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Introduction to Scala Stream

Scala Stream is also a part of scala collection which store data. This is similar to list in scala only with one difference. In scala stream value will only be calculated when needed Scala Stream are lazy list which evaluates the values only when it is required, hence increases the performance of the program by not loading the value at once.

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Syntax:

valstream_name = value1 #:: value2 #:: value3 #:: Stream.empty valmyStream = 10 #:: 20 #:: 30 #:: Stream.empty

So in this way we can assign value to s stream, but it will only calculate the first value.

How Stream works in Scala?

As we have seen that scala stream is lazy list, they are like list on scala with only difference is that their element are computed lazily not at once. Only the element’s which we request are computed thus increases the performance of our program. But stream in scala is fast.

Example:

varmystm = 10 #:: 20 #:: 30 #:: Stream.empty

In this the head of the stream is 10 and 20, 30 are the tails of the stream. So in output also the head will be printed but not the tail because they have not been computed yet. In this we have 3 elements in the stream.

In scala we have Sequence, List and Stream.

1. Sequence 2. List

This is also a part of collection in scala. This is also used to store group of elements and this is the sub class of sequence in scala. List in scala are the default implementation of sequence. List process its all elements one by one. It is not strict to compute only one value.

3. Stream

This is also part of collection except one change it is based on lazy approach. That means only one element will be computed at a time. Otherwise it has all the characteristics like list in scala. Stream is also a sub class for sequence.

Performance Characteristics: As performance point of view we cannot decide which can be better but as we know stream is based on the lazy approach which computed elements when it is required so we can say it can provide us better performance compared to other collections.

Immutable Head Tail Apply Update Prepend Append Insert

Stream C C L L C L –

List C C L L C L –

We can have a look at it performance characteristics of stream and list collection in scala. In case of immutable.

L: This symbol defines that this operation depends upon the size of collection, we can say it is proportional to length of collection it is liner in nature.

C: This will take constant time.

-: This symbol means this operation is not supported in the mentioned collection.

Examples of Scala Stream

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

In this example we are creating different stream list.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty val mystm2 = "abc" #:: "aa" #:: "bb" #:: Stream.empty val mystm3 = 150 #:: 250 #:: 350 #:: Stream.empty val mystm4 = 401 #:: 509 #:: 687 #:: Stream.empty println("Values in stream first  ::" + mystm1) println("Values in stream second  ::" + mystm2) println("Values in stream third  ::" + mystm3) println("Values in stream four  ::" + mystm4) }

Output:

Example #2

In this example we are retrieving head of each stream list.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty val mystm2 = "abc" #:: "aa" #:: "bb" #:: Stream.empty val mystm3 = 150 #:: 250 #:: 350 #:: Stream.empty val mystm4 = 401 #:: 509 #:: 687 #:: Stream.empty println("Head of first stream  ::" + mystm1.head) println("Head of second stream  ::" + mystm2.head) println("Head of third stream  ::" + mystm3.head) println("Head of fourth stream  ::" + mystm4.head) }

Output:

Example #3

In this we are retrieving tail of the stream.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty println("Head of first stream  ::" + mystm1.tail) }

Output:

Example #4

Print all value of stream.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val mystm1 = 001 #:: 002 #:: 003 #:: Stream.empty val mystm2 = "abc" #:: "aa" #:: "bb" #:: Stream.empty val mystm3 = 150 #:: 250 #:: 350 #:: Stream.empty val mystm4 = 401 #:: 509 #:: 687 #:: Stream.empty println("all elements of the stream ::" + x) ) println("all elements of the stream ::" +x) ) println("all elements of the stream ::" + x) ) println("all elements of the stream ::" + x) ) }

Output:

Conclusion

In Scala Stream we computed the value of element one at a time not all at once. This can be used where performance is a concern. It follows the last approach while it comes to accessing the element of a stream.

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How A Class Is Works In Scala With Examples?

Introduction to Scala Class

Scala Class is basically a user defined blueprint having methods and fields into a single unit from which object can be created. Class is just like a home for the various methods and global variables defined that are used within its scope. We can create an object from the class using the new keyword (by initialing it calling ) using that for calling the methods inside a class. There are fields in a class providing the class state and there are methods defined inside the class that implements the behavior of a class. With the help of Object-defined, we can use all the functionalities defined in a Class.

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Class Declaration

A class in scala is defined with the Keyword Class, followed by the name of the class. Starting with opening the curly braces it contains the body of the class ending with the braces closed thereafter. The class can have some optional parameters also with any superclass extension or trait defined. The public is the default modifier used for the class.

class Class_name{ } Example Class Animal { }

Output:

Defined class Animal

How does Class Work in Scala?

After the declaration of class in scala, we have all the methods and variables that we need to use. So we need to create an object when an object of a class is created the class is known to be instantiated. Once that is done we will be able to take the values and use the method used in the class.

We can create more than one instance for a class, the new keyword is used to define objects in Scala, once that object is created we can access the methods inside the class and can implement it in our code.

Let’s see how to call the class methods with objects.

| defAn() | { | println(“hello”) | } | } defined class Animal

Here we have declared a class named with Animal with a method An inside it.

e: Animal = [email protected]

Then Here in the vale, we are making a new object which can access the methods of the CLASS.

hello

So memory is allocated and a reference is returned invoking the class constructor whenever a new object is created using the new operator. We can create anonymous objects also, anonymous objects are those which doesn’t have any reference.

So constructors are basically called up in a Scala Class when an object is instantiated. Scala Constructors being of two types primary and auxiliary have the same body as that of class so anything inside the class will be the part of that Constructor. So if no constructors are defined scala will automatically take this primary constructor whenever an object is created and that the constructor is called as Default constructor.

Few Points that we need to check about this default class constructor is:-

If values defined inside are var then we can change the value for that.

If the values defined are val inside then it will be considered as final and the values cannot be changed.

If there is nothing defined (val,var) it will have restricted visibility.

We can also use the access modifier while defining the values inside so that will work accordingly as per the definition of the access modifiers.

Let us check this with an example:

| println(“hello”) | } defined class Animals

This will define a class with primary constructor Animals and whenever the object is created the resulted value is called.

hello b: Animals = [email protected]

The auxiliary constructor comes up with a different signature list. The auxiliary constructor comes up with a constructor call this.

classNo_Distinct(i : Int , j:Int) { vark :Int = 0 println("Hello") println(i) println(j) println(k) defthis(i:Int ,j:Int,k:Int)   { this(i,j)        this.k = k } }

If we will call this by creating the object, the Auxiliary Constructor will call both and will do what the method has in it.

Output:

Val o = new No_Distinct(3,4,0)

So from this, we see how Scala Class is useful and helpful in the object-oriented programming model.

Conclusion

Here from the above article, we came across the Scala Class and the feature it exhibits. Having a Class is a very important concept for the Scala Object-Oriented Programming model. Here with the help of Examples, we got to know about the methods a class can have with the functionalities it adheres.

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How Takeif Works In Kotlin?

Introduction to Kotlin takeIf

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Syntax

In kotlin language has many default classes, methods, and keywords used to implement the mobile-based application. Like that takeif() is one of the default methods and it is mainly used to filterate the data. It has its own syntax below.

fun functionName(parameters) { val varaiableName:datatype? = kotlinNullable.takeIf(predicate) -----some logic codes--- }

The above codes are the basic syntax for using the teakeIf() method in the kotlin codes. It can be called upon the parameter values and their methods based on the predicate conditions. If the condition is satisfied it continues else it returns the null value.

How takeIf work in Kotlin?

In kotlin language, it has many defaults and standard libraries contain the functions like takeIf, and these functions are let you combined and the value is embedded with checks of the object state and its status. The object state infrequent call chains the called objects with the predicate condition provided and takeIf it returns the object if it is matched with the specified conditions. Else it will return the null values so that the takeIf() method as the filtering function for every single object. If returns the object and if it does not match the predicate condition the null value if it is does also the object is to be called and available as the lambda argument(it). While chaining other functions like after takeIf and other default functions like takeUnless is also to be performed with the null checks conditions and the safe call like ‘?.’ Operator because the return value is null. The takeIf() function is specially used together with the scope functions so that the chaining link is checked with them for running the code blocks on the specified object that can be matched with the given predicate conditions. We can do this and call the takeIf() method it returns the null and other local variable types like ‘var’ and ‘let’ are not be invoked.

Examples of Kotlin takeIf

Below are the different examples of Kotlin takeIf:

Example #1

Code:

abstract class Fans(fans:String){ abstract var fansname: String abstract fun fandetails() init { println("Fans fansname is: $fansname") } fun demo(){ println("Thank you the Fans fansname is") } } interface Crompton{ var vars: String fun demo1():String fun details2() { println("Have a Nice day users") } } class Havelles : Crompton { override var vars: String = "Welcome To My Domain its the first example taht related to the kotlin takeIf() method" override fun demo1() = "Thank you for choosing the Havelles fan" } class Bajaj(fans:String): Fans(fans) { override var fansname: String = "Thank you for choosing the Bajaj fan" override fun fandetails() { println("Thank you users your Fan name is $fansname") } } sealed class Usha { class demo : Usha() { fun show() { println("Welcome To My Domain its a Usha example regarding kotlin sealed class combined with the takeIf() method") } } class demo1 : Usha() { fun show() { println("Its a child sealed class so it cant change and its a fixed thing") } } } fun main() { fun firstExample(strinp1: String, strinp2: String) { println("The substring $strinp2 is found in $strinp1.") println("Its start position is $it.") } } firstExample("010000011", "1") firstExample("110000011", "2") firstExample("011000011", "3") firstExample("110000011", "4") val eg = Usha.demo1() eg.show() val eg1 = Usha.demo() eg1.show() val m2 = Bajaj("June Month") println("Your curent Fans is : ${m2.fansname}") m2.fandetails() val j = Havelles() println("Your latest Fans is = ${j.vars}") print("Keep on spent your valuable time time with our application: ") j.details2() print("Nice day users please try again ") println(j.demo1()) }

Output:

The above example is the basic example we used for the takeif() method in kotlin classes.

Example #2

Code:

import kotlin.random.* enum class TV(val exam: Boolean = true){ Samsung, Sony, Onida, Philips, Vu, Airtec, Airtel; companion object{ fun TVDetails(obj: TV): Boolean { } } } fun details(tv: TV) { when(tv) { } } fun main() { val num = Random.nextInt(5) val evn = num.takeIf { it % 2 == 0 } val odd = num.takeUnless { it % 2 == 0 } println("The given number is even: $evn") println("The given number is odd: $odd") val i=2 var flag=false while(i<=num/2){ val prm=num.takeIf{it % i == 0} flag=true break ++i } if(!flag) { println("The given number is prime number") } else { println("The given number is not prime") } println("Welcome to my domain its a second example regarding the kotlin takeif() function") val out = mapOf(123 to "Samsung", 345 to "Sony", 678 to "Onida",901 to "Philips",213 to "Vu",141 to "Airtec",516 to "Airtel") println(out) println("Thank you users have a nice day please keep and spent time with our application") }

Output:

Here, we used enum, and companion classes with the takeif() method for users to calculate the prime and odd, seven numbers.

Example #3 fun main() { fun ThirdExample(num1: Int, str2: String) { println("Welcome User Integer is the first input and string type is the second input.") println("$it.") } } colmap["Model Name"] = "Lenovo" colmap["Model Price"] = "8000" colmap["Model ID"] = "1456" for ((k, v) in colmap) { println("Thank you users your inputs are $k = $v") } val news = mapOf("Model Name" to "HP", "Model Price" to 8032, "Model ID" to 1678) println("Your input Keys are:" + news.keys) println("Your input Values are:" + news.values) println("Thank you users have a nice day please keep and spent time with our application") ThirdExample(13, "Siva") ThirdExample(14, "Raman") }

Output:

In the final example, we used the collection class additionally with the takeif() class.

Conclusion

In kotlin language has many default methods for implementing the application logic and its operations which is needed on the user requirement. The takeif() method is one of the built-in methods for validating the condition like if to execute the chain-link condition if the condition is true it returns the object else it returns a null value.

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How Groupby Work In Scala With Programming Examples

Introduction to Scala groupBy

Scala groupBy is part of the collection data structure. As the name suggests, it is used to group the elements of collections. This groupBy is applicable for both mutable and immutable collections in scala. Immutable objects are those which are, once assigned, cannot change their value itself, and mutable objects are those whose value is changing very frequently. Also, this groupBy converts the List into Map so we can perform some useful operations on it. It will return us a map that will contain the key-value pair.

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Syntax and parameters:

Scala groupBy function takes a predicate as a parameter, and based on this, it groups our elements into a useful key value pair map. That means we can convert our List object to Map using groupBy function.

groupBy[K](f: (A) ⇒ K): immutable.Map[K, Repr]

In the above syntax, we can see that this groupBy function will return a map of the key-value pair. Also, inside the groupBy, we will pass the predicate as the parameter.

We can see one practical syntax for more understanding:

var l1= List("anc", "ahg", "tyh")

In this way we can define our groupBy function and convert the list into a Map of key-value pair. We can use this function with any collection data structure.

How groupBy work in Scala?

Scala groupBy is used to group elements from the collection. It is also used to store the objects and retrieving of the object. groupBy return us Map collection in scala.

We can have a closer look at groupBy syntax and how it is working:

Let’s have a look at its extended superclasses and some known classes in scala.

Extended classes available:

Iterable[(K, V)]

MapOps[K, V, Map, Map[K, V]]

MapFactoryDefaults[K, V, Map, Iterable]

Equals

Superclasses available:

Equals

MapFactoryDefaults[K, V, Map, Iterable]

MapOps

PartialFunction

Iterable

IterableFactoryDefaults

IterableOps

Map

IterableOnceOps

IterableOnce

AnyRef

AnyRef

Some of the known subclasses available:

AbstractMap

SeqMap

SortedMap

Map

TrieMap

HashMap

IntMap

ListMap

LongMap

Map

Map1

Map2

Map3

Map4

WithDefault

SeqMap

TreeMap

TreeSeqMap

VectorMap

AbstarctMap

AnyRefMap

CollisionProofHashMap

HashMap

LinkedHashMap

LongMap

SystemProperties

ListMap

MultiMap

OpenHashMap

Hierarchy available:

Iterable

MapOps

Equals

UnliftOps

IterableOnceExtensionMethods

ImmutableMap

MutableMap

Example:

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List("amit", "sumit", "vinit", "ajit", "kavit", "lalit", "lalit", "vinit", "vinit") println(g) }

In the above example, we first defined a list containing some objects. This list also contains some duplicate objects as well. After that, we are applying the groupBy function to group by the same elements. So in our list vinit and Lalit, it appears to be more than one time, so while creating HashMap, it will group all these similar list elements against the same key in the map.

This is something weird, but it is helpful if we want to apply some logic on the list based on groupBy of elements on some basis.

Examples of Scala groupBy Example #1

In this example, we are just applying groupBy for beginners to understand. We are using groupBy on List here.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List("amit", "sumit", "vinit", "ajit", "kavit", "lalit", "lalit", "vinit", "vinit") println("list before group by is  ::") println(list1) println("list after group by is  ::") println(group1) }

Output:

Example #2

In this example, we are grouping a list of integers.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List(100, 400, 200, 500, 100, 1900, 2000, 400, 400, 19000) println("list before group by is  ::") println(list1) println("list after group by is  ::") println(group1) }

Output:

Example #3

In this example, we are grouping elements on the basis of contains method as a predicate.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List("amit", "sumit", "sumit", "vinit", "ajit", "kavit", "lalit", "lalit", "vinit", "vinit") println("list before group by is  ::") println(list1) var group1 = list1.groupBy(_.contains("sumit")) println("list after group by is  ::") println(group1) }

Example #4

In this method, we are passing charAt as a predicate inside groupBy method.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List("amit", "sumit", "sumit", "vinit", "ajit", "kavit", "lalit", "lalit", "vinit", "vinit") println("list before group by is  ::") println(list1) var group1 = list1.groupBy(_.charAt(0)) println("list after group by is  ::") println(group1) }

Output:

Example #5

In this example, we are grouped by the list of integers by checking whether the element is divisible by ‘3’ or not.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var list1= List(100, 400, 200, 500, 100, 1900, 2000, 400, 400, 19000) println("list before group by is  ::") println(list1) var group1 = list1.groupBy(_ % 3) println("list after group by is  ::") println(group1) }

Output:

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How Encode() Function Works In Mysql?

Definition of MySQL encode()

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The MySQL Encode() function implements the encryption of any plain string text provided as an argument during the execution of the function. Therefore, the function Encode() will give the result as a binary string that is of the identical size as the plain string text specified.

If the argument passed in the Encode() function delivered is a void string, it will also return the strings as an empty value. The MySQL Encode() function takes two parameters: the string that will be encrypted and the key string that is passed to encrypt the specified plain text string.

Syntax:

The syntax for the MySQL Encode() function is as follows:

ENCODE(Encrypt_String, Password_String);

The above syntax structure describes the two arguments of the Encode() function as:

Encrypt_String: The initial string that the MySQL Encode() function encrypts.

Password_String: The specific string passed alongside the initial one in the Encode() function serves as a key string for encrypting the first argument, Encrypt_String.

Return Value:

MySQL supports the Encode() function in versions like MySQL 4.1, 5.0, 5.1, 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7.

Generally, we can state that Encoding in MySQL database is a reversible data format conversion method implemented to preserve data usability. On the other hand, Encryption is typically a secure encoding process used to protect the confidentiality of server data records.

How does the Encode() function works in MySQL?

We have the basic syntax as Encode(Encrypt_String, Password_String) for the function in MySQL, where the encode function executes to encrypt the Encrypt-String value using the Password_String as the required password key string to perform the encryption.

The resultant will be present in binary string form having the identical length as str. Similarly, if we want to decode the encoded result, then, in MySQL, we will apply the Decode() function.

But if a user still needs to implement using MySQL Encode(), we can apply a salt value mainly with it, reducing the risk of causing no error or notice. Suppose we can view the following instance to illustrate the concept:

ENCODE('plain_text', CONCAT('demo_random_salt','demo_secret_pass_string'));

Hence, do remember a new value of random salt should be implemented whenever a password value is modified.

In MySQL, the MySQL Enterprise Encryption permits your enterprise to:

Protect the server data by grouping private, public, and symmetric keys to encode and decode data.

Encoding the information stored in the MySQL server using DSA, RSA, or even DH encryption algorithms.

The MySQL Encode() function involves a change of data into a fresh format with the help of schema. In this case, the encoding process can be reversed, as it allows data to be encoded and secured in a new arrangement and subsequently decoded back into its original format.

The encoding classically comprises a publicly existing scheme that can be reversed. This encoding ensures the usability and integrity of data and is a common choice when data cannot be directly transmitted in its current format between applications or systems. Typically, we do not employ encoding to protect or secure data since MySQL can easily reverse it.

While Encryption encodes the data securely so that only approved users with a key or a password can decrypt it back to disclose the original one. Like in the Encode() function, we need to take two arguments to be encrypted and the other encryption key string used to encrypt the original plain text into a binary string as a return value when the MySQL function is executed.

We may encounter two types of encryption methods: symmetric key encryption, where we use the same key for both encrypting and decrypting data using a password and asymmetric key encryption, where we use one key to encrypt a string as input and a different key to decrypt the encrypted data. Thus, encryption is useful when the information requires protection so that in the absence of the decryption keys, one cannot access the main data. For example, when a website receives data over HTTPS, it encrypts it using public key encryption.

Encryption consists of encoding data, so both cannot be said interchangeably because encryption is always related to data encoded firmly. We utilize data encoding when we refer to data records that lack secure encoding. Its example can be AES 256.

Examples

Let us discuss some of the examples showing the MySQL Encode() function and its working:

1. Executing Encode() function using a string:

We will implement the Encode() function using the SELECT statement as follows:

SELECT ENCODE('mysqlcommand', 'Password_String');

2. Executing Encode() function using a string having the grouping of integers and characters:

SELECT ENCODE('mysql123command','Password_String');

It gives the below output:

3. Executing the MySQL Encode() function using a NULL string:

SELECT ENCODE (' ','Password_String');

In the first argument above, we have provided the value as NULL or empty, then the output will result as follows:

Conclusion

MySQL Encode() function helps secure any data records by encrypting the values with certain key values and changing the originals to binary string form.

This encoding function helps protect the plain text from any unauthorized process, which secures our database information and integrity in MySQL.

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How Back_Inserter Method Works In C++?

Introduction to C++ Back_Inserter

The back_inserter method in C++ is used to construct an iterator, which holds the responsibility of inserting new elements to the end of the “x” or the container, with which the method is applied, and this method is defined within the header file of the program. In C++, this is a special type of output iterator designed to let the algorithms overwrite any elements and not make it mandatory to insert new elements.

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Now that we have understood what this C++ back_inserter method is let us learn the syntax and understand it. The syntax for back_inserter is as follows:

std::back_inserter ( Container & x );

When we have to insert the new elements at the end of the container, we pass the container within the parameters, and that is the same container we see here in the syntax. So what this method returns is the list of elements that are inserted at the end of the container. Moving on, we will now have a look at how the method explained works.

How does Back_Inserter Method work in C++?

Understanding how the back_inserter method works is important, and the way it works is that it creates a back-insert iterator, which is responsible for adding or inserting new elements to the list. This back insert iterator is of a special kind which allows the algorithm to overwrite the elements. Moving on, we will now understand the examples and demonstrate the working of back_inserter.

Examples of C++ Back_Inserter

Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1

Our first example is the simple working of back_inserter; here, we add elements to the end of the list. The code is as follows:

Code:

int main() { std::fill_n(std::back_inserter(v), 3, -1); std::cout << “n The output for the code is: “; for (int n : v) std::cout  <<  n  << ‘ ‘; }

Code Explanation:

Simply start with importing important system files and then into our main code. Then we have our std, which is our namespace for the program, followed by defining the scope; we have a vector with integer data type and values of 1 to 10. We then our statement of back_inserter, with container passed as n, just like we learned with syntax and followed by x parameter.

Then we have our first output print statement, which simply prints a string statement, and the back_inserter result will follow it. Finally, we have our for the statement, where we pass our vector holding the numbers as n and then the next line if our final output statement prints the numbers from vector in a negative form. Refer to the below-attached screenshot for a proper understanding of the output.

Output:

As expected, the output starts with the print statement and is then followed by the list of numbers. These numbers at the end include the result of back_inserter, which are the numbers in negative, and now, moving on to the next example.

Example #2

Code:

using namespace std; int main()  { std::copy(v1.begin(), v1.end(), std::back_inserter(v2)); cout << “n Elements of Container 1 are : “; int i; for (i = 0; i < 3; ++i) { cout << v1[i] << ” “; } cout << “n Elements of Container 2 are : “; for (i = 0; i < 5; ++i) { cout << v2[i] << ” “; } return 0; }

Code Explanation:

Started with all the system files needed, followed by initializing main. Then we have our first vector with an integer data type, and it holds 3 values, and the second vector of the same type, but with no specific size or values. Then begins our copy operation, where we are copying the begin and end part of vector 1 and implementing the back_inserter for vector 2.

Now we start printing the list of values that our vectors hold. First, a cout statement followed by the for a statement where we count and print each element of the vector. For our first vector, this for statement will only print 3 values, no more than that. Moving to our second vector, within for, we want it to print 5 values. Here we will have 2 new values, which will be zeros but added to the last part of the vector. Refer to the below-attached screenshot for a proper understanding of the output.

Output:

As expected, we have two print statements with values of 2 vectors.

Example #3

Code:

int main () { for (int i=1; i<=5; i++){ dab.push_back(i); bar.push_back(i*5); } std::copy (bar.begin(),bar.end(),back_inserter(dab)); std::cout << “n Our Container contains: “; std::cout << ‘ ‘ << *it; std::cout << ‘n’; return 0; }

Code Explanation:

Similar to our earlier example, we have system files followed by declaring two vectors of integer type. Then we have our for the statement, to add new value to the list and next statement we have push_back and us multiple our value from the list. These things happen within our first vector, from which we later copy all values into our second vector. Then comes our print statements and for statement for properly printing the values. Refer to the below attached screenshot.

Output:

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