You are reading the article **How To Calculate Compound Interest In Excel** updated in February 2024 on the website Eastwest.edu.vn. We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. *Suggested March 2024 How To Calculate Compound Interest In Excel*

All of you have learned the formula to calculate the compound interest in your school. Compound and simple interests are among the mathematical applications that have been used in real life for years. At certain instances in our life, we need to calculate the simple and compound interests. For example, when we borrow money either from financial companies or from our friend at a certain rate of interest, we should know the calculations of the compound and simple interests to save ourselves from being cheated.

Here, we will learn to calculate compound interest using Excel. But before we begin, let’s have a look at the terms used in compound interest calculations.

Compounded annually or yearly: Here, the rate of interest is applied to the principal value every year.

Compounded half-yearly or semi-annually: Here, the principal value is increased after every 6 months, which means two times a year. To calculate compound interest half-yearly, we have to multiply n by 2 and divide the rate by 2.

Compounded quarterly: Every year has four quarters. Here, the principal value gets increased after every 3 months, which means 4 times a year. To calculate compound interest quarterly, we have to multiply n by 4 and divide the rate of interest by 4.

Compounded monthly: There are 12 months in a year. Therefore, compounded monthly means the interest is applied every month. Hence, we have to multiply the n by 12 and divide the rate of interest by 12.

How to calculate Compound Interest (CI) in ExcelWe will discuss here:

When the rate of interest is compounded annually.

When the rate of interest is compounded semi-annually.

When the rate of interest is compounded quarterly.

When the rate of interest is compounded monthly.

Let’s see the calculation of compound interest in Excel.

1] Calculating Interest Compounded Annually in ExcelLet’s take a sample data with the following values:

P = 1000

R = 10%

n = 5 years

Enter the above data in Excel and write the following formula:

=B1*(1+B2)^B3B1, B2, and B3 are the cell addresses that indicate principal value, rate of interest, and time respectively. Please enter the cell address correctly, otherwise, you will get an error.

2] Calculating Interest Compounded Half-yearly in ExcelHere, we have to add one more value to our data, compounding periods per year. As explained above, two half years make a complete year. Therefore, there are 2 compounding periods in half-yearly.

Principal = 1000

Rate of interest = 10%

Time = 5 years

Compounding periods per year = 2

Enter the above data in Excel and write the following formula:

=B1*(1+(B2/B4))^(B3*B4)See, we have divided the rate of interest (value in the B2 cell) by 2 (value in the B4 cell) and multiplied the time (value on the B3 cell) by 2 (value in the B4 cell).

3] Calculating Interest Compounded Quarterly in ExcelHere, the formula remains the same, which we have used in the calculation of CI half-yearly. Now, you just have to change the values in the respective cells. For quarterly CI calculation, change the value of the B4 cell to 4.

4] Calculating Interest Compounded Monthly in ExcelTo calculate the interest compounded monthly, change the value of the B4 cell to 12 and use the same formula.

That’s it. Let us know if you have any questions regarding the calculation of CI in Excel.

Read next: How to Calculate Simple Interest in Excel.

You're reading __How To Calculate Compound Interest In Excel__

## How To Calculate Overhead Ratio (Excel Template)

Overhead Ratio Formula

The overhead Ratio is the ratio of the operating expenses and the summation of operating income and taxable net interest income. It can also be defined as comparing any firm’s operating expenses to total income not attributable to its goods and services.

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Here’s the overhead ratio formula –

Example of Overhead Ratio FormulaLet’s take an example to find out the overhead ratio for a company:

You can download this Overhead ratio Template here – Overhead ratio Template

The total revenue for a company is Rs 100000. The costs of goods sold are Rs 25000. The selling, general, and administrative expenses, including depreciation, are Rs 25000. The net interest income is Rs 10000.

Then the overhead ratio can be calculated below: –

Operating Income = revenue – Cost of Goods Sold – Selling, General & Administrative Expenses – Depreciation

Operating Income = Rs 100000 – Rs 25000 – Rs 25000

Operating Income= Rs 50000

Operating Expenses = Salary, General & Administrative Expenses including Depreciation

Operating Expenses = Rs 25000

Net Interest Income = Rs 10000

Hence, the Overhead Ratio using the formula can be calculated as: –

Overhead Ratio = Operating Expenses / (Operating Income + Net Interest Income)

Overhead Ratio = 25000 / (50000 + 10000)

Overhead Ratio = 25000 / 60000

Overhead Ratio = 41.67%

Explanation of Overhead Ratio FormulaThe overhead ratio is a financial ratio that lets the firm know its expenses as a percentage of its income. The operating expenses are incurred daily by any firm, including sub-items such as rent, utilities, maintenance, salaries, wages, depreciation on plant and machinery, etc. Net Interest Income is the difference between interest earned over a financial period and interest paid on debt for the same financial period. Operating income is the firm’s income from manufacturing goods and services after deducting all the expenses.

The common overhead items are costs not directly related to manufacturing goods and services, which are direct labor, direct raw materials, and expenses billed directly to the customer. The items considered as overhead costs are selling, general and administrative expenses such as rent, utilities, salaries and wages, maintenance expenses, etc. These sub-items on the income statement represent the difference between gross and operating profit. Overhead costs can be fixed, semi-variable, or variable, but these are indirect costs.

Significance and Use of FormulaOne can look at gross profit margin and operating margin to understand how overhead costs affect the income statement of an economy. Gross profit margin includes the costs associated directly with manufacturing a good or the service provided by the company. In contrast, the operating margin includes both direct and indirect costs associated with producing that good or service.

The overhead ratio alone does not indicate anything about the firm’s chúng tôi should be comparable to competitors and near to the industry standard. For example: – for the above firm, the overhead ratio is 0.41. If the industry standard is 0.3, it indicates that the firm’s overhead costs are more than the industry standards and the indirect costs are bloated in comparison to direct costs; hence the firm needs to reduce these overhead costs to maximize profit.

However, it does not mean that firms should reduce their overall overhead costs to a minimum. Reducing it will affect the company’s performance in terms of quality and affect the company negatively. The firm should try to balance the ratio in terms of industry standards, and it should not affect the company’s efficiency.

Overhead Ratio CalculatorYou can use the following Overhead Ratio Calculator

Operating Expenses Operating Income Net Interest Income Overhead Ratio Formula Overhead Ratio Formula = Operating Expenses (Operating Income + Net Interest Income) =

0

= 0 (

0

+

0

)

Overhead Ratio Formula in Excel (With Excel Template)Here we will do the same example of the Overhead Ratio formula in Excel. It is very easy and simple. You need to provide the three inputs of Operating Expenses, Operating Income, and Taxable Net Interest Income.

You can easily calculate the Overhead ratio using the Formula in the template provided.

Then we need to find out Operating Expenses.

Now, we can calculate Overhead Ratio using Formula

Recommended ArticlesThis has been a guide to an Overhead Ratio formula. Here we discuss its uses along with practical examples. we also provide an overhead ratio calculator with a downloadable Excel template. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

## Calculate Studentized Residuals In Python

Studentized residuals are typically used in regression analysis to identify potential outliers in the data. An outlier is a point that is significantly different from the overall trend of the data, and it can have a significant influence on the fitted model. By identifying and analyzing outliers, you can better understand the underlying patterns in your data and improve the accuracy of your model. In this post, we will be closely looking at Studentized Residuals and how you can implement it in python.

What are Studentized Residuals?The term “studentized residuals” refers to a particular class of residuals that have had their standard deviations divided by an estimate. Regression analysis residuals are used to describe the discrepancy between the response variable’s observed values and its model-generated anticipated values. To find probable outliers in the data that can significantly affect the fitted model, studentized residuals are employed.

The following formula is typically used to calculate studentized residuals −

studentized residual = residual / (standard deviation of residuals * (1 - hii)^(1/2))where “residual” refers to the discrepancy between the observed and anticipated response values, “standard deviation of residuals” refers to an estimate of the residuals’ standard deviation, and “hii” refers to the leverage factor for each data point.

Calculating Studentized Residuals in PythonThe statsmodels package can be used to compute studentized residuals in Python. As an illustration, consider the following −

Syntax OLSResults.outlier_test()Where OLSResults refers to a linear model that was fitted using statsmodels’ ols() method.

df

=

pd.

DataFrame(

{

'rating'

:

[

95

,

82

,

92

,

90

,

97

,

85

,

80

,

70

,

82

,

83

]

,

'points'

:

[

22

,

25

,

17

,

19

,

26

,

24

,

9

,

19

,

11

,

16

]

}

)

model=

ols(

'rating ~ points'

,

data=

df)

.

fit(

)

stud_res=

model.

outlier_test(

)

Where ‘rating’ and ‘points’ refers to the simple linear regression.

Algorithm

Import numpy, pandas, Statsmodel apis.

Create a dataset.

Perform a simple linear regression model on dataset.

Calculating studentized residuals.

Printing studentized residuals.

ExampleUsing the scikit−posthocs lib to run Dunn’s test is demonstrated here −

import

numpyas

npimport

pandasas

pdimport

statsmodels.

apias

smfrom

statsmodels.

formula.

apiimport

ols df=

pd.

DataFrame(

{

'rating'

:

[

95

,

82

,

92

,

90

,

97

,

85

,

80

,

70

,

82

,

83

]

,

'points'

:

[

22

,

25

,

17

,

19

,

26

,

24

,

9

,

19

,

11

,

16

]

}

)

Create a linear regression model next by using the statsmodels OLS class −

model

=

ols(

'rating ~ points'

,

data=

df)

.

fit(

)

Using the outlier test() method, the studentized residuals for each observation in the dataset can be generated in a DataFrame −

stud_res

=

model.

outlier_test(

)

(

stud_res)

Output student_resid unadj_p bonf(p) 0 1.048218 0.329376 1.000000 1 -1.018535 0.342328 1.000000 2 0.994962 0.352896 1.000000 3 0.548454 0.600426 1.000000 4 1.125756 0.297380 1.000000 5 -0.465472 0.655728 1.000000 6 -0.029670 0.977158 1.000000 7 -2.940743 0.021690 0.216903 8 0.100759 0.922567 1.000000 9 -0.134123 0.897080 1.000000We can also quickly plot the predictor variable values against the studentized residuals −

Syntax x = df['points'] y = stud_res['student_resid'] plt.scatter(x, y) plt.axhline(y=0, color='black', linestyle='--') plt.xlabel('Points') plt.ylabel('Studentized Residuals')Here we will be using matpotlib library to plot the graph with color = ‘black’ and lifestyle = ‘–’

Algorithm

Importing matplotlib’s pyplot library

Defining predictor variable values

Defining studentized residuals

Creating scatterplot of predicotr variable vs. studentized residuals

Exampleimport

matplotlib.

pyplotas

plt x=

df[

'points'

]

y=

stud_res[

'student_resid'

]

plt.

scatter(

x,

y)

plt.

axhline(

y=

0

,

color=

'black'

,

linestyle=

'--'

)

plt.

xlabel(

'Points'

)

plt.

ylabel(

'Studentized Residuals'

)

Output ConclusionIdentifying and evaluating possible data outliers. Examining the studentized residuals allows you to find points that deviate considerably from the overall trend of the data and explore why they are impacting the fitted model. Identifying significant observations Studentized residuals can be used to discover and evaluate influential data, which are points that have a substantial influence on the fitted model. Finding high-leverage spots. The studentized residuals can be used to identify high-leverage points. Leverage is a measure of how much a certain point affects the fitted model. Overall, using studentized residuals can help analyze and enhance the performance of a regression model.

## How To Use Offset Function In Excel?

Excel OFFSET Formula (Table of Contents)

What is OFFSET Formula in Excel?OFFSET Formula in Excel gives a cell or a range of dynamic rectangular cells as an output, a subset of the total given range with a specified number of rows, columns, height, and width.

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Syntax of OFFSET Formula in Excel

Explanation of OFFSET Function in Excel:

reference: The starting point for OFFSET, or we can say a range of cells that can be considered the OFFSET base.

rows: The number of rows to OFFSET below or above the base reference.

cols: The number of columns to OFFSET to the right or left of the base reference.

height: Number of rows in returned reference.

width: Number of columns in returned reference.

The height and width are the optional parameters for this function and can be used to determine the size of the reference created.

How to Use OFFSET formula in Excel?We will now learn how to write the offset formula to get the lookup value. Let’s understand the offset formula with some examples in Excel.

You can download this OFFSET Formula Excel Template here – OFFSET Formula Excel Template

Excel OFFSET Formula – Example #1Suppose we have data as given below.

In cell E2, input the following formula:

=OFFSET(A1, 11, 1)

Once done with the formula, press Enter and see the output.

What this formula did is it has taken reference from cell A1 (Year) and moved down by 11 rows after A1 (i.e. row no. 12) and then gained the value which is coordinate of the 11th row after A1 and first column (column A = 0 column B = 1 in this case. As we know, we can go both right and left), which is $ 141.27 Million.

Excel OFFSET Formula – Example #2Now we will see another example of a reference cell for a specific year. Put the following formula in cell E3:

=OFFSET(A1, 11, 0)

Once done with the formula, press Enter and see the output.

If you have seen the formula, it is the same as of previous; the only change is in column reference. The column reference 0 (Zero) means the value will be captured from column A for the 11th row after A1 (which is 2010).

Excel OFFSET Formula – Example #3=SUM(OFFSET(A1,COUNT(A:A), 0, -N))

To sum up the last N observations from your data, you can use the SUM function along with the OFFSET and COUNT function together. In this example, we will sum up the last 5 data points. Please note that when we say N, it’s a generalization of any integer value. So, you can calculate for the last 3, last 4, last 5, etc., depending on your dataset as well as your requirement.

Let’s have it done for our data set:

Input the following formula in cell E2 of the excel file.

=SUM(OFFSET(B1,COUNT(B:B), 0, -5))

As we have already seen, the Excel OFFSET function outputs rectangular dynamic ranges when given a starting reference.

In this case, the starting reference is provided in terms of B1 (as a first argument to the OFFSET function).

We used the COUNT function because we need the sum of observations from the last value. COUNT Function helps OFFSET to determine how many observations (rows) are there in column B. It counts all the numeric values in column B (19 is the count).

With a count of 19, the OFFSET formula becomes:

=OFFSET(B1, 19, 0, -5)

This formula starts Offsetting at B1 with 19 rows and the same column (0). Then height parameter -5 helps this function to extend the range into a backward direction by 5 rows (see the negative sign associated with 5).

The dynamic range of the Last five observations is given as an input to the sum function, which yields in summing those from column B.

Excel OFFSET Formula – Example #4In this example, we will calculate the Median Sales for the Last 3 Years. OFFSET function can be used as an argument to calculate the same.

Put the following formula in cell E2:

Press Enter to see the output.

This formula works on lines similar to the previous one.

OFFSET Creates a dynamic range of the last three observations from column B with the help of the COUNT function (=OFFSET(A1, 19, 0, -3)).

This can be given as an output to the MEDIAN function. Which then sorts the observations in either ascending or descending order and then selects the middlemost value as you see in output ($ 212.07).

Excel OFFSET Formula – Example #5Here we will calculate the median year using MEDIAN and OFFSET Function.

Use the following formula for the same in cell E3:

=MEDIAN(OFFSET(A1,COUNT(A:A),0,-3))

The same thing has happened here. The formula took up a dynamic range created by the OFFSET function with the help of COUNT. And used it as an argument to a MEDIAN function which then sorted the year values in ascending or descending order and then given output as 2023.

Usage of the OFFSET formula is in creating the dynamic ranges. It’s always better to work on dynamic ranges instead of static ones, as you might be having data that gets added every now and then. For example, Employee Master. Your Employee Master Data will always be getting increased every now and then as some new employees join. Every time using the same formula does not make any sense. Instead of that, create a range that is dynamic using the OFFSET function and see the magic. It will certainly save you time.

Things to Remember

OFFSET function only returns a reference to a particular range of cells in Excel. It does not move the cells from their original positions.

By default, this function works on the upper part (in terms of rows) and right-hand side (in terms of columns). However, it can be provided with negative arguments to reverse the default functionality. A negative row argument helps offset the data from down to up, and a negative col argument helps offset the data to the left.

OFFSET formula may slow down the Excel functionality as it is a formula that gets recalculated every time there is a change in the worksheet.

#REF error will be thrown if your range is outside the range of your workbook.

Any other function which expects a reference is able to use the OFFSET function within it.

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to the OFFSET Formula in Excel. Here we discuss how to use OFFSET Function in Excel along with practical examples and a downloadable excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

## How To Use Normsinv Formula In Excel?

Excel NORMSINV (Table of Contents)

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Introduction to Excel NORMSINVThe NORMSINV function in Excel calculates the probability of inverse normal cumulative distribution, which has a mean and standard deviation. Normsinv function can be seen as chúng tôi To find NORMSINV, first, we need to calculate the Normal Distribution; we must have X, Mean, and Standard Deviation. Once we get the value of Normal Distribution, we can easily calculate NORMSINV using the probability we got as per syntax.

Syntax of Excel NORMSINV

Argument:

Probability – Which is nothing but probability corresponds to the normal distribution.

How to Use NORMSINV Formula in Excel?Microsoft Excel categorizes the NORMSINV built-in function under the statistical function. This is illustrated in the screenshot below, which calculates the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for a given probability.

Go to Formulas Menu.

Choose a Statistical category under that we will find the NORM. The DIST function is shown below.

Example #1 – Using chúng tôi and NORMSINVTo use chúng tôi function, let’s start with an easy example where we need to find out the Student’s Grades; suppose we have the class exam with an average grade of 70, i.e., mu=70 and class standard deviation is 3 Points, i.e., sigma=3 here we need to find out what is the probability that students got the marks 73 or below, i.e., P(X<=73). So let’s see how to find out the probability using the chúng tôi function.

X=3

Mean=70

Standard Deviation=3

Apply the chúng tôi function as below.

Suppose we apply the above chúng tôi function, we will get the probability of 0.0807.

Now apply the NORMSINV function to find the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution, as shown below.

Result –

In the below result, we can see that we got negative values -1.40067 for the given probability, i.e., the inverse of normal cumulative distribution.

Example #2 – Mean and Exact Standard DeviationLet’s see another example with curve-based data to get to know the mean and exact standard deviation.

Mean =7

Standard Deviation=1.3

Standard Deviation Increment as -3

To get the bell curve, we have to add a 0.1 to standard deviation increment where the data is shown below.

After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

Drag the values to get more ones until we get the positive ones to get a left curve.

We must apply the formula as =mean-standard deviation * 3 to get the exact curves to get the right curve.

After using the formula, the result is shown below.

As in the above data for standard deviation increment to get the left curve, we have incremented the values by 0.1

The same scenario is used by applying the formula as =3.1+STANDARD DEVIATION/10 to get the curve increment of 0.1

After using the formula, the result is shown below.

Drag the values to get the exact result shown in the screenshot below.

Now apply the normal distribution function with the formula = NORM.DIST(DATA value, mean, standard deviation, false).

We will get the below result as follows.

Drag the values to get the exact result which is shown below.

As shown in the above screenshot, we calculated the NORMAL distribution from the mean and standard deviation. Now let’s see what will be the inverse of NORMAL distribution by applying the NORMSINV, which is shown below.

Here, Value Zero (0) has a standard deviation of 7.

Applying scattered graph to look at how the left and right curve appears.

First, select the data and the Normal column.

Go to the Insert tab and select the scattered graph as follows.

We will get the below curve graph as shown below.

Here we can see that Mean value 7 has a standard deviation shape, and we can show that by drawing a straight line to represent it.

Mean =7

1 –Standard deviation indicates 68% of Data.

2 –Standard deviation indicates 95% of Data.

3 –Standard deviation indicates 99.7% of Data.

Normal Distribution Graph:

NORMSINV Graph:

Select the data column and NORM SINV from the above figure to get the graph below.

First, select the data and the Normal column.

Go to the Insert tab and select the scattered graph.

We will get the below graph which is shown in the below screenshot.

From the above screenshot, we can see that we got an exact inverse of a normal distribution which shows the same value figure below.

Example #3 – Configuring the Left and Right CurveWe will configure the left and right curves using the normal distribution function in this example. Consider the data below, where x has negative values and gets incremented to positive values.

Apply the formula =NORM.DIST(A2,0,1,1).

After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

Drag the formula into other cells.

Apply formula =1-B2.

After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

Drag the same formula into other cells.

The result of the above-applied formula is shown below.

Left curve values have been calculated by applying the NORMAL DISTRIBUTION formula by setting the cumulative value as True, and the NORMSINV has been calculated using the left curve.

After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

Drag the same formula into other cells.

As we can see that we got the same value for NORMSINV, which is nothing but the inverse of the normal distribution. In the same way, we will get the right curve value by calculating the 1-left curve value. In the next step, we will check how we get the x’s height using the scattered graph.

Select the left cure and right curve columns.

Go to insert menu.

Select the scattered graph as follows.

We will get the below graph result as shown below.

NORM SINV Graph:

The graph below shows that the NORM DISTRIBUTION value left curve has the exact match for (0, 0.5 ), which lies at the center of the line where we will get the same graph if we apply for NORMDIST.

Here in the above graph it shows very clearly that we got the exact mean at a center point which denotes:

X=0

Left Curve=0.5

Right Curve=0.5

We displayed it to view the NORMSINV values in a graphical format, as shown below.

Things to Remember About Excel NORMSINV

#value! The error occurs when the given argument is a non-numeric or logical value.

In the Normal Distribution function, we usually get #NUM! Error due to the standard deviation argument is less than or equal to zero.

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to Excel NORMSINV. Here we discuss how to use NORMSINV in Excel, practical examples, and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

## How To Reverse A List In Excel

How to reverse a list in ExcelYou can reverse a list in Excel by using:

A number list

The INDEX function

A Macro

Let’s see all these methods in detail.

1] How to reverse a list in Excel by using a number listThis is the easiest method to reverse a list in Excel. You just have to create a new column containing the numbers in ascending order and use this column to reverse the list. Let’s see how to do that.

We have created sample data and filled each row with a different color so that we could see if the data in the rows remains the same after reversing the columns. You can see the sample data that we have created in Excel in the above screenshot.

Now, create a new number list in the next adjacent column (see the above screenshot). You have to use this number list to reverse the list in Excel. Excel will treat this number list as a reference to display the desired output.

To do so, follow the steps written below:

Select the entire range of data along with the header.

Select the Data tab.

The Sort dialog box will appear. In the Sort by drop-down, select the name of the header (in our case, it is Number List).

In the Sort On drop-down, select Values.

Select Largest to Smallest in the Order drop-down.

After performing the above steps, the list will be reversed. This is how you can reverse a list in Microsoft Excel by creating a reference number list.

Read: List of best free Excel Add-ins you should be using.

2] How to reverse a list in Excel by using the INDEX functionLet’s see how you can reverse a list in Excel by using the INDEX function. Here, we have a sample list containing the names of the persons and we want to reverse this list.

The format of the formula to reverse a list in Excel by using the INDEX function is as follows:

=INDEX(data range,ROWS(rows range))Let’s see how to use the above formula. First, select the column in which you want to display the result. Now, copy the header to a cell of that column. We have selected column C and typed the formula to C2.

In our case, we want to reverse the list containing the names in the cell range A2 to A11. Hence, the formula is:

=INDEX($A$2:$A$11,ROWS(A2:$A$11))In the above formula, INDEX($A$2:$A$11) represents the range of the cells containing data to be reversed. The $ sign is used to lock a particular cell in Excel. Here, we have locked the entire range of data. Now, to reverse the list, we have to provide a reference cell to Excel. For this, we have used the ROWS(A2:$A$11) function. In this function, we have locked the A11 cell. Now, Excel will use this cell as a reference cell and treat it as the first cell when it comes to reversing the list. So, in the above formula, only the value without the $ sign will change and the rest of the values will remain locked.

Above, we have seen how to reverse a single list in Excel using the INDEX function. What if you want to reverse a list having data in multiple columns? In this case, you have to use one more function, COLUMNS. Let’s see how to do that. We have created sample data with three columns.

First, select the columns in which you want to display the result. In our case, we have selected columns E, F, and G to display the result. Now, copy the header to the first row of the E, F, and G columns. Select the first cell (after the header) of the first column and type the formula. The formula to reverse a list with data in multiple columns in Excel by using the INDEX function is as follows:

=INDEX($A$2:$C$11,ROWS(A2:$A$11),COLUMNS($A$2:A2))In the above formula:

INDEX($A$2:$C$11) represents the entire range of data and the $ sign represents the locked cell. Here, we have locked the entire range of cells containing data.

ROWS(A2:$A$11) represents the data in the rows from A2 to A11. Here, row A11 is locked as it will be treated as a reference row by Excel. When we copy this formula to other cells, only row A2 will change because it is not locked.

In the COLUMNS($A$2:A2) function, $A$2 is used as a reference cell. A2 represents column A2. When we copy the formula to the other columns, only the unlocked columns will change.

As described earlier, you need not copy the exact formula and paste it into Excel. If you do so, you may receive an error because your data is not the same as ours. Hence, type the formula according to your data. After typing the formula, press Enter and Excel will display the result in the targeted cell. To display the result, follow any one of the following methods:

First, copy the formula to all the cells in the first column. After that, copy the formulae from each cell of the first column to the other two columns.

First, copy the formula to all the cells of the first row. After that, copy the formulae from each cell of the first row to the remaining rows.

Let’s see how to do that. Here, we are using the first method.

The list in the first column has been reversed. Now, you have to copy the formula in all the cells of the first column to the other columns to reverse the list in respective columns. For this, place your cursor as shown in the above screenshot and drag it towards the right.

That’s it. All the lists in the three columns have been reversed. You can also reverse a list in Excel by creating a Macro. We have described this method below.

Read: How to get real-time Currency Exchange Rates in Excel sheet.

3] How to reverse a list in Excel by using a Macro Sub ReverseList() End SubThe ReverseList is the name of the Macro in the above text.

Now, copy the code written below and paste it into the Visual Basic window.

Dim firstRowNum, lastRowNum, thisRowNum, lowerRowNum, length, count As Integer Dim showStr As String Dim thisCell, lowerCell As Range With Selection firstRowNum = .Cells(1).Row lastRowNum = .Cells(.Cells.count).Row End With showStr = "Going to reverse rows " & firstRowNum & " through " & lastRowNum MsgBox showStr showStr = "" count = 0 length = (lastRowNum - firstRowNum) / 2 For thisRowNum = firstRowNum To firstRowNum + length Step 1 count = count + 1 lowerRowNum = (lastRowNum - count) + 1 Set thisCell = Cells(thisRowNum, 1) thisCell.Select ActiveCell.EntireRow.Cut Cells(lowerRowNum, 1).EntireRow.Select Selection.Insert ActiveCell.EntireRow.Cut Cells(thisRowNum, 1).Select Selection.Insert End If showStr = showStr & "Row " & thisRowNum & " swapped with " & lowerRowNum & vbNewLine Next MsgBox showStrHope this helps.

Read: How to Lock and Protect Cells in Excel from editing.

How do you change the direction of a list in Excel?You can change the direction of a list in Excel by creating a reference number list and then sorting it in decreasing order, by using the INDEX function, and by creating a Macro. Out of these three methods, the first one is the easiest method to reverse a list or change the direction of a list in Excel.

How do I reverse rows and columns in Excel?You can reverse rows and columns in Excel by creating a reference number list. You have to create this reference list separately for both rows and columns to reverse them in Excel. We have explained how to use the number list to reverse a list in Excel above in this article.

Read next: Microsoft Excel Online tips and tricks to help you get started.

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