replacement_string is ‘  ‘ (two blank spaces). So in the string expression, ‘are’ is replaced with the blank spaces. So, the resulting string is ‘hello how you’ in the code mentioned above.

Example #4

Code:

END;

Output:

Explanation: In the above code, string1 or the string expression is ‘hi how are you hi’. So in the function ‘REPLACE’, there are 2 parameters, Tst_String which is string1 and the string_to_replace is ‘hi’. There is no replacement_string parameter written above, so ‘hi’ is removed from the expression (nothing would be replaced). So the resulting string is    ‘   how are you   ‘ replacing all the ‘hi’ from the string expression.

Example #5

END;

Output:

Example #6

 Code:

END;

Output:

Explanation: In the above code, ‘Congratulations to our world’ is the string expression, ‘tua’ is the ‘string_to_replace’ and ‘ih’ is the ‘replacement_string’. So, in the above string expression, there is no string ‘tua’ present. So, if the searchable string is not present in the expression, the resulting string expression remains the same as the string 1. There would be no change in the input string chúng tôi the resulting string in the above code would be ‘Congratulations to our world’.

Conclusion

The above description clearly explains what the REPLACE function is and how it works in PL/SQL. Though Oracle also provides the TRANSLATE function which works similar to that of REPLACE only one-to-one substitution is allowed in it whereas REPLACE allows the substitution of a sequence of the whole string. For a programmer, it is important to understand both of them and the difference between them to have a clear understanding.

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How Does The Replace Method Work In Perl?

Introduction to Perl replace

The Perl replace is one of the regular expression features to replace the values by using some operators, symbols even though we used tr is one of the tools for replacing the string type of characters from one variable to another variable in pair-wise like regular expression will compare and differentiate the string replace and matches while tr mapped each character from the character by character so tr keyword will map the strings by using hash map techniques so it follows the key-value pairs for mapping and replacing the values from one variable to another variable.

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Syntax:

In Perl script languages string, characters, numbers, we used different data types with values same and stored them on the variables. We used string type of values means it will compare and replace the values only on the string types like that number will compare other numbers. Here we use the replace feature of Perl script with different scenarios.

use strict; use warnings; my $var = ""; $var1=~tr/characters; ---some Perl script logic codes depend upon the requirement---

The above code is the basic syntax for replacing the characters; it may be any type like alphabets, numerical digits, etc. But we want to compare using the “tr” tool or is nothing but similar to regular expressions; the strings or characters are matched from the user inputs.

How does the replace method work in Perl?

We know that regular expressions and other special characters like operators and symbols are mapped to the user inputs. It will translate the characters from one side into another side like that if we use ‘=~’ these operators will be taking two parameters one is the string on the left side of the operator, and regular expression is on the right side so that it will easily compare and replace the values. Like that, we use ‘/,^’ for these operators we compare and replace the string in character by character. If we want to compare the numerical digits ‘d’ is the option for matches it starts from 0-9 it also matches the digits with one by one, so it is the standardized one.

We also use a tool like ‘tr’ is the translator tool that can be replaced the strings in character by character with the help of mapping techniques like key-value pairs; it will validate each characters using some default operators also we want to replace the fixed characters of the string will use substr() as the replaceable function for the script. When we use substr, it will combine the expression, offset values, and length of the strings; all these are joined together, and it will be called using these function.

Examples

Here are the following examples mention below

Example #1

Code:

use strict; use warnings; my $vars = "Welcome To My DOmain hgasdfhg gjhsa 153276 agsdh 27e3 jdsg2368 jweg2386 wjehg32846 jhewg386 hew38468 hewg3264 khewr346  wegr3286 kher8346  kjer78 346 kjwge346 hwkjge23 7"; $vars =~ s/To/Hi/ig; print $vars; print substr($vars,5,9); $vars =~ s/(d+)/"$1"/ig; print $vars;

In the above example, we used the string characters in one separate variable, and we will use some string default methods like substr(); it will be used to find the characters in the strings, and it will be replaceable by other characters. Like that, we used some default character sequences like ~s d+,$1, and /ig; these are the characters used to segregate the string characters and stored in the separate variable.

Example #2

Code:

use strict; use warnings; use 5.010; my $vars = 'Wleocme To My Domain asdhv 283 jdsghv23ey8  328 jweg 2y3 jwehg 23yr kjwge929 83 jkkweg 234y hwej 923yr kjwegr8 38yr4t jweg838 4 jgds2393984 h gef 38248'; say $vars; $vars =~ tr/e/j/; say $vars; sub demo { my $vars1 = shift; my %vars2 = ( ); my $vars3 = $vars2{$vars1}; if(defined($vars3)) { return $vars3; } return $vars1; } sub result { $vars =~ s/(d+)/demo($1)/eig; print $vars; } result();

Output:

Example #3

Code:

use strict; use warnings; use Benchmark; my $vars = '.' x 2000; sub demo { $vars =~ tr/./_/; $vars =~ tr/_/./; } sub demo1 { $vars =~ s/./_/g; $vars =~ s/_/./g; } sub demo2 { $vars =~ s/(d+)/"$1"/ig; $vars =~ s/_/./g; } my $vars1 = 3000; timethese ( $vars1, { } );

Output:

In the final example, we used the time intervals for replacing the variable values. We took 3000 seconds for iterating the values from the user inputs. Here also we used the same subroutines method to handle the other statements, and additionally, we used the timethese() default function for calculating the time intervals for splitting and replacement of the string characters in the script.

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How Does The Sessions Work?

Introduction to Laravel Session

Sessions are an essential part of the Laravel PHP framework. It helps to make it possible to store information of the user across multiple requests on the server. Unified API helps to access various session backends that Laravel ships. All the files of the session configuration are stored at config/session.php. Laravel automatically uses the file session driver which is compatible with many applications. Driver configuration is a session that defines where the session data is to be stored for each of the requests. Different drivers available in Laravel are file, APC, array, cookie, Redis, Memcached, and database. They assist in handling session data.

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What are the Laravel Sessions?

The different drivers which are made available in laravel session are as follows:

File: Here, the sessions are stored in the directory – storage/framework/sessions.

Cookie: Secure and encrypted cookies are where the sessions are stored.

Database: Sessions here are stored in a relational database.

Array: A PHP array is where the sessions are stored and they will not be persisted any further.

Memcached/Redis: These are fast and cache-based stores and sessions are also stored inside them.

Given below are the two ways of operating session:

Request instance

Global session helper

Whenever the session data needs to be accessed, it is accessed via an instance of a session with the help of an HTTP request. The get() method is used after getting the instance wherein one argument “key” is used to get the session data.

For, global helper the code is as follows:

The retrieving of Session Data is possible in Laravel. When you store data and want to retrieve it anytime later.

You can do so in two different ways, i.e. with the help of Session Helper and Request Instance.

To retrieve with the help of Global Helper.

$result= session ('key');

To retrieve with Request Instance.

This is how the sessions are retrieved with the help of the key.

To retrieve all the data that is stored in the application, we can use all method on the request instance.

Another option to retrieve session data is with the available default argument.

// Closure Return 'default value'; });

How does Laravel Sessions work?

Laravel session helps you to access session data, store session data, delete session data, and also retrieve session data. There are various designated steps to perform these varied actions in the Laravel application. With the help of sessions, you can handle the data of the users and also store it securely in your application. The data is well organized and saved in the application. The user can refer to the data at any point in time with the help of the retrieving option that is available in the application. Also if there is a need to delete the data from the stored space, it is possible with sessions. Also, the sole authority is in the hands of the administrator. Nobody else can handle data; be it storing, deleting, or retrieving.

Sessions are very crucial for any web application. It is important to know of all its use cases. Even authentication status and similar kind of log data can be stored in the sessions. There can be errors that may arise in the sessions if they are not coded or followed properly by the user. There can be HTTP request errors too. Do not panic during such situations and rework on the following of the instructions carefully.

Has method needs to be used to confirm if a value you want to find about is present in the session. The purpose of the has method is that it helps in returning the true value if it is present in the session and if it is not present the return will be null in confirmation.

// }

How to remove all items from the session?

The flush method needs to be used if you want to flush out all the data from the session. This will wipe every single data present and therefore it is termed as flush symbolically.

When you want to flash all the data that is present in the session you will have to use a different approach. It can be possible that there may be times when you may have to store items in your session only for the next request that follows. Use the flash method when such a demand may arise. Only during a subsequent HTTP request, this data will be available following which it will be deleted.

Example of Laravel Session

Given below is the example mentioned:

1. Create a migration table

first generate a migration file

Php artisan session: table

now, migrate generated sessions table

2. Php artisan migrate

The sample migration file will be generated with the following contents in it.

Schema::create('sessions', function ($table) { });

Once the migration table has been created, open the .env file to change the following line in it.

SESSION_DRIVER=database Conclusion

In conclusion, we can say that Laravel Sessions plays an important role in securing and storing data of the users and the log details which can be stored, deleted, or retrieved when needed. They can be customized as per the need of handling the data in a particular way. The users need to follow the method appropriately to get the correct results.

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How Does Continuation Statement Work?

Introduction to Golang Continue Statement

In go language continue statement allow the developer to skip the particular condition and start from the next value, for example, if we have a list of students and we want to add some extra marks to each student except for the students belongs to a particular section, in that case, we can put continue statement in the loop and the execution will start from the next section, we can say continue is little similar to break of other programing language and it allows us to skip the iteration of the loop at any time inside the loop, with the help of the continue statement we are able to avoid unnecessary execution of some codes.

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Syntax

Below is a simple syntax for the continue statement, here we have written continue inside the loop, this loop can be for a loop. Generally, we put this continue on any condition where we want to skip the execution and go to the next iteration of the execution of the program. Mostly we use the continue statement to skip the execution of some specific conditions or simply move to the next iteration of the loop.

Loop{ continue; } How Does Continuation Statement Work in Go language?

To explain the working of the continue statement in go language we have taken the diagram below .If we have used break of other languages then it is very much similar to those breaks. In case if we do not want to execute code for some specific iteration of the code then we go with the continue statement. we can say continue statement allow us to avoid execution of peace of the code for some specific iteration, hence we can understand it saves our program of extra execution of the codes. Let me explain working with the help of a given diagram.

Once the continue statement is read by go language it will simply go to the next statement, by skipping the current iteration, you can even consider it like breaking of the current iteration. Remember iteration will be continued with the next iteration with skipping the current one.

It may be confusing for many people with names continuing, as it is breaking iteration. Actual it is stopping execution of current item of iteration and going to the next item for iteration which means it allows loop iteration to be continued with the next item.

In the below statement the first condition will be checked, if the condition is successful or true then the statement will execute with a new or next value.

Let us take an example, suppose university decided to pass all the students of the school except the students belongs to any particular section, then that case we will run a loop over all students of the school and we will put a condition where we will check for the section of students. We will keep passing the all students, but once we found that particular section we will use the continue statement which will skip the processing of the students of that section.

In Go, language continuation is similar to the break of other languages.

In memory, it keeps track of the next iteration and once we put continue inside the loop, it will go to the next iteration by skipping the current iteration.

Please see the below diagram for some understanding of the continue in go language.

Examples to Implement Golang Continue

In the below, we have given some examples where we can understand the working and uses of the continue statement. in case if we want to execute these examples we can create a file like chúng tôi and paste the codes of the examples on this file and we can run the command go run chúng tôi and we can get the output of the program.

Example #1

In the below example we are printing the number from 15 to 25, we have used a condition where we are using number== 20 and if the condition matches, the continue will execute hence 20 will not be printed.

Code:

package main import "fmt" func main() { var number int = 15 for number < 25 { if number == 20 { number = number + 1; continue; } fmt.Printf("The value of the number is: %dn", number); number++; } }

Output:

Example #2

Code:

package main import "fmt" func main() { var oddNumber int = 15 for oddNumber< 25 { if oddNumber%2==0 { oddNumber = oddNumber + 1; continue; } fmt.Printf("The odd numbers are: %dn", oddNumber); oddNumber++; } }

Output:

Example #3

In the below example we are simply printing all the even numbers between 15 to 25, so we have used the condition! (evenNumber%2==0).

Code:

package main import "fmt" func main() { var evenNumber int = 15 for evenNumber< 25 { if !(evenNumber%2==0) { evenNumber = evenNumber + 1; continue; } fmt.Printf("The Even numbers are: %dn", evenNumber); evenNumber++; } }

Example #4

In the below example we are printing the number from three to nine, we have used a condition where we are using number== 8 and if the condition matches the continue will execute the hence 8 will not be printed, 8 iterations will be skipped.

Code:

package main import "fmt" func main() { for number := 3; number < 10; number++ { if number == 8 { fmt.Println("Here loop will continue for the next iteration") continue } fmt.Println("The values of the variable number is", number) } fmt.Println("End of the program happens") }

Output:

Conclusion

From this tutorial, we learned the basics of the continue statement in the go language and we learned the concept with the help of the various examples. We learned the working of the continue with the help of a diagram and focus on a simple syntax.

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How Does Leveraged Etf Work?

Definition of Leveraged ETF

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Some investors have ample funds and want to speculate about forecasting the direction of the prices of an asset and earning huge profits from such speculations. A leveraged exchange-traded fund (ETF) is such a fund that uses borrowed funds to invest in derivative instruments such as options and futures in the underlying securities as that of its benchmark index so that the returns that are generated on such an ETF get magnified as compared to the returns of its benchmark index. However, the leverage technique, if fails, can also multiply the investor’s losses. Unlike a regular ETF, which can only track the securities in its underlying index on a 1:1 ratio, a leveraged ETF may aim to multiply the returns for a 2:1 or even 3:1 ratio.

How Does It Work?

Leveraged ETFs are mutual funds that trade in the stock exchanges. The fund might be fully or partially tracking its benchmark index or might be actively managed. Leveraged ETFs try to double or triple the daily performance of the index or asset classes by using debts and financial derivatives. Returns are high in a short-term period due to price fluctuations. Such ETFs attract investors ready to bear the risk and have huge funds to speculate to earn, as the profit in leveraged ETFs is exceptionally high.

Example of Leveraged ETF Leveraged ETF Risk Importance of Leveraged ETF

It is deemed important due to the following reasons:

The main importance is that it gives the investor the potential to magnify the investment returns and earn a high-profit level.

It is profitable for the investors even when the market is declining, as they can profit by using inversely leveraged ETFs.

The leveraged ETF can be purchased easily, so even a newbie can purchase it, as there are managers to manage it efficiently.

The opportunity to liquidate the investment is available for the investors.

The returns generated are higher in the case of a leveraged ETF than in a regular ETF.

Advantages

Huge opportunity for returns: ETF gives investors a huge opportunity to earn as their investments can be multiplied here only if they are ready to take risks.

Earning at the time of market decline: The investors in the leveraged ETF can earn profit even at the time of market decline by using inverse leveraged ETF.

Potential to earn: It gives its investors a huge potential to earn as their return can be amplified twice or thrice.

High risk: There is a high level of risk in the leveraged ETF as the losses can be multiplied here.

Expense ratio: Some managers manage the work of investment for which they charge some fees, which increases the expense ratio also.

Not a long-term investment: It is suitable for investors looking for a short-term horizon, and the investors willing to invest for a long period of time do not find it attractive.

Conclusion

Many risk factors are involved in leveraged ETFs, but for an investor willing to earn profit and ready to bear exaggerated risk, that is not a bar. These are funds for risk lovers. So, one must grab the in-depth knowledge of the path to be traveled as risk is accompanied by profit here depending on the type of investor and preferences.

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How Does It Work & What Are The Benefits?

Edge computing is a broad term that refers to a highly distributed computing framework that moves compute and storage resources closer to the exact point they’re needed—so they’re available at the moment they’re needed. Edge computing companies provide solutions that reduces latency, speeds processing, optimizes bandwidth and introduces entirely different features and capabilities that aren’t possible with data centers.

Although conventional servers, storage, and cloud computing continue to play a key role in computing, edge technologies are radically redefining business and life. By moving data processing at or near the source of data generation, edge devices become smarter and they’re able to handle tasks that would have been unimaginable only a few years ago. This data fuels real-time insights and applications ranging from sleep tracking and ridesharing to the condition of a drilling bit on an oil rig.

Edge computing fundamentally rewires and revamps the way organizations generate, manage and consume data. Gartner estimates that by 2025, 75% of data will be created and processed outside the traditional data center or cloud. 

Edge computing works by capturing and processing information as close to the source of the data or desired event as possible. It relies on sensors, computing devices and machinery to collect data and feed it to edge servers or the cloud. Depending on the desired task and outcome, this data might feed analytics and machine learning systems, deliver automation capabilities or offer visibility into the current state of a device, system or product.

Today, most data calculations take place in the cloud or at a datacenter. However, as organizations migrate to an edge model with IoT devices, there’s a need to deploy edge servers, gateway devices and other gear that reduce the time and distance required for computing tasks—and connect the entire infrastructure. Part of this infrastructure may include smaller edge data centers located in secondary cities or even rural areas, or cloud containers that can easily be moved across clouds and systems, as needed.

Yet edge data centers aren’t the only way to process data. In some cases, IoT devices might process data onboard, or send the data to a smartphone, an edge server or storage device to handle calculations. In fact, a variety of technologies can make up an edge network. These include mobile edge computing that works over wireless channels; fog computing that incorporates infrastructure that uses clouds and other storage to place data in the most desirable location; and so-called cloudlets that serve as ultra-small data centers.

An edge framework introduces flexibility, agility and scalability that’s required for a growing array of business use cases. For example, a sensor might provide real-time updates about the temperature a vaccine is stored at and whether it has been kept at a required temperature throughout transport.

Sensors and edge IoT devices can track traffic patterns and provide real-time insights into congestion and routing. And motion sensors can incorporate AI algorithms that detect when an earthquake has occurred to provide an early warning that allows businesses and homes to shut off gas supplies and other systems that could result in a fire or explosion.

Within an edge network, systems that capture and transmit data serve as edge devices. This can include standalone devices as well as gateways that connect to devices downstream and interface with systems upstream. However, the concept increasingly revolves around IoT sensors and devices that reside at the edge. These systems can incorporate an array of sensing capabilities, including light, sound, magnetic fields, motion, moisture, tactile capabilities, gravity, electrical fields and chemicals. They may process data using apps or via on-board computing capabilities, and they often include batteries.

Edge and IoT devices can tap a variety of communications protocols, including

Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)

RFID

Wi-Fi

Zigbee

Z-Wave

Cellular (including 5G)

NFC

Ethernet

Edge IoT devices typically send data over an open systems interconnection (OSI) framework that unites disparate devices and standards. These systems also connect with cloud and Internet protocols such as AMQP, MQTT, CoAP, and HTTP. Typically, the framework relies on a specialized edge device, such as a smart gateway, to route and transfer data and manage all the connections.

In order for IoT devices to deliver real value, there must be a way to connect the edge to the cloud and corporate data centers.

An edge gateway serves this purpose. After IoT edge devices collect data and local processing takes place—either on the device or within a separate device such as a smartphone or cloudlet—a gateway manages the flow of data between the edge network and a cloud or data center. Using either conventional coding or machine learning capabilities, it can send only necessary or optimal data, thus optimizing bandwidth and cutting costs.

An edge gateway also interacts with IoT edge devices downstream, telling them when to switch on and off or how to adjust to conditions. When there’s a need for data it can ping the device.

This enables analytics and machine learning on the edge, the ability to isolate devices, manage traffic patterns more effectively, and connect the gateway to other gateways, thus establishing a larger and more modular network of connected devices. As a result, an IoT framework can operate in a highly dynamic way.

An edge network resides outside or adjacent to a centralized network. Essentially, the edge network feeds data to the main network—and pulls data from it as needed. Early edge networks encompassed content delivery networks (CDNs) that helped speed video delivery to mobile devices.

But today’s edge networks are increasingly modular and interconnected—and carry a broad array of data. Today’s software-defined networking tools deliver enormous flexibility, scalability and customization for edge networks. In many cases, application programming interfaces (APIs) extend the reach of an edge network while automating workflows.

Advanced edge networks support edge computing capabilities. This makes it possible to run algorithms and applications on the edge—and process and distribute data in more dynamic ways.

There are fundamental differences between cloud computing and edge computing. The former relies on a central computing model that delivers services, processes and data services, while the latter refers to a computing model that’s highly distributed.

Edge environments typically strive to move applications and data processing as close to the data-generation site as possible. As robotics, drones, autonomous vehicles, digital twins and numerous other digital technologies mature, the need to handle computing outside the cloud grows.

Not surprisingly, organizations typically use both cloud and edge networks to design a modern IoT framework. The two technology platforms are not oppositional; they are complementary. Each has a role in building a modern data framework.

While edge computing can deliver a more agile and flexible framework—and reduce latency on IoT devices—it’s not equipped to accommodate enormous volumes of data that might feed an analytics application or smart city framework. What’s more, cloud bandwidth is highly scalable and cloud computing often supports a more streamlined IT and programming framework.

As organizations wade deeper into the digital realm, edge computing and edge technologies eventually become a necessity. There’s simply no way to tie together vast networks of IoT edge devices without a nimbler and more flexible framework for computing, data management and running applications outside a datacenter. Edge computing boosts device performance and data agility. It also can reduce the need for more expensive cloud resources, and thus save money.

Also, because edge computing networks are highly distributed and essentially run as smaller interconnected networks, it’s possible to use hardware and software in highly targeted and specialized way.

This makes it possible, for example, to use different programming languages with different attributes and runtimes to achieve specific performance results. The downside is that heterogeneous edge computing frameworks introduce greater potential complexity and security concerns.

In fact, physical and virtual security can pose a significant challenge for organizations using IoT edge devices and edge computing networks. There are a number of potential problems.

One of the biggest risks is dealing with thousands or even hundreds of thousands of sensors and devices from different manufacturers that rely on different firmware, protocols and standards. Adding to the problem: many organizations struggle to track edge IoT devices and other assets. In some cases, organizations wind up with different business or IT groups setting up devices that operate independent of each other.

Edge computing devices present other security challenges. Since many of them lack an interface, it’s necessary to manage security settings using outside devices and programs. When an organization deploys a large number of these devices, the security challenges become magnified. As a result, it’s important to focus security on a number of factors and issues, including device firmware and operating systems, TCP/IP stacks, network design and data security tools, such as encryption at rest and encryption in motion and data tokenization.

Network segmentation is also critical. It’s wise to isolate key systems, components and controls—and have ways to shut down a node or system that has been attacked. By segmenting and air gapping groups of devices and systems, it’s possible to prevent a breach or failure at one point in the network that could lead to the failure for the entire edge computing platform.

In addition, it’s critical to use standard security tools and strategies such as auditing the network and devices, changing passwords, disabling unneeded features that may pose a risk, and retiring devices that are no longer needed.

Over the last few years, numerous edge computing companies have entered the edge computing space. These vendors address different market niches. Some, such as Dell, Cisco, HPE sell networking and computing equipment that supports various aspects of edge and IoT frameworks, ranging from control systems to telecommunications.

Others, such as AWS, Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud, deliver cloud-based software and services that support IoT and edge functionality—including device management, machine learning and specialized analytics. Still others, such as PTC ThingWorx and Particle, deliver sophisticated platforms that connect and manage large numbers of edge IoT devices.

Organizations of all shapes and sizes benefit from a clear strategy for navigating edge computing and IoT devices. Over the next few years, the need to processes data on the edge will grow. But it isn’t only the volume of data that’s important. It’s also the velocity of data moving within organizations and across business partners and supply chains.

As digital frameworks evolve and need to compute within decentralized environments grows, edge infrastructure becomes indispensable.

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