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Here is a guide for you to perform Regression Analysis on your Windows 11/10 PC. Regression Analysis is a statistical technique use to evaluate a set of data. It is used for determining the relationship between a set of two or more variables in a dataset. It basically enables you to analyze the important and unimportant factors from a dataset and then make a decision accordingly. Now, if you want to perform a regression analysis without performing manual calculations, this post will help you.

In this article, we are going to discuss different ways to do regression analysis on Windows 11/10 PC. You don’t need to do anything manually. Just import your dataset, select input variables, and visualize the results. Using the mentioned methods, you can perform linear, non-linear, multiple, and more regression analyses. Let us check out the methods in detail now!

How do you perform a Regression Analysis?

Regression analysis can be performed using Excel in Windows 11/10. You can also use a third-party free software that lets you calculate regression analysis. Additionally, you can even perform regression analysis online with the help of a dedicated free website. We have discussed all these methods in detail below. So, let us checkout!

How do I do Regression Analysis in Excel?

You can easily perform a regression analysis in Excel and other editions by enabling an add-in. This add-on is called Data Analysis ToolPak which is preinstalled in Microsoft Excel. Just follow the simple steps to enable this add-in in Excel and then you will be able to perform several data analyses. We have discussed step by step procedure to do regression analysis in Microsoft Excel. You can check it out below.

Related read: What is Data Analytics and what is it used for?

How to perform a Regression Analysis in Windows 11/10

Here are the methods that you can use to perform a Regression Analysis on your datasets in Windows 11/10:

Perform a regression analysis in Microsoft Excel.

Use JASP or Statcato freeware to perform regression analysis.

Perform regression analysis online using a free web service.

Let us discuss the above methods in detail!

1] Perform a Regression Analysis in Microsoft Excel

You can perform a regression analysis using the Microsoft Excel application. A dedicated Data Analysis ToolPak add-on in Excel lets you perform regression analysis and some other data analysis. You will have to manually enable this add-in to use its functionalities. Let us have a look at the procedure to use Excel’s Data Analysis ToolPak add-in for regression analysis.

How to perform a Regression Analysis in Microsoft Excel:

Here are the main steps to do regression analysis in Microsoft Excel:

Launch the Microsoft Excel app.

Enable the Data Analysis ToolPak add-in and go back to Excel’s home screen.

Import your datasets and select input data with dependent and independent variables.

Move to the Data tab.

Press the Data Analysis button.

Select Regression and hit the OK button.

Enter input X and Y range and other output options.

Tap on the OK button to view regression analysis results.

Let us discuss the above steps in detail now.

Now, import your datasets from an Excel or any other supported file, or you can create a new dataset. Select the input data fields for which you want to perform regression analysis.

Then, you need to enter the input X (independent variable) and Y (dependent variable) range for which you want to do regression analysis. Apart from that, you can also select residuals options like standardized residuals, line fit plots, residual plots, etc. Also, some other options like normal probability, confidence level, label, etc.

See: How to view and track Excel workbook statistics.

Configure all the above options and press the OK button to visualize the results.

It shows regression statistics including coefficient, standard error, t Stat, P-value, significance F, multiple R, standard error, observations, degrees of freedom, sum of squares, mean squares, F value, and more.

You can save the results in the same Excel worksheet or print the results.

Similarly, you can also perform analysis including ANOVA tests, covariance, descriptive statistics, exponential smoothing, Fourier analysis, histogram, moving average, sampling, t-test, etc.

Read: How to use the DATEVALUE function in Microsoft Excel

2] Use JASP freeware to perform Regression Analysis

You can use third-party freeware to perform regression analysis on a set of data. There are several free software that let you do data analysis. Here, we are going to use free software called JASP and Statcato. Using these two free software, you can perform regression analysis and many other data analyses:

JASP

Statcato

1] JASP

JASP is a dedicated free statistical analysis software for Windows 11/10. Using it, you can perform regression analysis, descriptives tests, T-tests, ANOVA, frequency tests, principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, meta analysis, summary statistics, SEM, visual modeling, and confirmatory factor analysis. It offers a dedicated Regression where you can perform linear, correlation, and logistic regression analysis. Let us find out how.

Here are the main steps to do regression analysis in JASP:

Download and install JASP.

Launch the software.

Import your dataset.

Go to the Regression tab.

Choose Classical or Bayesian regression type.

Select dependent and independent variables and customize other parameters.

View and export the results.

Let us now elaborate on the above steps!

Firstly, you need to download and install JASP freeware on your PC. And then, launch the main GUI of this software.

Next, move to the Regression tab and select the type of regression analysis you want to perform like Logistic, Linear, or Correlation.

After that, select dependent and independent variables and then configure multiple other options like method, WLS weight, model, method specification or criteria, and more. You can also select the values that you want to compute in the regression analysis, such as Residuals, R squared change, Covariance matrix, Collinearility diagnostics, Part and partial correlations, Model fit, and more. Also, you can plot various graphs with calculated regression analysis statistics including Residuals v/s dependent, Residuals v/s covariates, Residuals v/s histogram, and some other graphs.

As you configure all the above-discussed parameters, it displays regression analysis in the right-side section. You can export the results of regression analysis to an HTML or PDF document.

It is one of the best free software to perform regression analysis and more. You can download this handy freeware from jasp-stats.org.

See: What is Data Mining? Basics and its Techniques?

2] Statcato

Another freeware that you can try to perform regression analysis is Statcato. It is a free and open-source software to perform statistical analyses. It allows you to perform regression analysis as well as several other types of data analyses. Some of the data analysis methods provided in it include Hypothesis Tests, ANOVA, Descriptive Statistics, Normality Tests, Sample Size, Non-parametric Tests, and more.

It lets you perform Linear Regression, Multiple Regression, Correlation Matrix, Non-Linear Regression, etc. Let us check out how to use this software.

These are the main steps to perform a regression analysis in Statcato:

Download this software.

Launch the Jar file.

Import or create an input dataset.

Go to the Statistics menu.

Select the desired regression type.

Choose dependent and independent variables.

View and save regression analysis.

Let us discuss the above steps in detail now!

Firstly, you need to download this free software from chúng tôi Then, unzip the downloaded zip folder and then run the executable Jar file. You need to have Java installed on your system to use this application.

After that, choose the independent and dependent variable for which you want to do regression analysis and set up other options. Then, press the OK button.

It will display the regression analysis results in a dedicated window.

The regression analysis mainly includes statistics like regression equation, Explained variation, Unexplained variation, Coefficient of determination, Standard error of estimate, Test statistics, p-value, and more.

You can copy the results or take a printout.

It is another good statistical analysis software that lets you calculate various statistics, perform data analysis, and plot different kinds of graphs.

Read: x

3] Perform Regression Analysis online using a free web service

You can also perform regression analysis online using a dedicated free web service. Here, we are going to use this web service called chúng tôi It lets you perform Linear and Multiple regression analyses online. Apart from that, you can also find other statistical tools on this website like ANOVA tests, Chi-Square Calculator, Sign Test Calculator, Standard Error Calculator, T-tests, and more.

How to perform regression analysis online:

Open a web browser.

Navigate to the chúng tôi website.

Go to the regression calculator page.

Enter values for dependent and independent variables.

Tap on the Calculate the Regression Equation option.

Firstly, launch a web browser and open chúng tôi Now, you need to navigate to the Multiple Regression Calculator or Linear Regression Calculator page, whichever regression analysis technique you want to use.

Next, enter the respective input values in the X (independent) and Y (dependent) columns. You can also enter estimate values.

It will then display the regression analysis results in the same window.

The regression analysis results include a graph, regression equation, sum of squares, the sum of products, mean values, and more.

That’s it! Hope this guide helps you find a suitable method to perform a regression analysis for your datasets on Windows 11/10.

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How To Perform Regression Testing?

In this article, we will learn what is regression testing, how to do it, when it is required and its types.

What is Regression Testing?

Regression testing is also known as black box testing. It is used to verify that a software code modification does not affect the product’s existing functionality. Regression testing ensures that a product’s new functionality, issue patches, or other changes to an existing feature work properly

Regression testing is a sort of software analysis. Test cases are re-run to ensure that the application’s previous functionality is still operational and that the new changes haven’t introduced any defects.

When there is a significant change in the original functionality, regression testing can be performed on a new build. It ensures that the code continues to function even though modifications are made. Regression testing refers to re-testing the elements of the application that haven’t changed.

The Verification Method is another name for regression tests. Many test cases are automated. Test cases must be run multiple times, and manually repeating the same test case over and over is time-consuming and monotonous.

How to do Regression Testing?

When software maintenance includes upgrades, error fixes, optimization, and deletion of existing functionalities, regression testing is required. These changes may have an impact on the system’s functionality. In this instance, regression testing is required.

The following strategies can be used to perform regression testing −

Re-examine All

One method for performing regression testing is to use Re-Test. All test case suits should be re-executed in this method. We can define re-testing as when a test fails and the cause of the failure is determined to be a software flaw. After the problem has been reported, we can anticipate a new version of the software with the flaw rectified. In this instance, we’ll need to run the test again to ensure that the problem has been resolved. This is referred to as re-testing. This is referred to as confirmation testing by some.

The re-test is quite costly, as it necessitates a significant amount of time and resources.

Regression analysis Selection

Instead of executing a full test-case suit, this technique executes a single test-case suit.

The chosen test case is split into two parts: (a) Test cases that can be reused and (b) Test cases that are no longer valid.

Test cases that are reusable can be used in subsequent regression cycles.

Test cases that are no longer valid cannot be used in subsequent regression cycles.

Test case prioritization

Prioritize the test case based on the business effect, important functionality, and frequency of use. The regression test suite will be reduced by selecting test cases.

Cases When Regression testing should be done

In the following case, regression testing can be performed −

When a Change Requirement exists

Example − Remember password has been deleted from the login page, which was previously relevant.

When the application receives new functionality.

Example − A website offers a login feature that only allows users to log in using their email addresses. We’ve added a new option that allows you to log in using Facebook.

When the flaw has been corrected

Example − Consider the following scenario: a login button on a login page isn’t working, and a tester reports a bug indicating that the login button is broken. Once the bug has been repaired by the developers, the tester verifies that the Login Button is functioning as expected. On the other hand, Testers also test the other functions correlated to login button.

If there is a performance problem to fix

Example − A homepage takes 5 seconds to visit; by reducing the load time to 2 seconds, the page will load in half the time.

When an environment change is there

Example − When the database is upgraded from MySQL to Oracle.

How do you decide which test cases to use for regression testing?

It was discovered during an inspection of the industry. The customer reported multiple faults that were caused by last-minute bug patches. As a result of these side effects, picking a Test Case for regression testing is an art, not a simple operation.

Regression test can be done by −

A test case which has frequent defects

Functionalities which are more visible to users.

Test cases checks the main features of the product.

All integration test cases

All complex test cases

Boundary value test cases

A sample of successful test cases

Failure of test cases

Regression Testing Types

The following are the various types of regression testing −

URT stands for Unit Regression Testing.

RRT stands for Regional Regression Testing.

FRT stands for “Full or Complete Regression Testing.”

Unit Regression Testing (URT)

We’ll only test the altered unit in this case, not the impact area, because it could influence other modules’ components.

Example

The developer creates the Search button in an application, which allows 1-15 characters in the first build. The test engineer then uses the test case design technique to test the Search button.

The customer now requires that the Search button support 1-35 characters, as well as some other changes to the need. The test engineer will just test the Search button to ensure that it accepts 1-35 characters and will not examine any other aspects of the first build.

Regional Regression Testing (RRT)

This is known as Regional Regression Evaluating, and it involves testing the modification together with the effect area or areas. We’re testing the impact area because if there are dependable modules, they’ll have an impact on the other modules as well.

Consider the following scenario:

We can assume that there are four separate modules in the image in our mind which includes Module A, Module B, Module C, and Module D, which are provided by the developers for testing during the first build. Now it’s up to the test engineer to find the faults in Module D. The developers get the bug report, and the development team remedies the defects then after sends the second build.

The preceding flaws are fixed in the second build. The test engineer now realizes that the problem fixes in Module D have had an influence on some functionality in Modules A and C. As a result, the test engineer checks the impact areas in Module A and Module C after testing Module D, where the bug has been resolved. As a result, this type of testing is referred to as Regional regression testing.

Full Regression Testing (FRT)

During the product’s second and third releases, the client requests the addition of three to four new features, as well as the correction of some bugs from the previous release. The testing team will next do an impact analysis and determine that the above change will require us to test the complete product.

As a result, we may refer to testing the updated features as well as all of the remaining (old) features as Full Regression testing.

When the following conditions are met, we will perform the FRT −

When the alteration is made to the product’s source file. JVM, for example, is the JAVA application’s root file, and any changes to JVM will cause the entire JAVA program to be tested.

When we have a large number of modifications to make.

Best Free Statistical Analysis Software For Windows 11/10

Here is a list of the best free statistical analysis software for Windows 11/10. If you have a large set of numerical data and you want to evaluate and analyze the dataset, this guide is for you. In this article, we are going to mention and discuss multiple free statistical analysis software for Windows 11/10. Using these free software, you can use several mathematical techniques for statistical analysis.

These let you perform regression analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), T-tests, frequency distribution, Chi-Square, multivariate analysis, and more statistical tests. You can determine basic statistics like mean, median, variance, mode, and more. Plus, these software also let you plot different types of data visualization graphs like pie charts, boxplots, area graph, line graph, and more. Let us now find out what are these statistical analysis software.

Best Free Statistical Analysis Software for Windows 11/10

Here are some of the best free statistical analysis software (SAS) that you can use to calculate various statistics for a numerical dataset in Windows 11/10:

JASP

SOFA

Jamovi

PAST

Statcato

PSPP

Epi Info

KyPlot

gretl

Let us discuss these free software in detail now!

1] JASP

JASP is a free and open-source statistical analysis software for Windows 11/10. It is a great free software using which you can perform several statistical tests for a set of data. You can perform Standard or Bayesian statistical analysis using it. To import a dataset, it supports input formats including TXT, CSV, SAV, and ODS.

Its interface is divided into multiple sections to use specific algorithms and tests for analysis. Here are the kinds of statical analysis that can be done using it:

It enables you to perform different types of regression analysis including Correlation Matrix, Logistics Regression, Linear Regression, etc.

You can also perform several ANOVA tests like ANCOVA, repeated measures ANOVA, Bayesian ANOVA, etc.

It also provides T-tests options to evaluate datasets using methods like Independent sample T-test, Paired sample T-test, Bayesian Paired sample T-test, etc.

You can also use it for descriptive and reliability analysis. It evaluates and displays various graphs and statistics like mean, mode, median, variance, etc.

In it, you also get a dedicated Frequencies section to perform frequency tests.

Apart from these, you can use more statistical tests to analyze a dataset including principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, meta-analysis, SEM, visual modeling, and confirmatory factor analysis.

It provides comprehensive results in a separate tab that you can export in CSV or TXT format.

Like the features of this software? Get it here.

Related read: What is Data Analytics and what is it used for?

2] SOFA

You can also SOFA which is a dedicated statistical analysis software for Windows 11/10. SOFA stands for Statistics Open For All; it is free and open source. This software lets you create a new dataset or import an existing one and perform different kinds of statistical analysis tests on your dataset. It supports XLS, CSV, TXT, TSV, and more file formats to import your datasets.

Now, it contains a lot of statistical algorithms and tests that you can use to evaluate a numerical dataset. You can perform ANOVA, Chi-Square, Paired T-test, and more tests using it. It also offers Reports tables to create Data List, Row Stats, Frequencies, and Crosstabs report tables. In it, you can also create charts like bar charts, line charts, area charts, pie charts, and more for data visualizations.

See: What is Data Mining? Basics and its Techniques?

3] Jamovi

Jamovi is another nice free software to perform various statistical analyses in Windows 11/10. It is free and open-source software using which you can use several techniques that enable you to evaluate, determine, and analyze numerical datasets. It is built on R statistical language that makes sure the estimated results are accurate.

You can simply create a dataset in its Data tab and then use several algorithms for statistical analysis in the Analysis tab. It lets you perform ANOVA, T-tests, Regression, Frequencies, and Factor analysis tests. You can also view several statistics and graphs in it, such as Mean, Median, Distribution, Dispersion, Mode, Variance, Histogram, Bar Plot, etc. It also lets you save the statistical analysis results in a CSV file.

You can download this statistical analysis software from jamovi.org.

4] PAST

It lets you perform ANOVA, Correlation, Normality test, Ordination, Clustering, MANOVA, ANOSIM, Diversity indices, Diversity t-test, SHE analysis, Beta diversity, and various other tests. You can determine key statistics like Mean, Median, Variance, Mode, Standard deviation, etc. It also lets you plot datasets on various kinds of graphs like pie charts, histograms, bubble charts, 3D plots, etc.

Download it from here at nhm.uio.no.

5] Statcato

One more good free statistical analysis software for Windows 11/10 is Statcato. It is a free and portable software that requires no installation to work. Also, it is Java-based, so make sure you have JRE installed on your system to use it.

It lets you save a statistical analysis report in formats like PDF, Excel, RTF, CSV, and Text. Plus, you can save the graphs in PNG images.

Get it from statcato.org.

6] PSPP

PSPP is yet another free statistical analysis software for Windows 11/10. It provides a variety of statistical tests and techniques to use evaluate a dataset. You can perform tests like Linear and logistic regression, Descriptive statistics, Cluster analysis, Compare means, Univariate Analysis, Reliability and factor analysis, T-tests, Measures of association, Non-parametric tests, and some more.

You can save graphs and results in a variety of formats like PDF, HTML, ODT, TXT, PS, and CSV.

Read: RedCrab is a Statistical and Scientific Calculator for Windows.

7] Epi Info

Epi Info is a free and portable statistical analysis software for Windows 11/10. The kinds of statistical analysis tests that you can perform using it are Population Survey, Population Binomial, Chi-Square, Poisson, Cohort or Cross-Sectional, and some more. It also lets you create surveys and questionnaires for your datasets. You can download this free software from its official website here.

See: Best Free Online Data Visualization Tools

8] KyPlot

Try KyPlot for statistical analysis and visualization in Windows 11/10. In it, you can perform statistical tests like Descriptive analysis, Parametric Test, Contingency table, Regression Analysis, Multivariate Analysis, and more. You can import datasets from files like Excel or Text, and then use available tools for statistical analysis. The final analysis results can be saved in CSV, XLS, TXT, PRN, HTML, and more formats.

Using it, you can also perform matrix operations, Fourier transform, time series analysis, and some other mathematical operations. It also lets you plot several graphs.

9] gretl

gretl stands for Gnu Regression, Econometrics and Time-series Library. It is a free and open-source statistical analysis software for Windows 11/10. This software is specially designed to perform Econometric analysis. You can import source datasets in CSV, TXT, XLS, ODS, DAT, and a few other formats. Then, perform tests like Statistical table, Test statistics calculator, Non-parametric tests, Correlogram, Periodogram, Time series, Frequency distribution, and more.

You can also plot Time series plots, distribution graphs like chi-square, Poisson, binomial, Boxplot, Normal Q-Q plot, etc. If you want, you can save the graphs in PDF, PNG, EPS, and other image formats.

Download it from sourceforge.net.

What is the best free software for statistical analysis?

All the mentioned free software are great for statistical analysis. However, in my opinion, I find JASP and PAST better than others. These two provide you a good number of statistical tests to perform statistical analysis. Plus, these are also very easy to use. Both professionals and beginners can use these two statistical analysis software.

Is there a free alternative to SPSS?

Yes, there is a free alternative to SPSS called PSPP. It is completely free and open source. It was specially created as an alternative to the proprietary program SPSS. PSPP contains most of the features that are available in SPSS. A variety of statistical tests can be performed using PSPP for free. You can check out the full description of this freeware above in this post.

That’s it!

Now read: What is Machine Learning and how it is different from Artificial Intelligence.

How To Perform An In

I’m not going to lie: Conducting an in-depth SEO audit is a major deal.

And, as an SEO consultant, there are a few sweeter words than, “Your audit looks great! When can we bring you onboard?”

Even if you haven’t been actively looking for a new gig, knowing your SEO audit nailed it is a huge ego boost.

But, are you terrified to start? Is this your first SEO audit? Or, maybe you just don’t know where to begin?

Sending a fantastic SEO audit to a potential client puts you in the best possible place.

So take your time. Remember: Your primary goal is to add value to your customer with your site recommendations for both the short-term and the long-term.

In this column, I’ve put together the need-to-know steps for conducting an SEO audit and a little insight into the first phase of my processes when I first get a new client. It’s broken down into sections below. If you feel like you have a good grasp on a particular section, feel free to jump to the next.

When Should I Perform an SEO Audit?

After a potential client sends me an email expressing interest in working together and they answer my survey, we set-up an intro call (Skype or Google Hangouts is preferred).

Before the call, I do my own mini quick SEO audit (I invest at least one hour to manually researching) based on their survey answers to become familiar with their market landscape. It’s like dating someone you’ve never met.

You’re obviously going to stalk them on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and all other channels that are public #soIcreep.

Here’s an example of what my survey looks like:

Here are some key questions you’ll want to ask the client during the first meeting:

What are your overall business goals? What are your channel goals (PR, social, etc.)?

Who is your target audience?

Do you have any business partnerships?

How often is the website updated? Do you have a web developer or an IT department?

Have you ever worked with an SEO consultant before? Or, had any SEO work done previously?

Sujan Patel also has some great recommendations on questions to ask a new SEO client.

After the call, if I feel we’re a good match, I’ll send over my formal proposal and contract (thank you HelloSign for making this an easy process for me!).

To begin, I always like to offer my clients the first month as a trial period to make sure we vibe.

This gives both the client and I a chance to become friends first before dating. During this month, I’ll take my time to conduct an in-depth SEO audit.

These SEO audits can take me anywhere from 40 hours to 60 hours depending on the size of the website. These audits are bucketed into three separate parts and presented with Google Slides.

Technical: Crawl errors, indexing, hosting, etc.

Content: Keyword research, competitor analysis, content maps, meta data, etc.

Links: Backlink profile analysis, growth tactics, etc.

After that first month, if the client likes my work, we’ll begin implementing the recommendations from the SEO audit. And going forward, I’ll perform a mini-audit monthly and an in-depth audit quarterly.

To recap, I perform an SEO audit for my clients:

First month.

Monthly (mini-audit).

Quarterly (in-depth audit).

What You Need from a Client Before an SEO Audit

When a client and I start working together, I’ll share a Google Doc with them requesting a list of passwords and vendors.

This includes:

Google Analytics access and any third-party analytics tools.

Webmaster tools.

Website backend access.

Social media accounts.

List of vendors.

List of internal team members (including any work they outsource).

Before you begin your SEO audit, here’s a recap of the tools I use:

Conducting a Technical SEO Audit

Tools needed for technical SEO audit:

Screaming Frog.

DeepCrawl.

Copyscape.

Integrity for Mac (or Xenu Sleuth for PC users).

Google Analytics (if given access).

Google Search Console (if given access).

Bing Webmaster Tools (if given access).

Step 1: Add Site to DeepCrawl and Screaming Frog

Tools:

DeepCrawl.

Copyscape.

Screaming Frog.

Google Analytics.

Integrity.

Google Tag Manager.

Google Analytics code.

What to Look for When Using DeepCrawl

The first thing I do is add my client’s site to DeepCrawl. Depending on the size of your client’s site, the crawl may take a day or two to get the results back.

Once you get your DeepCrawl results back, here are the things I look for:

Duplicate Content

Check out the “Duplicate Pages” report to locate duplicate content.

Common duplicate content errors you’ll discover:

Duplicate meta titles and meta descriptions.

Duplicate body content from tag pages (I’ll use Copyscape to help determine if something is being plagiarized).

Similar content on a different domain.

Improperly implemented pagination pages (see below.)

How to fix:

Add the canonical tag on your pages to let Google know what you want your preferred URL to be.

Disallow incorrect URLs in the robots.txt.

Rewrite content (including body copy and metadata).

Here’s an example of a duplicate content issue I had with a client of mine. As you can see below, they had URL parameters without the canonical tag.

These are the steps I took to fix the issue:

I fixed any 301 redirect issues.

Added a canonical tag to the page I want Google to crawl.

Added the disallow function to the chúng tôi to the incorrect URLs to improve crawl budget.

Pagination

There are two reports to check out:

First Pages: To find out what pages are using pagination, review the “First Pages” report. Then, you can manually review the pages using this on the site to discover if pagination is implemented correctly.

Unlinked Pagination Pages: To find out if pagination is working correctly, the “Unlinked Pagination Pages” report will tell you if the rel=”next” and rel=”prev” are linking to the previous and next pages.

In this example below, I was able to find that a client had reciprocal pagination tags using DeepCrawl:

How to fix:

Max Redirections

Review the “Max Redirections” report to see all the pages that redirect more than 4 times. John Mueller mentioned in 2024 that Google can stop following redirects if there are more than five.

While some people refer to these crawl errors as eating up the “crawl budget,” Gary Illyes refers to this as “host load.” It’s important to make sure your pages render properly because you want your host load to be used efficiently.

Here’s a brief overview of the response codes you might see:

301 – These are the majority of the codes you’ll see throughout your research. 301 redirects are okay as long as there are only one redirect and no redirect loop.

302 – These codes are okay, but if left longer than 3 months or so, I would manually change them to 301s so that they are permanent. This is an error code I’ll see often with ecommerce sites when a product is out of stock.

400 – Users can’t get to the page.

403 – Users are unauthorized to access the page.

404 – The page is not found (usually meaning the client deleted a page without a 301 redirect).

500 – Internal server error that you’ll need to connect with the web development team to determine the cause.

How to fix:

Remove any internal links pointing to old 404 pages and update them with the redirected page internal link.

Undo the redirect chains by removing the middle redirects. For example, if redirect A goes to redirect B, C, and D, then you’ll want to undo redirects B and C. The final result will be a redirect A to D.

There is also a way to do this in Screaming Frog and Google Search Console below if you’re using that version.

What to Look for When Using Screaming Frog

The second thing I do when I get a new client site is to add their URL to Screaming Frog.

Depending on the size of your client’s site, I may configure the settings to crawl specific areas of the site at a time.

Here is what my Screaming Frog spider configurations look like:

You can do this in your spider settings or by excluding areas of the site.

Once you get your Screaming Frog results back, here are the things I look for:

Google Analytics Code

Screaming Frog can help you identify what pages are missing the Google Analytics code (UA-1234568-9). To find the missing Google Analytics code, follow these steps:

Go to Configuration in the navigation bar, then Custom.

Add analytics.js to Filter 1, then change the drop-down to Does not contain.

How to fix:

Contact your client’s developers and ask them to add the code to the specific pages that it’s missing.

For more Google Analytics information, skip ahead to that Google Analytics section below.

Google Tag Manager

Screaming Frog can also help you find out what pages are missing the Google Tag Manager snippet with similar steps:

Go to the Configuration tab in the navigation bar, then Custom.

How to fix:

Head over to Google Tag Manager to see if there are any errors and update where needed.

Share the code with your client’s developer’s to see if they can add it back to the site.

Schema

You’ll also want to check if your client’s site is using schema markup on their site. Schema or structured data helps search engines understand what a page is on the site.

To check for schema markup in Screaming Frog, follow these steps:

Go to the Configuration tab in the navigation bar, then Custom.

Indexing

You want to determine how many pages are being indexed for your client, follow this in Screaming Frog:

How to fix:

If the site is new, Google may have no indexed it yet.

Check the chúng tôi file to make sure you’re not disallowing anything you want Google to crawl.

Check to make sure you’ve submitted your client’s sitemap to Google Search Console and Bing Webmaster Tools.

Conduct manual research (seen below).

Flash

Google announced in 2024 that Chrome will start blocking Flash due to the slow page load times. So, if you’re doing an audit, you want to identify if your new client is using Flash or not.

To do this in Screaming Frog, try this:

Head to the Spider Configuration in the navigation.

Filter the Internal tab by Flash after the crawl is done.

How to fix:

Embed videos from YouTube. Google bought YouTube in 2006, no-brainer here.

Or, opt for HTML5 standards when adding a video.

Here’s an example of HTML5 code for adding a video:

JavaScript

According to Google’s announcement in 2024, JavaScript is okay to use for your website as long as you’re not blocking anything in your chúng tôi (we’ll dig into this deeper in a bit!). But, you still want to take a peek at how the Javascript is being delivered to your site.

How to fix:

Review Javascript to make sure it’s not being blocked by robots.txt

Make sure Javascript is running on the server (this helps produce plain text data vs dynamic).

If you’re running Angular JavaScript, check out this article by Ben Oren on why it might be killing your SEO efforts.

chúng tôi

When you’re reviewing a chúng tôi for the first time, you want to look to see if anything important is being blocked or disallowed.

For example, if you see this code:

User-agent: * Disallow: /

Your client’s website is blocked from all web crawlers.

But, if you have something like Zappos chúng tôi file, you should be good to go.

# Global chúng tôi as of 2012-06-19 User-agent: * Disallow: /bin/ Disallow: /multiview/ Disallow: /product/review/add/ Disallow: /cart Disallow: /login Disallow: /logout Disallow: /register Disallow: /account

They are only blocking what they do not want web crawlers to locate. This content that is being blocked is not relevant or useful to the web crawler.

How to fix:

Your chúng tôi is case-sensitive so update this to be all lowercase.

Remove any pages listed as Disallow that you want the search engines to crawl.

You can also view blocked pages in Screaming Frog under the Response Codes tab, then filtered by Blocked by chúng tôi filter after you’ve completed your crawl.

If you have a site with multiple subdomains, you should have a separate chúng tôi for each.

Make sure the sitemap is listed in the robots.txt.

Crawl Errors

I use DeepCrawl, Screaming Frog, and Google and Bing webmaster tools to find and cross-check my client’s crawl errors.

To find your crawl errors in Screaming Frog, follow these steps:

After the crawl is complete, go to Bulk Reports.

Scroll down to Response Codes, then export the server-side error report and the client error report.

How to fix:

The client error reports, you should be able to 301 redirect the majority of the 404 errors in the backend of the site yourself.

The server error reports, collaborate with the development team to determine the cause. Before fixing these errors on the root directory, be sure to back up the site. You may simply need to create a new .html access file or increase PHP memory limit.

You’ll also want to remove any of these permanent redirects from the sitemap and any internal or external links.

You can also use 404 in your URL to help track in Google Analytics.

Redirect Chains

Redirect chains not only cause poor user experience, but it slows down page speed, conversion rates drop, and any link love you may have received before is lost.

Fixing redirect chains is a quick win for any company.

How to fix:

Internal & External Links

And, it doesn’t help your search engines like you any better either.

To find my broken internal and external links I use Integrity for Mac. You can also use Xenu Sleuth if you’re a PC user.

I’ll also show you how to find these internal and external links in Screaming Frog and DeepCrawl if you’re using that software.

How to fix:

If you’re using Integrity or Xenu Sleuth, run your client’s site URL and you’ll get a full list of broken URLs. You can either manually update these yourself or if you’re working with a dev team, ask them for help.

If you’re using DeepCrawl, go to the Unique Broken Links tab under the Internal Links section.

URLs

Every time you take on a new client, you want to review their URL format. What am I looking for in the URLs?

Parameters – If the URL has weird characters like ?, =, or +, it’s a dynamic URL that can cause duplicate content if not optimized.

User-friendly – I like to keep the URLs short and simple while also removing any extra slashes.

How to fix:

After you’ve run the crawl on Screaming Frog, take a look at URLs. If you see parameters listed that are creating duplicates of your content, you need to suggest the following:

Disallow the duplicate URLs in the robots.txt.

Step 2: Review Google Search Console and Bing Webmaster Tools.

Tools:

Google Search Console.

Bing Webmaster Tools.

Sublime Text (or any text editor tool).

Set a Preferred Domain

Since the Panda update, it’s beneficial to clarify to the search engines the preferred domain. It also helps make sure all your links are giving one site the extra love instead of being spread across two sites.

How to fix:

Choose which of the URLs is the preferred domain.

You don’t need to set the preferred domain in Bing Webmaster Tools, just submit your sitemap to help Bing determine your preferred domain.

Backlinks

With the announcement that Penguin is real-time, it’s vital that your client’s backlinks meet Google’s standards.

If you notice a large chunk of backlinks coming to your client’s site from one page on a website, you’ll want to take the necessary steps to clean it up, and FAST!

How to fix:

Contact the companies that are linking to you from one page to have them remove the links.

Or, add them to your disavow list. When adding companies to your disavow list, be very careful how and why you do this. You don’t want to remove valuable links.

Here’s an example of what my disavow file looks like:

Keywords

As an SEO consultant, it’s my job to start to learn the market landscape of my client. I need to know who their target audience is, what they are searching for, and how they are searching. To start, I take a look at the keyword search terms they are already getting traffic from.

Sitemap

Sitemaps are essential to get search engines to crawl your client’s website. It speaks their language. When creating sitemaps, there are a few things to know:

Do not include parameter URLs in your sitemap.

Do not include any non-indexable pages.

If the site has different subdomains for mobile and desktop, add the rel=”alternate” tag to the sitemap.

How to fix:

Then, do a manual search to determine pages are not getting indexed and why.

Crawl

Crawl errors are important to check because it’s not only bad for the user but it’s bad for your website rankings. And, John Mueller stated that low crawl rate may be a sign of a low-quality site.

How to fix:

Manually check your crawl errors to determine if there are crawl errors coming from old products that don’t exist anymore or if you see crawl errors that should be disallowed in the chúng tôi file.

Once you’ve determined where they are coming from, you can implement 301 redirects to similar pages that link to the dead pages.

You’ll also want to cross-check the crawl stats in Google Search Console with average load time in Google Analytics to see if there is a correlation between time spent downloading and the pages crawled per day.

Structured Data

As mentioned above in the schema section of Screaming Frog, you can review your client’s schema markup in Google Search Console.

Use the individual rich results status report in Google Search Console. (Note: The structured data report is no longer available).

This will help you determine what pages have structured data errors that you’ll need to fix down the road.

How to fix:

Google Search Console will tell you what is missing in the schema when you test the live version.

Based on your error codes, rewrite the schema in a text editor and send to the web development team to update. I use Sublime Text for my text editing. Mac users have one built-in and PC users can use Google bought YouTube.

Step 3: Review Google Analytics

Tools:

Google Analytics.

Google Tag Manager Assistant Chrome Extension.

Annie Cushing Campaign Tagging Guide.

Views

When I first get a new client, I set up 3 different views in Google Analytics.

Reporting view.

Master view.

Test view.

These different views give me the flexibility to make changes without affecting the data.

How to fix:

Make sure to check the Bot Filtering section to exclude all hits from bots and spiders.

Link Google Ads and Google Search Console.

Filter

You want to make sure you add your IP address and your client’s IP address to the filters in Google Analytics so you don’t get any false traffic.

How to fix:

Tracking Code

You can manually check the source code, or you can use my Screaming Frog technique from above.

If the code is there, you’ll want to track that it’s firing real-time.

If you’re using Google Tag Manager, you can also check this with the Google Tag Assistant Chrome extension.

How to fix:

If the code isn’t firing, you’ll want to check the code snippet to make sure it’s the correct one. If you’re managing multiple sites, you may have added a different site’s code.

Before copying the code, use a text editor, not a word processor to copy the snippet onto the website. This can cause extra characters or whitespace.

The functions are case-sensitive so check to make sure everything is lowercase in code.

Indexing

If you had a chance to play around in Google Search Console, you probably noticed the Coverage section.

When I’m auditing a client, I’ll review their indexing in Google Search Console compared to Google Analytics. Here’s how:

In Google Search Console, go to Coverage

How to fix:

Compare the numbers from Google Search Console with the numbers from Google Analytics, if the numbers are widely different, then you know that even though the pages are getting indexed only a fraction are getting organic traffic.

Campaign Tagging

The last thing you’ll want to check in Google Analytics is if your client is using campaign tagging correctly. You don’t want to not get credit for the work you’re doing because you forgot about campaign tagging.

How to fix:

Set up a campaign tagging strategy for Google Analytics and share it with your client. Annie Cushing put together an awesome campaign tagging guide.

Keywords

You can use Google Analytics to gain insight into potential keyword gems for your client. To find keywords in Google Analytics, follow these steps:

Next, I’ll use those search terms to create a New Segment in Google Analytics to see what pages on the site are already ranking for that particular keyword term.

Step 4: Manual Check

Tools:

Google Analytics.

Access to client’s server and host.

You Get Signal.

Pingdom.

PageSpeed Tools.

Wayback Machine.

One Version of Your Client’s Site is Searchable

Check all the different ways you could search for a website. For example:

As Highlander would say, “there can be only one” website that is searchable.

How to fix: Use a 301 redirect for all URLs that are not the primary site to the canonical site.

Indexing

Conduct a manual search in Google and Bing to determine how many pages are being indexed by Google. This number isn’t always accurate with your Google Analytics and Google Search Console data, but it should give you a rough estimate.

To check, do the following:

When you search, manually scan to make sure only your client’s brand is appearing.

Check to make sure the homepage is on the first page. John Mueller said it isn’t necessary for the homepage to appear as the first result.

How to fix:

If another brand is appearing in the search results, you have a bigger issue on your hands. You’ll want to dive into the analytics to diagnose the problem.

If the homepage isn’t appearing as the first result, perform a manual check of the website to see what it’s missing. This could also mean the site has a penalty or poor site architecture which is a bigger site redesign issue.

Cross-check the number of organic landing pages in Google Analytics to see if it matches the number of search results you saw in the search engine. This can help you determine what pages the search engines see as valuable.

Caching

I’ll run a quick check to see if the top pages are being cached by Google. Google uses these cached pages to connect your content with search queries.

To check if Google is caching your client’s pages, do this:

Make sure to toggle over to the Text-only version.

You can also check this in Wayback Machine.

How to fix:

Check the client’s server to see if it’s down or operating slower than usual. There might be an internal server error or a database connection failure. This can happen if multiple users are attempting to access the server at once.

Check to see who else is on your server with a reverse IP address check. You can use You Get Signal website for this phase. You may need to upgrade your client’s server or start using a CDN if you have sketchy domains sharing the server.

Check to see if the client is removing specific pages from the site.

Hosting

While this may get a little technical for some, it’s vital to your SEO success to check the hosting software associated to your client’s website. Hosting can harm SEO and all your hard work will be for nothing.

You’ll need access to your client’s server to manually check any issues. The most common hosting issues I see are having the wrong TLD and slow site speed.

How to fix:

If your client has slow site speed, you’ll want to address this quickly because site speed is a ranking factor. Find out what is making the site slow with tools like PageSpeed Tools and Pingdom. Here’s a look at some of the common page speed issues:

Host.

Large images.

Embedded videos.

Plugins.

Ads.

Theme.

Widgets.

Repetitive script or dense code.

Core Web Vitals Audit

Core Web Vitals is a collection of three metrics that are representative of a website’s user experience. They are important because Google is updating their algorithms in the Spring of 2023 to incorporate Core Web Vitals as a ranking factor.

Although the ranking factor is expected to be a small factor, it’s still important to audit the Core Web Vitals scores and identify areas for improvement.

Why Is It Important to Include Core Web Vitals in Your Audit?

Improving Core Web Vitals scores will not only help search ranking but perhaps more importantly it may pay off with more conversions and earnings.

Upgrading the web hosting and installing a new plugin may improve page speed but will have little (if any) effect on Core Web Vitals.

The measurement is done at the point where someone is literally downloading your site on their mobile phone.

That means the bottleneck is at their Internet connection and the mobile device. A fast server will not speed up a slow Internet connection on a budget mobile phone.

Similarly, because many of the solutions involve changing the code in a template or the core files of the content management system itself, a page speed plugin will be of very little use.

There are many resources to help understand solutions. But most solutions require the assistance of a developer who feels comfortable updating and changing core files in your content management system.

Fixing Core Web Vitals issues can be difficult. WordPress, Drupal, and other content management systems (CMS) were not built to score well for Core Web Vitals.

It is important to note that the process for improving Core Web Vitals involves changing the coding at the core of WordPress and other CMS.

Essentially, improving Core Web Vitals requires making a website do something that it was never intended to do when the developers created a theme or CMS.

The purpose of a Core Web Vitals audit is to identify what needs fixing and handing that information over to a developer who can then make the necessary changes.

What Are Core Web Vitals?

There are:

Largest Contentful Paint (LCP).

First Input Delay (FID).

Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS).

There are two kinds of scores for the Core Web Vitals:

Lab data.

Field data.

Lab Data

Lab data is what is generated when you run a page through Google Lighthouse or in PageSpeed Insights.

Lab data consists of scores generated through a simulated device and Internet connection. The purpose is to give the person working on the site an idea of what parts of the Core Web Vitals need improvement.

The value of a tool like PageSpeed Insights is that it identifies specific code and page elements that are causing a page to score poorly.

Field Data

Field Data are actual Core Web Vitals scores that have been collected by Google Chrome browser for the Chrome User Experience Report (also known as CrUX).

The field data reported in Google Search Console comes from visited pages that have had a minimum amount of visits and measurements. If Google doesn’t receive enough scores then Google Search Console will not report that score.

Screaming Frog for Core Web Vitals Audit

Screaming Frog version 14.2 now has the ability to display a pass or fail Core Web Vitals assessment. You need to connect Screaming Frog to the PageSpeed Insights API (get an API key here) via a key.

There, you will see a place to enter your API key and connect it to the service.

In the same PageSpeed Insights popup, you can also select the Metrics tab and tick off the boxes indicating what metrics you’d like to have reported.

Be sure to select Mobile for the device as that’s the metric that matters for ranking purposes.

If you select the Opportunities tab, after the crawl Screaming Frog will show you a list of different kinds of improvements (like defer offscreen images, remove unused CSS, etc.).

Note Before Crawling

There is generally no need to crawl an entire site and produce an exhaustive page-by-page accounting of what’s wrong with every single page of the website.

Most sites contained pages and posts created with similar page structure and content. For example, all the pages in a “news” category are going to be fairly similar, pages in a “reviews” category are also going to be similar to each other.

You can save time by crawling a representative group of pages in order to identify issues common across individual categories as well as problems common to all pages sitewide that need fixing.

Because of those similarities, the issues discovered are going to be similar. It may only be necessary to crawl a handful of representative pages from each type of category in order to identify what kinds of issues are specific to each of those sections.

The kinds of things that are being fixed are typically sitewide issues that are common across the entire site, like unused CSS that is loaded from every page or Cumulative Layout Shift caused by an ad unit located in the left-hand area of the web pages.

Because modern websites are templated, the fixes will happen at the template level or with custom coding in the stylesheet, etc.

Crawl the Site With Screaming Frog

Zoom In on URL Opportunities

A useful feature in the Screaming Frog Core Web Vitals Audit is the ability to select a URL from the list of URLs in the top pane and then see the opportunities for improvement in the bottom pane of the Screaming Frog display screen.

Below is a screenshot of the bottom screen, with an opportunity selected and the details of that improvement opportunity in the right-hand pane.

Official Google Tool

Image Credits

Create A Pipeline To Perform Sentiment Analysis Using Nlp

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

Overview

Every basic fundamental and building block which is required for Sentiment Analysis.

I’ve used an easy approach to explain all the basic concepts so that even a beginner reader would be able to get a thorough understanding of all the concepts.

Topics: Preprocessing text, Vocabulary Corpus, Feature Extraction (Sparse Representation and Frequency Dictionary), Logistic Regression model for sentiment analysis.

Sentiment Analysis is a supervised Machine Learning technique that is used to analyze and predict the polarity of sentiments within a text (either positive or negative).

It is often used by businesses and companies to understand their user’s experience, emotions, responses, etc. so that they can improve the quality and flexibility of their products and services.

Now, let’s dive deep into understanding how this sentiment analysis technique is used by machine learning engineers to examine sentiments of various texts.

Gathering Data

” THE MORE DATA, THE BETTER ! “

There are so many open sources of data that can be used for training ML models so it’s a personal choice to gather data by yourself or use open datasets to train our algorithm.

Text-based datasets are generally distributed as JSON or CSV formats, so to use them, we can either fetch the data into a python list or a dictionary/data frame object.

Data should be split into the train, validation, and test sets in a common fashion of 60% 20% 20% or 70% 15% 15%.

The popular Twitter dataset can be downloaded from here.

Pipeline

Every Machine Learning task should have a Pipeline. Pipelines are used for splitting up your machine learning workflows into independent, reusable, modular parts that can then be pipelined together to continuously improve the accuracy of the model and achieve a successful algorithm.

We’ll follow a basic pipeline structure for our problem so that a reader can easily understand each part of the pipeline used in our workflow. Our pipeline will include the following steps:

Preprocessing Text and Building Vocabulary: Removing unwanted texts (stop words), punctuations, URLs, handles, etc. which do not have any sentimental value. And then adding unique preprocessed words to a vocabulary.

Feature Extraction: Iterating through each data example to extract features using a frequency dictionary and finally create a feature matrix.

Training Model: We’ll then use our feature matrix to train a Logistic Regression model in order to use that model for predicting sentiments.

Testing Model: Using our trained model to get the predictions from data it never saw.

Preprocessing Data

It is an important step in our pipeline. Preprocessing text can be used to remove the words and punctuations from the text data that do not have any sentimental value, as preprocessing text can significantly improve our training time as our data size will be reduced and limited to the words having some sentimental value. Preprocessing includes handling of-

Stop Words

Words that do not have any semantic or sentimental value/weight in a sentence. e.g.: and, is, the, you, etc.

How to process them? We’ll create a list including all possible stop words like

[‘ourselves’, ‘hers’, ‘between’, ‘yourself’, ‘but’, ‘again’, ‘there’, ‘about’, ‘once’, ‘during’, ‘out’, ‘very’, ‘having’, ‘with’, ‘they’, ‘own’, ‘an’, ‘be’, ‘some’, ‘for’, ‘do’, ‘its’, ‘yours’, ‘such’, ‘into’, ‘of’, ‘most’, ‘itself’, ‘other’, ‘off’, ‘is’, ‘s’, ‘am’, ‘or’, ‘who’, ‘as’, ‘from’, ‘him’, ‘each’, ‘the’, ‘themselves’, ‘until’, ‘below’, ‘are’, ‘we’, ‘these’, ‘your’, ‘his’, ‘through’, ‘don’, ‘nor’, ‘me’, ‘were’, ‘her’, ‘more’, ‘himself’, ‘this’, ‘down’, ‘should’, ‘our’, ‘their’, ‘while’, ‘above’, ‘both’, ‘up’, ‘to’, ‘ours’, ‘had’, ‘she’, ‘all’, ‘no’, ‘when’, ‘at’, ‘any’, ‘before’, ‘them’, ‘same’, ‘and’, ‘been’, ‘have’, ‘in’, ‘will’, ‘on’, ‘does’, ‘yourselves’, ‘then’, ‘that’, ‘because’, ‘what’, ‘over’, ‘why’, ‘so’, ‘can’, ‘did’, ‘not’, ‘now’, ‘under’, ‘he’, ‘you’, ‘herself’, ‘has’, ‘just’, ‘where’, ‘too’, ‘only’, ‘myself’, ‘which’, ‘those’, ‘i’, ‘after’, ‘few’, ‘whom’, ‘t’, ‘being’, ‘if’, ‘theirs’, ‘my’, ‘against’, ‘a’, ‘by’, ‘doing’, ‘it’, ‘how’, ‘further’, ‘was’, ‘here’, ‘than’]

Now we’ll iterate through each example in our data and remove every word from our data that is present in the stop word list.

Punctuations

Punctuations are symbols that we use to emphasize our text. for e.g. : ! , @ , # , $ , etc.

How to process them? We’ll process them similarly as we have processed the Stop Words, we will create a list of them and process each example with that list.

URLs and Handles

Stemming

Stemming is a process of reducing a word to its base stem word. e.g. ‘turn’ is a stem word of turning, turns, turned, etc. Since stem word delivers the same sentimental value for all its suffixed words thus, we can reduce each word to its base stem that can reduce our vocabulary size and training time as well.

How to process them? Process them by creating some function ‘do_stemming()’ which will take the data and stem the words of each example.

Lower Casing

We should use similar letter cases for each word in data so that to represent ‘Word’, ‘WORD’, ‘word’ there should only be a single case to follow i.e. lower case, this can also help to reduce vocabulary size and eliminate repetition of words.

How to process them? iterate through each example use .lower() method to make convert every piece of text into lower case.

Vocabulary Corpus

After preprocessing the data it’s time to create a vocabulary that will store each unique word and assign some numeric value to each distinct word (this is also called Tokenization).

We’ll use this vocabulary dictionary for feature extraction.

Feature Extraction

One of the problems, while working with language processing is that machine learning algorithms cannot work on the raw text directly. So, we need some feature extraction techniques to convert text into a matrix(or vector) of numerical features.

Let’s take some positive and negative tweet examples:

NOTE: The above example is not processed so we'll process it first before moving on to further steps. Sparse Representation

It’s a naive approach to extract features of a text. According to sparse representation, we can create a feature matrix by iterating through whole data, and for each word, in the text example we’ll assign 1 at the position of that word in the vocabulary list and for non-occurring words, we’ll assign 0. So, our feature matrix will have rows=total sentences in our data and columns=total words in the vocabulary.

Large Training time

Large Prediction time

Frequency Dictionary

A frequency dictionary keeps track of the Positive and Negative frequencies of each word in our data.

Positive Frequency: The Number of times a word occurred in sentences with positive sentiment.

Negative Frequency: The Number of times a word occurred in sentences with negative sentiment.

Feature extraction with Frequency Dictionary :

Using Frequency Dictionary for feature extraction, we can reduce the dimensions of each row representing each sentence of a feature matrix (i.e. equal to the number of words in vocabulary in case of sparse representation) to three dimensions.

Features of a text data are extracted with feature dictionary using the following formulae:

The process almost looks like:

Now we have a 3-dimensional feature vector for our tweet that looks like :

Xm= [1,8,11]

Now we’ll iterate through every example to extract features of each example then we’ll use those features to create the feature matrix that we can use for training. In the end, we have some feature matrix like –

Logistic Regression for Sentiment Analysis

Logistic regression models the probabilities for classification problems with two possible outcomes. It’s an extension of the linear regression model for classification problems.

Training Sentiment Analysis model

Training of our model will follow the following steps:

We initialize our parameter θ, that we can use in our sigmoid, we then compute the gradient that we will use to update θ and then calculate the cost. We’ll keep repeating the steps until the cost minimizes/converges.

Testing our Model

To test our model we’ll use our Validation set and follow the following steps:

Split the data into X_validation (text) and Y_validation (sentiment).

Use feature extraction for X_validation to transform texts into numerical features.

Find the vector h (= sigmoid(

θ

T

x

)) for each text in the validation set.

Map some function to get the actual classes while comparing with a threshold.

Find the accuracy of our predictions.

Summary

Natural Language Processing is a vast domain of AI its applications are used in various paradigms such as Chatbots, Sentiment Analysis, Machine Translation, Autocorrect, etc. and I’ve just covered a grain of the topic so in case you want to learn more there are various e-learning platforms and freely distributed articles, papers, etc. which can be useful for you to go further in the journey.

References: Natural Language Processing Specialization

 

Related

How To Fix(Netsvcs) Issues In Windows 10/11

How to fix chúng tôi (netsvcs) issues in Windows 10/11

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That group of services includes User Manager, Task Scheduler, Windows Update, BITS, Themes, Remote Desktop Configuration and a few more that are fairly essential to Windows 10.

The big idea behind chúng tôi is that a group of services share a single process to preserve system resources. However, some users have found that chúng tôi (netsvcs) has excessively high CPU or RAM usage.

Sometimes this can amount to netsvcs hogging up to 50% RAM. chúng tôi (netsvcs) hogging system resources is an issue that has persisted since Windows 7, and it can be due to malware, Windows Updates or a full Event Viewer log.

How to fix chúng tôi errors

The chúng tôi (netsvcs) system process will open the Service tab with netsvc services highlighted as in the snapshot below when you select Go to service(s).

1. Scan for Malware

If you find that netsvcs has overly high CPU or RAM usage, there are a few potential fixes for the issue. A bloated chúng tôi (netsvcs) system process can often be due to malware.

As such, scan for malware with an anti-virus utility. There are various third-party utilities that purge malware, but you can also scan with Windows Defender as follows.

Press the Cortana button on the taskbar, and enter ‘Defender’ in the search box.

Select to open Windows Defender shown directly below.

Press the Turn On button to activate the utility. Note that you’ll need to close third-party anti-virus software to scan with Windows Defender.

Select the Full option for a more thorough scan.

Press the Scan now button.

If Windows Defender detects anything, you can then press a Clean PC button to delete detected items.

2. Clear the Event Viewer Log

Expert tip:

Press the Win key + R to open Run.

Enter ‘eventvwr’ in Run’s text box, and press the OK button. That opens Event Viewer shown directly below.

In addition, clear the logs for Setup, System and Security.

Then you can restart Windows 10.

3. Run the Windows Update Troubleshooter

The high system resource usage of netsvcs often occurs during Windows updates. Thus, the Windows Update service (wuauserv) is usually causing the excessive CPU and RAM usage of netsvcs. Running the Windows Update Troubleshooter can help fix wuauserv.

Press the Next button in the troubleshooter.

Press the Run the Windows 10 Windows Update Troubleshooter button to launch a more recent version of the troubleshooter.

Restart your desktop or laptop.

4. Delete the SoftwareDistribution Folder

SoftwareDistribution is a folder that stores updates, and clearing that out can also help fix Windows Update. To empty that folder, press the Win key + R hotkey to open Run.

Enter ‘services.msc’ in Run’s text box, and press the OK button.

Press the File Explorer button on the taskbar.

Open the C: Windows folder, which includes the SoftwareDistribution subfolder.

Then restart your desktop or laptop, and check for updates with the Settings app.

5. Switch off the Wuauserv Service

Switching Windows Update off should be a last potential fix. Windows Update is not exactly an essential service, but you’ll miss out on updates with it off. Update patches fix bugs in Windows, and the major updates add new options and apps to the OS.

For instance, the Creators Update adds Paint 3D to Windows 10. Nevertheless, you can switch wuauserv off as follows.

Open Run by pressing the Win key + R keyboard shortcut.

Select Disabled from the Startup drop-down menu.

Press the Apply and OK buttons.

Thereafter, you can manually check for updates by temporarily switching wuauserv back on every few months. Switch the Windows Update Startup type to Manual to restart wuauserv, and then you can manually check for updates. When you’ve updated the platform, switch wuauserv off again.

Those fixes can ensure that chúng tôi (netsvcs) doesn’t drain system resources so much. You can also try switching off other services in the netsvcs group much the same as Windows Update, but some of those might be fairly essential to the OS.

So check the service details included on the properties windows before switching them off.

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