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Disk Utility is good at resolving minor errors that occur on Macintosh HD or other partitions. It is sad to admit if the Mac encounters ‘Invalid Node Structure’ error then DU won’t be of any help. This error itself is serious and will surely cause the hard drive to behave abruptly if not repaired timely. In short the corruption of Mac hard drive directory structure is called as Invalid Node Error.

You turn on your Mac only to find that it gets stuck on the Apple logo and won’t go any further. When you restart the system, you have problems with your Dashboard and a few applications start behaving oddly. If you find yourself bumped into a similar situation, you would certainly head for a repair using Disk Utility. It is no surprise that Disk Utility is the application of choice for most Mac users, as it can remedy disk corruption issues quite easily. However, it may not fix all errors in your directory structure. It can only make repairs that it has been programmed for.

How to Fix “Invalid Node Structure” Error on Mac

You can use Disk Utility or any of the free tools out there in the market for the cloning job. The following procedure will guide you how to get your system back up and running after facing the ‘invalid node structure’ error:

Step #1. Download any of the free cloning software available on the web to perform reliable and risk-free cloning.

Step #2. Take a FireWire drive and connect it to your Mac. Use Disk Utility to create two partitions on this disk, and then zero out all data stored on it. You can create a bigger partition ‘A’ of size greater than that of your internal hard drive and a smaller partition ‘B’ (approx. 8 GB to accommodate a basic OS X package.)

Step #3. Perform basic OS X installation on partition ‘B’ and make sure you do not install any additional programs like iPhoto, iTunes, etc. You should try booting from your FireWire drive and make sure it works fine. Boot your Mac using the internal drive and run ‘Verify Disk’ function of Disk Utility to check the FireWire drive for errors. If it works as expected, proceed to the next step.

Step #4. Boot from the internal hard drive and use the free cloning program you downloaded to clone partition ‘B’ to partition ‘A’. You can boot from this partition and verify that it works fine. This is to be on a safe side and ensure that you have a working copy of OS X.

Step #5. Next, boot your Mac using partition ‘A’ and import every piece of useful information and programs from the internal Mac hard drive to this partition. This can be easily accomplished via Migration Assistant. The FireWire drive will show two users as administrators. You can use the user id that was on the internal drive. Migration Assistant may report some errors and state that some programs need to be reinstalled. You can skip them for now and perform these actions later. Once the Migration Assistant has finished importing, you will find all the migrated programs in a folder on your desktop. It is better off moving all these programs to the Applications folder created by the OS X installation because a few applications may throw errors when started from a location other than the Applications folder.

Step #6. Before proceeding further, you need to make sure all the programs you have migrated using Migration Assistant are working fine. To do so, you will have to invest some time running these programs one by one and checking if no errors are encountered. You might require installing updates to some applications. At the same time, you might receive errors stating that you cannot install updates on external disk. To do away with this, you simply run updates to OS X during the night hours.

Step #7. Next, you should ensure that you have everything backed up on the FireWire drive. Now, boot from partition ‘A’ and wipe your internal hard drive using Disk Utility. This would erase all data on your internal hard drive beyond the scope of recovery. For convenience, partition your internal hard drive as per your space requirements.

Step #8. Restart your Mac using partition ‘B’ and use the cloning tool to clone partition ‘A’ onto a bigger partition on your internal hard drive.

Now, you have prepared your internal hard drive with all the data and programs installed earlier. You can boot from this drive and check if problems persists. In case you encounter errors again, use commercial tools to perform data recovery on your Mac.

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Mehak has a master’s degree in communication and over ten years of writing experience. Her passion for technology and Apple products led her to iGeeksBlog, where she specializes in writing product roundups and app recommendations for fellow Apple users. When not typing away on her MacBook Pro, she loves being lost in a book or out exploring the world.

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Mac Os X Directory Structure Explained

Here you will find a brief overview of these directories, as well as an explanation of each system level directory as found in Mac OS X and macOS system software.

Directory Structures of Mac OS X, Examined and Explained

By default, if you glance in the root of your Mac’s hard disk from Finder, you’ll see some unfamiliar sounding directories. The underlying directory structures of Mac OS are best revealed by visiting the root directory of the Mac, which many Mac users may encounter when they visit their own “Macintosh HD”.

Going further from the command line, you will see even more root level directories if you type the following:

ls /

Here you will find directories with names like; cores, dev, etc, System, private, sbin, tmp, usr, var, etc, opt, net, home, Users, Applications, Volumes, bin, network, etc.

Rather than wonder at the mystery of what all these folders, directories, and items mean, let’s examine and detail what these directories are, and what they contain, as they are relevant to the Mac operating system.

In no particular order, here is a table to help with this effort of exploring the base system directory structure of Mac OS:

Directory Description

/Applications Self explanatory, this is where your Mac’s applications are kept

/Developer The Developer directory appears only if you have installed Apple’s Developer Tools, and no surprise, contains developer related tools, documentation, and files.

/Library Shared libraries, files necessary for the operating system to function properly, including settings, preferences, and other necessities (note: you also have a Libraries folder in your home directory, which holds files specific to that user).

/Network largely self explanatory, network related devices, servers, libraries, etc

/System System related files, libraries, preferences, critical for the proper function of Mac OS X

/Users All user accounts on the machine and their accompanying unique files, settings, etc. Much like /home in Linux

/Volumes Mounted devices and volumes, either virtual or real, such as hard disks, CD’s, DVD’s, DMG mounts, etc

/ Root directory, present on virtually all UNIX based file systems. Parent directory of all other files

/bin Essential common binaries, holds files and programs needed to boot the operating system and run properly

/etc Machine local system configuration, holds administrative, configuration, and other system files


/usr Second major hierarchy, includes subdirectories that contain information, configuration files, and other essentials used by the operating system

/sbin Essential system binaries, contains utilities for system administration

/tmp Temporary files, caches, etc

/var Variable data, contains files whose contents change as the operating system runs

You may very well find other directories as well, depending on the version of Mac OS X you have, and depending on what apps and system adjustments you have made.

Nonetheless you can be sure that if any directory is at the root of Mac OS X, it is important, and shouldn’t be messed with at least without detailed knowledge of what you’re doing. Never delete, modify, or otherwise alter system files and directories on a Mac (at least without knowing exactly what you’re doing and why) because doing so can disrupt the operating system and prevent it from working as expected. Always back up a Mac before exploring and modifying system level directories.


How To Fix Update Error 0X8007054F On Windows 11.

If you are trying to install an update on Windows 11 and keep getting the following error: 0x8007054F. This article will guide you through several different troubleshooting steps you can use to solve the problem and restore Windows 11 updates to working order. As is typical for Windows errors, you will probably have to try multiple solutions.

Related: How to fix microphone set up error 0x80004003 on Windows.

Just like on Windows 10, updates on Windows 11 are prone to quite a few problems, all of which will display a random error message when they appear. Thankfully, most of the same error messages occur on both operating systems and can be fixed using the same well-known solutions that we have been using for years. The only difference is that some of these processes have been updated to work far more effectively (finally).

If you’re new to fixing error messages on Windows most of the solutions available are quick and easy, though may look a little complicated. Just work your way down the list from top to bottom, they are listed in order of ease and effectiveness to make life easy. So without further adieu let’s get starting to solve error 0x8007054F.

How do you fix error 0x8007054F? Run the Windows Update troubleshooter.

The updated troubleshooter on Windows 11 is leagues ahead of the one found on Windows 10 and actually does help solve problems a lot of the time.

Open the Settings app by pressing Windows Key + I.

Here you will see a long list of troubleshooting options, however, the one you are looking for is near the top called Windows Update.

After the tool completes its checks and fixes, you should be able to update your device.

Fix error 0x8007054F by running the Windows SFC command.

The SFC tool is another great tool that will fix any errors in the OS that may be preventing Windows 11 from updating properly. To run the SFC tool to the following.

When you have Command Prompt open type the following command into Command Prompt and press Enter.

sfc /scannow

The checking process takes a fair amount of time so just wait for it to finish. If you get an error message or something similar, just restart your computer in Safe Mode and run the tool again. This will usually allow the SFC tool to complete without issue.

Fix error 0x8007054F by running the DISM tool.

If the SFC tool returned an error message, open Command Prompt as Administrator, then enter the following commands in order.

DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /CheckHealth

DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /ScanHealth

DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth

Uninstall the last Windows 11 update that was installed (if you still have the option).

If you still have the option to uninstall the latest Windows 11 update that installed on your computer do that. If you aren’t sure how to check out the article linked below.

How to uninstall a bad Windows 11 update. Rollback a Windows 11 update.

Download and install the latest update for Windows.

How To Fix Xbox App Error 0X87E00005 On Windows 11.

If you have a Game Pass subscription and are trying to download, install or launch games from the Xbox app but keep getting error 0x87e00005. This article will show you how to quickly and easily troubleshoot the problem so that games download, install, and launch correctly from the Xbox app on Windows 11.

Related: How to backup/export YouTube playlists with links.

The Xbox app on Windows 10 and 11 is one of the most troublesome apps on the entire operating system. It is prone to a lot of issues that affect it directly and is also susceptible to problems that occur in its sister app Gaming Services. These two apps/services work together to bring everything together so that you can download, install and play games from the Microsoft Store and Game Pass.

How do you fix Xbox app error 0x87e00005 on Windows 11? Try updating Windows 11 first.

Uninstall the last Windows update to fix Xbox app error 0x87e00005.

Problem Windows updates can also cause Xbox app error 0x87e00005. Windows 11 has seen a lot of new updates break random things. Which is why it is a good idea to uninstall any recent updates to check if the problem goes away. So if you have recently installed a Windows update and are now having issues, it’s a good idea to roll back to the previous version and skip the problematic one. If you aren’t sure how to do this check out the article below.

How to uninstall a bad Windows 11 update. Rollback a Windows 11 update.

Reset the Microsoft Store and Xbox app to fix Xbox app error 0x87e00005 on Windows 11.

To begin, the quickest and easiest solution for this problem is to Repair and/or Reset the Xbox app and the Microsoft Store. If you haven’t done this before, follow the steps shown below.

First, open the Settings app on your computer, then go to Apps, and find the Xbox app.

Clear Windows Store Cache to fix error 0x80080204 – The operation did not complete successfully.

Clearing the Windows Store cache is also a good idea as it will remove any corruptions that may be causing this error message. If you haven’t done this before the steps are below.

Now type chúng tôi and press Enter.

After the cache has been cleaned you should be able to use both apps normally again.

If nothing so far has worked you can either wait for a future Windows update to solve the problem or you can reset Windows 11 to a clean installation.

How To Fix Bad System Config Info Error On Windows

You are minding your business, doing whatever you do online, when a terrifying blue screen appears on your display. What does this mean? If it’s the Bad System Config Info error, we will tell you in this post what it is, what causes it, and how to fix it.

Read more: Should you upgrade to Windows 11?

What is the “Bad System Config Info” error?

The Bad System Config Info error is one of the most frequent “blue screen of death” errors on Windows 10, 8, and 7. It is a bug check error message that tells you Windows has trouble processing something. Finding the culprit is usually the hard part, but it is often an easily fixable issue.

What causes the “Bad System Config Info” error?

As mentioned above, possible reasons for this error message are multiple. Here are the most popular.

Damaged hard drive

Damaged RAM

New, corrupted, or missing drivers

Damaged Boot Configuration Data (BCD)

Faulty Windows registry settings

Faulty Windows system files.

How to fix the “Bad System Config Info” error on Windows 10

Let’s get rid of that blue screen of death, shall we? As mentioned above, there are many potential reasons for the error. As such, there are quite a few ways to try and fix this issue. If it’s a software issue, you will be able to fix it relatively easily. If it’s a hardware issue, you may need to get your computer serviced and pay for some parts to be repaired or replaced. Here are some of the most common solutions for getting rid of this error message.

Update Windows and drivers

Check your hardware

Did you recently replace your RAM, hard drive, or other hardware? Have you dropped your computer? Check your hardware for any apparent signs of damage, and replace it if necessary.

Fix Windows registry


CD C:WindowsSystem32config ren C:WindowsSystem32configDEFAULT DEFAULT.old ren C:WindowsSystem32configSAM SAM.old ren C:WindowsSystem32configSECURITY SECURITY.old ren C:WindowsSystem32configSOFTWARE SOFTWARE.old ren C:WindowsSystem32configSYSTEM chúng tôi command lines have renamed folders that can no longer be used. Now it’s time to insert the new ones.


copy C:WindowsSystem32configRegBackDEFAULT C:WindowsSystem32config copy C:WindowsSystem32configRegBackSAM C:WindowsSystem32config copy C:WindowsSystem32configRegBackSECURITY C:WindowsSystem32config copy C:WindowsSystem32configRegBackSYSTEM C:WindowsSystem32config copy C:WindowsSystem32configRegBackSOFTWARE C:WindowsSystem32config

Close the Command Prompt and restart the computer. If the issue was with the Windows registry, you should be set.

See more: How to take a screenshot in Windows 10

Fix Boot Configuration Data (BCD)

Palash Volvoikar / Android Authority

Insert the Windows 10 installation DVD or flash drive (here is a guide for creating one).

Boot from the DVD or flash drive. Doing this is different on many computers. Google is your friend.

Select Repair your computer.

Enter the following commands:


bootrec /repairbcd bootrec /osscan bootrec /repairmbr 

Close the Command Prompt and restart the computer. If this was the issue, you should be set.

Insert a Windows 10 installation DVD or flash drive (here is a guide for creating one).

Boot from the DVD or flash drive. Doing this is different on many computers. Google is your friend.

Select Repair your computer.

Enter the following commands:


bcdedit/deletevalue {default} numproc bcdedit/deletevalue {default} truncatememory

Close the Command Prompt and restart the computer. If this was the issue, you should be set.

See more: How to text from Windows 10 using an Android phone

Open the Start menu.

Search for Create a restore point.

Select System Restore and then Next.

Select Scan for affected programs.

Hit Next, and then Finish.

Let the computer do its work.

Factory data reset

Palash Volvoikar / Android Authority

If all else fails, you can perform a factory data reset. This will essentially delete all files and restore the computer to the state when you turned it on for the first time (software-wise). Make sure to save all important personal files because this process will delete them forever.

Insert a Windows 10 Installation DVD or flash drive (here is a guide for creating one).

Boot from the DVD or flash drive. Doing this is different on many computers. Google is your friend.

Select Repair your computer.

Hit the Reset button and let the computer do its thing.

A reset should take care of any possible software issues causing the Bad System Config Info error.

See more: How to use notifications in Windows 10

How To Fix “Your Connection Was Interrupted” Error On Windows

Are you tired of getting the “Your Connection Was Interrupted” error message while browsing the Web on your Windows computer? It’s a frustrating experience that can disrupt your workflow. This guide shows you some simple yet effective solutions to fix this issue and get your Internet back up and running smoothly.

Tip: learn how to resolve your Ethernet connection being capped at 100 Mbps on Windows.

6 Options to Fix the “Your Connection Was Interrupted” Error

To fix the “Your Connection Was Interrupted” error on Windows, first go through the following simple fixes, and if you’re still experiencing an issue, follow the solutions listed below.

Restart your router or modem: turn off the router/modem and wait a few minutes, then turn it back on and see whether you can reestablish the connection. Sometimes a simple restart can successfully reset your connection and make the error message disappear.

Make sure you’ve updated or reinstalled network drivers: network drivers need to be updated regularly to avoid causing any issues. If updating the network drivers does not work, you can uninstall and reinstall the network drivers and see whether that solves your problem.

1. Reset Network Settings

More often than not, corrupt or faulty network settings can cause network interruptions, which in turn may produce the error you’re seeing. You can solve this problem by simply resetting your network settings.

Select the Settings app.

Select “Network reset.”

Tip: try these options if your Ethernet connection is not working.

2. Disable Firewall and Antivirus

Your firewall or antivirus (if you have one installed) could also be behind the error message. It’s a good idea to try turning either of them off to see whether the connection gets restored.

Press “Uninstall” and follow the screen prompts.

3. Clear Browsing Data and Cache

Another way to effectively solve the connection error is to clear the browsing data in your Windows browser. We are using Google Chrome for this tutorial, but the steps are similar in other browsers.

Select “Settings” from the menu.

Open the “Clear browsing data” section.

Check the “Browsing history,” “Cookies and other site data” and “Cached images and files” options.

Tip: did you know that you can use Google DNS on Android and iOS devices as well? We show you how.

4. Change DNS Settings

Your ISP (Internet Service Provider) could be responsible for experiencing an interruption on your network. Changing DNS settings and connecting to a public DNS service can solve this issue.

In the new window, select “Use the following DNS Server addresses” and add your new DNS server address. Configure your network settings to use the IP addresses and as your DNS servers. These are Google Public DNS addresses that are available for Internet users worldwide. Google Public DNS is fast, secure, and the largest public DNS service in the world.

Tip: if you’re seeing the DNS server not responding error, read our guide on how to solve it.

5. Check Proxy Settings

Having proxy settings enabled may interfere with your browser’s ability to connect to a network. You can disable the proxy settings and set them in default mode, which may solve the network issue.

Turn off the “Automatically detect settings” and “Use a proxy server” options.

6. Restore Windows to an Earlier Point

If you just updated Windows to the latest version, and this error message appears, you may have to revert your system to the previous version.

To roll back to the old build less than 10 days after you installed the update, follow the steps outlined in our article.

Good to know: it’s possible to use System Restore to return your Windows system to a configuration when the error wasn’t manifesting.

Frequently Asked Questions How do I fix a slow Wi-Fi connection?

The reasons for a slow Wi-Fi connection are diverse and range from the number of devices connected to the router, to the router’s age, to issues with your ISP. These tips may help you solve your slow Wi-Fi woes. It also may be helpful to troubleshoot a router.

What does “A network change was detected” mean?

This message usually appears underneath the “Your connection was interrupted” error in your browser. It means that your computer switched the network when viewing a webpage or downloading a file. Basically, you were not given permission to view a particular site.

Image credit: Freepik. All screenshots by Husain Parvez.

Husain Parvez

Husain has been around the internet ever since the dial-up days and loves writing about everything across the technosphere. He loves taking tech apart and see what makes them tick, without necessarily putting it all back together.

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