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KICK.IO has big plans for the upcoming year, and one, in particular, will definitely make a significant change for both the platform and our users. 

The dawn of cross-chain bridges

Since its inception, blockchain technology has come forward as one of the most reliable ways of virtual asset transfer without third-party players. And now, this far-reaching technology is going even further. Instead of keeping within the limits of one blockchain – cross-chain bridges will help move away from segregation and tribalism to blockchain interoperability. 

And chúng tôi is not far behind – we’re expanding beyond Cardano. We believe that the implementation of cross-chain solutions is the future. Cardano is our home, and our goal is to stay Cardano-centric. However, introducing chúng tôi to other blockchains will be a fundamental part of our road ahead.

One of our key missions is to create a safe and inclusive environment for everyone to launch projects, vote, and be a part of our soon-to-be-upgraded project endorsement system. That’s exactly why chúng tôi will start operating on different blockchains. 

This will allow us to take a step further towards a more unified and diverse ecosystem. It’ll also help better accommodate changing needs and improve existing ways of communication and transfer processes between blockchains. And cross-chain bridges aren’t the only novelty feature chúng tôi will incorporate – there’s quite a bit more to look forward to in the upcoming year. 

Website update and a new endorsement system in 2023 Q2  

This quarter we’ll focus on three main points: UX/UI updates, a new 5 Tier endorsement system, and listing KICK tokens in a centralized exchange. The website update will help solve navigational obstacles as well as reflect our new focus. 

KICK.IO is currently the only platform that doesn’t limit its users and gives everyone an equal opportunity to buy into projects regardless of their monetary contribution. The 5 Tier endorsement system will help to consolidate this further. Instead of the existing 5% rewards rate, users will gain 7,5%, making their payout go up by 30% regardless of the Tier they choose.

And finally, the KICK token CEX listing process will significantly improve trading as it will allow trading tokens right here on KICK.IO. 

KICK.IO to build cross-chain bridges in 2023 Q3

This will be a crucial quarter for us. Aside from wrapping up and launching our website update, chúng tôi will also introduce cross-chain support that will include ERC20, BSC, and Polygon. It’s an important step forwards as this will help create a more cohesive ecosystem and open up new opportunities. 

Another important feature we plan to present is swap integration. As we seek to make chúng tôi a unifying platform, introducing the ability to swap different tokens and coins on our platform will both simplify the process and save time. 

2023 Q4 – platform decentralization

Aiming high and pushing ourselves forward is part of chúng tôi That’s why we’ll move to completely decentralize our platform and introduce wallet support. 

Another key aspect we’ll work on during this quarter will be the implementation of the voting system. This will give our users the opportunity to have a more meaningful impact on our ecosystem by voting on which new projects should be included on the platform.

Cardano Light DEX implementation in 2023 Q1 

The last step in our current roadmap encompasses changes to the Cardano blockchain. With the launch of a light version of decentralized trading, people will be able to trade tokens.



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Amd’ S 2010 Roadmap: Aggressive

SUNNYVALE, Calif. – AMD laid out an ambitious roadmap for 2010 and 2011 today, involving its much-hyped Fusion products as well as a slew of new processor technologies.

Specifically, Bergman talked up Fusion. Fusion is the combination of a GPU and CPU on one die. The graphics processor is now referred to as an Accelerated Processing Unit (APU). AMD expects to make the first silicon next year and ship by 2011.

Normally GPU releases come every two years, a much longer lead time than CPUs, as they have become considerably more complex than CPUs, but Bergman said that will change and APUs will come out as quickly as CPUs.

“I see no reason to do new GPUs every two years. We can do a new APU every year. It won’t necessarily be speeds with every release, but it will be something to give users the best visual experience possible,” he said.

The first product from AMD will be the “Maranello” server platform in the first half of 2010. It will consist of the new “Magny-Cours” Opteron 6100 processor, which will be a 12-core processor, and a new chipset.

For low-end solutions, there will be “San Marino,” which consists of a four- and six-core “Lisbon” Opteron 4100 processor with a new chipset and single- or dual-socket designs. These will be for low-end servers, some running at just six watts.

Bulldozer and Bobcat

In 2011 comes “Bulldozer,” an entirely new processor core for AMD. These will be 32nm processors using high-k metal gate technology, which runs much cooler than existing technologies. On the high end, they will be the Opteron 6200 line, codenamed “Interlagos,” with 12 or 16 cores. The 4200 series will have six or eight cores.

There will also be a low-end “Bulldozer” line, called “Bobcat.” It will be used in ultrathin and netbook form factors and is designed to be extremely small, highly flexible and single-threaded. It will run on as little as one watt of power.

There will be two new desktop platforms in the first half of 2010, “Leo” and “Dorado.” Leo will introduce the six-core Athlon, likely the “Thuban,” although AMD did not say it by name, while Dorado is a dual-, triple- and quad-core line with integrated graphics.

AMD is raising its performance claims for the notebook market. It launched “Puma,” AMD’s answer to Intel’s popular Centrino mobile platform last year. Puma launched with four hours of battery life under regular use. When “Tigris” came out earlier this year, it was raised to five hours.

The next generation of the platform, called “Danube,” comes out in the first half of next year and offers battery performance of up to seven hours of battery life. Also coming in the first half of 2010 is the ultra-thin platform Nile, which will feature a dual-core, 45nm processor and seven hours of battery life.

Here come Fusion notebooks

In 2011, the first Fusion notebooks hit. “Sabine” is the mainstream notebook platform with a quad-core CPU and the “Llano” APU. “Brazos” is AMD’s ultra-thin notebook platform slated for 2011 using a dual-core Bobcat processor.

On the GPU side, AMD will launch three new graphics cards codenamed “Cedar,” “Hemlock,” and “Redwood” in the first half of 2010, offering high definition, high performance graphics for both desktops and notebooks.

All of these will be based on the new 5800 generation of ATI Radeon HD chips. AMD will support the previous generation, the 4800, with three new parts for desktop and mobility called “Broadway,” “Madison” and “Park.”

So all told, in 2010, AMD plans to sample Bulldozer, Bobcat, and 32nm Fusion products to customers, while launching six new platforms and six new GPU products.

Article courtesy of chúng tôi

Apple’S Arm Mac Roadmap Leak Teases Supercharged Iphone Chips

Apple’s ARM Mac roadmap leak teases supercharged iPhone chips

Apple’s ARM-based Macs are coming in 2023, a new report claims, with the company intending to use a version of its homegrown iPhone and iPad processors to squeeze out Intel. The shift could be the biggest upheaval to Mac since the company migrated away from PowerPC to Intel x86 in 2006, though the ongoing coronavirus pandemic could force some massaging of the roadmap.

The strategy also paid off in terms of controlling the supply chain. Apple undoubtedly would not have been able to produce the new iPhone SE, for example – a $399 handset that uses the same flagship processor as its most expensive current iPhone – had it been forced to source the SoC from a third-party supplier. That leverage has long been expected to transition over to the company’s laptops and desktops.

Now, more details in that roadmap are emerging. Although there had been some reports that the first ARM-based Mac could arrive this year, the debut model is now not expected to launch until 2023, Bloomberg’s sources suggest. It’ll use one of at least three SoCs that Apple is apparently working on, based on the same Apple A14 chipset that is earmarked for the next iPhone.

Although similar in many ways, the change in form-factor from smartphone and tablet to something larger would allow for significant differentiation in Kalamata chips to the processors we’ve seen to-date. They’ll be much faster, for a start, the sources suggest; that’s probably in part down to Apple being able to install bigger batteries and more cooling, two factors which can limit how much a smartphone chip can be pushed.

Like in its phone chips, Apple is apparently using a combination of performance and efficiency cores. The SoC will be able to switch between them, using the more potent “Firestorm” cores for maximum processing grunt, and the more frugal “Icestorm” cores for prolonging battery life. The first chips could use eight Firestorm and at least four Icestorm cores, it’s claimed.

Even so, the performance is not expected to match the high-end Intel CPUs that Apple currently uses in its flagship MacBook Pro, iMac, and Mac Pro models, at least for the moment. What seems more likely is a return of something akin to the 12-inch MacBook, the discontinued fanless ultraportable that Apple offered in several generations between 2023 and 2023. That would position portability and efficiency as the primary appeal, rather than outright performance.

It’s a strategy we’ve seen others attempt, with mixed success. Qualcomm, for example – which is expected to provide the 5G modems that Apple will use for its upcoming 2023 flagship iPhone 12 announcement – now offers a number of SoCs for laptops, based on the same technology as its phone chips but intended for Windows 10 instead. They have the benefit of 20+ hours of battery life, along with always-on connectivity through an integrated cellular modem. The latter is something many Apple fans have long requested from the Cupertino firm’s notebooks, and which would presumably be easier to implement with an Ax-based ARM SoC.

On the software side, meanwhile, Apple has already set the wheels in motion. In parallel with Kalamata, work on which apparently began several years ago, Apple’s software engineers have been developing macOS tools that will allow iOS and iPadOS apps to run on Macs. Known as Catalyst, it’s been widely interpreted as a further push to bright what’s traditionally been siloed mobile and computing software closer together.

Any broad transition will undoubtedly take time, however, and it’s not the immediate end of Intel in Apple machines. The insiders caution that the roadmap could alter again, too, since the teams responsible have been disrupted by work-from-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, when the iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro get unveiled later this year, they’ll give us a glimmer of insight into the sort of technologies we could soon be experiencing in a new Mac come 2023.

Ccl Computers Power Their Latest Pre

CCL Computers power their latest pre-builts with Ryzen 5000 series CPUs

Exploring some of CCLs latest and greatest gaming PCs, powered by AMD’s Ryzen 5000 series CPUs.

CCL Computers power their latest pre-builts with Ryzen 5000 series CPUs! AMD has been dominating the CPU space since the release of Ryzen back in 2023, and that doesn’t look like it’s going to be changing any time soon. The latest batch of Ryzen processors is the Zen 3-based Ryzen 5000 series CPUs, featuring some of the most powerful CPUs AMD has ever made. 

CCL computers know this very well and have chosen to outfit their latest and greatest battle stations with AMD Ryzen 5000 series CPUs. CCL is renowned for its quality pre-built PCs, offering performance, stability, and quality at a price you can afford. Now, with AMD on its side, CCL just upgraded its pre-built game in a big way. 

AMD 5000 series CPUs

The 4th generation Ryzen 5000 series CPUs are based on AMD’s Zen 3 architecture, an architecture built upon TSMC’s 7nm process. A manufacturing process this small meant transistor density climbed through the roof over AMD’s previous 3000 series CPUs. This higher transistor count sent the 5000 series rocketing ahead with a 27% average performance uplift over the previous generation. 

Transistor density wasn’t all that changed as core speed took a reasonable uplift too, with the 5950X offering core speeds of up to 0.2GHz more over the 3950X. 0.2GHz may not seem much, but that’s with a smaller transistor architecture greatly increasing the IPC of the 5000 series CPUs. 

Although the clock speeds of some 5000 series CPUs can be lower than that of 3000 series CPUs, it’s the same 7nm architecture saving the day again resulting in much higher IPC counts. 

AMD Ryzen 5000 series and its variants

There’s a large selection of 5000 series CPUs for every performance-hungry builder to make full use of, here’s the full desktop series selection. 

Ryzen 5 

Here is a full list of the available Ryzen 5 desktop-compatible CPUs.

Ryzen 7 

Here is a full list of the available Ryzen 7 desktop-compatible CPUs.

Ryzen 9 

Here is a full list of the available Ryzen 9 desktop-compatible CPUs.

As you can see, AMD wanted to leave no stone unturned when manufacturing the 5000 series, this is a list of all desktop CPUs available to purchase in America and Europe. 

CCL, however, hand-picked the best value CPUs in terms of price, performance, and efficiency to power their top-of-the-line pre-builts. 

Why choose AMD over Intel?

A very good question, one that has been asked by many gamers for decades. 

If you want to know more about the battle between AMD and Intel, check out our AMD Vs Intel article.


While Intel’s 12th-generation CPUs look fancy, perform well, and have a massive price tag to boot, they’re destroyed by AMD’s 5000 series CPUs in a few ways.


Now no CPU should ever be described as ‘cheap’ and describing any 5000 series CPU as such would be an injustice, but Ryzen 5000 CPUs, especially this close to the release of Zen 4, are a huge bargain. 

CCL has transferred that saving right into its prebuilt machines, offering some of the best prices on the Ryzen 5000 series pre-builts we have ever seen. 

AM4 platform

The AM4 platform is groundbreaking and has been its entire life. AM4 was the first platform to introduce PCIe Gen 4, a massive improvement in both bandwidth and performance over the previous generation. 

The AM4 socket has been around for a little over five years now, and it’s been subject to optimizations and improvements throughout its entire life. The AM4 platform is now the most optimized and well-established CPU platform we may ever see. It’s no surprise then, that AMD and AM4 are a favorite in the industry, even if the X570 chipset does have a noisy cooling fan. 

The chipset hierarchy for AM4 and Ryzen 5000 series is as follows: 

Usually, the better chipsets are lettered towards the end of the alphabet, depending on whether it’s for AMD or Intel. X is better than B for AMD, it’s usually in reverse alphabetical order. So, an X570 chipset will be better than a B450 because the letter is later in the alphabet and the number is higher. 

Again CCL has chosen wisely in choosing the 5000 series CPUs, as they are now able to utilize this well-optimized motherboard platform and all the perfect synergy AM4 brings. 

CCL product overview

Here, we have outlined a few of our favorite CCL pre-builts, and we’re going to take a look at the specs, price, and application of each system.

Nazare 9390a RTX iCUE Gaming PC

First up, we have the balls-to-the-wall Nazare 9390a. This machine is overkill for most gaming applications but has plenty of use in the content production/simulation and workstation side of computing. This PC will handle anything you can throw at it. We selected this PC mostly for the massive £1,298 savings to be had in line with recent component price drops. 


Here are the specifications for the Nazare 9390a.

CPU: AMD Ryzen™ 9 5950X

RAM: Corsair Vengeance RGB PRO SL DDR4 64GB

MOBO: ASUS ROG Strix X570-E Gaming WiFi II

GPU: Unspecified GeForce RTX 3090

Storage: 2TB Seagate FireCuda® 530

PSU Corsair RM1000x 1000W

Cooler: Corsair iCUE H150i Elite Capellix

Case: Corsair iCUE 4000X RGB

As we stated before, this is an overkill machine. However, it’s also the PC you save the most money on. The Nazare 9390a features the best AMD CPU on the market, the 5950X, paired with 64GB of Ryzen-ready ultra-fast Corsair vengeance RAM. 

The CPU is water-cooled by one of Corsair’s best CPU AIO coolers, the H150i Elite Capellix. This CPU cooler performs incredibly well and will have no trouble keeping the 5950X’s 105W TDP at bay. 

The GPU is none other than the RTX 3090, the brand is unspecified, however, but is there really such thing as a bad 3090? The RTX 3090 chews through any gaming application thrown at it and is more suited to simulation and workstation-level computing. This is exactly what we think Nazare 9390a is designed for. 

All of these components are built beautifully into one of Corsair’s most stunning cases, the 4000X RGB. This case in our opinion is one of Corsair’s best, superseded only by the 5000X. But we do feel the 4000X has a certain charm that the 5000X lacks. Good choices by CCL all around. 

Grab your Nazare 9390a here.

Nazare 7681a iCUE RX Gaming PC

The catchy Nazare 7681 is the more mid-range option in CCL’s Ryzen 5000 series line-up, and still comes packed full of some serious technology. You can also save £539 on this PC right now, again due to recent market changes. This PC is best for your heavy all-out 4k gaming needs. 


CPU: AMD Ryzen™ 7 5800X

RAM: Corsair Vengeance RGB PRO SL DDR4 16GB


GPU: Radeon RX 6800 XT 16GB

Storage: 1TB Seagate FireCuda® 530

PSU: Corsair RM850 850W

Cooler: Corsair iCUE H100i Elite Capellix

Case: Corsair iCUE 4000X RGB

The CPU is cooled by one of Corsair’s H100i Elite Capellix CPU coolers, this is the same as the CPU cooler in the previous build, but is 120mm smaller. Don’t let its size fool you though, the larger variant only performed about 20% better in our testing. 

All of these incredible components are again built into Corsair’s 4000X, CCL packing style in addition to power into its Ryzen 5000 powered pre-builts. 

Grab your Nazare 7681a here.

Horizon 7M AMD RTX 3060Ti Gaming PC

The Horizon 7M is the most budget option of CCL’s Ryzen 5000 series powered pre-builts, but don’t let the word “budget” fool you. This PC can be had for a saving of £100 off the already incredibly reasonable price. This PC is best for your lighter 1440p gaming and streaming needs. 


CPU: AMD Ryzen™ 7 5700X

RAM: Kingston FURY™ Beast RGB DDR4 16GB

MOBO: Gigabyte B550M DS3H AC

GPU: Unspecified GeForce RTX 3060 Ti

Storage: 1TB Samsung 980

PSU: Antec NeoECO Classic 650W


Case: GameMax Kamikaze Pro

When you heard the word “budget” you certainly don’t think of a Ryzen 7 5700X, however, this is exactly what CPU you get powering the Horizon 7M. This Ryzen 7 is second from the top in the Ryzen 7 family and doesn’t fall much shorter than the 5800X in terms of performance. 

The CPU is cooled by the MSI MAG CORELIQUID 240R, that’s right, even the budget PCs are liquid-cooled at CCL. This bad boy of an AIO performs well against the mainstream contenders on the market, this includes entries from ASUS and Corsair. 

The GPU is the award-winning RTX 3060 Ti, this GPU is one of the best budget cards on the market to date, and offers an amazing price to performance ratio. The performance of the 3060 Ti is similar to the last generation 2070 Super but at a fraction of the price. 

Grab your Horizon 7M here.

Final word 

CCL is offering some amazing pre-built PCs here, all powered by AMD’s best CPU generation to date, the Ryzen 5000 series. Whether you’re looking for a budget PC or an all-out overkill beast, CCL has you covered. Head over to CCL’s website now to find a PC that’s right for you, at a price you can afford. 

How Small Businesses Empower Their Communities

There’s a reason people champion Small Business Saturday every year: Shoppers want to pour money into neighborhood businesses that boost the local economy. However, the impact of small businesses in the U.S. is more than economic. Find out how America’s small businesses give back to the communities they serve, and get ideas for how your company can partner with the local community.

How small businesses empower their communities

Small business is big in America: There are 32.5 million small businesses across the country, according to the Small Business Administration (SBA), and they employ 61.2 million people. That’s 46.8% of all U.S. workers. Here are four ways small businesses enrich communities across the country.

1. Small businesses create jobs for local residents.

From 1995 to 2023, small businesses created 64% of all new private-sector jobs, per the SBA. That’s 4.8 million more jobs than the biggest private-sector employers in the U.S. provided in that same time span.

By giving jobs to workers in their communities, small businesses promote economic self-sufficiency and help to reduce poverty, according to the National Community Reinvestment Coalition (NCRC), which supports entrepreneurial efforts in low- and moderate-income areas. When small businesses thrive in these communities, the NCRC says, it creates jobs that foster “neighborhood wealth and financial stability.”


The SBA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture provide government loans for entrepreneurs. Funding can get your startup off the ground or help expand your growing business.

2. Small business revenue stays in local communities.

Big corporations don’t invest nearly as much money in the communities they serve as local businesses do. Instead, they return it to shareholders or invest in other regions. Local communities benefit more when that money is reinvested in the neighborhood – precisely what many small businesses do.

By employing local residents, small businesses put the money they generate back into the pockets of community members. Additionally, small businesses often work with fellow neighborhood small businesses as suppliers. For example, a chef at an area restaurant might stop by the neighborhood farmers market each week to purchase fresh, homegrown produce for the restaurant’s weekly special. That, too, keeps money local.

3. Small businesses spark innovation.

In recent years, big companies around the country have been trying to make their teams operate more like startups in order to maintain a competitive edge. Given the huge discrepancy in resources and capital between a large corporation and a small startup, this may seem like odd behavior. But studies repeatedly show that small companies are much more efficient innovators and more likely to develop new technology. Small businesses punch way above their weight in research and development.

Important innovations that come from a small business can transform neighborhoods, towns and cities. For instance, when the Wright brothers invented the first flying machine, they not only revolutionized transportation but also put their town on the map. Over 100 years later, the benefits of their invention are still being enjoyed by the city of Dayton, Ohio, their hometown, as well as Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, where the first flight took place.

4. Small businesses create opportunities for women, minorities and immigrants.

Economic data from recent years shows that women, minorities and immigrants are pursuing their dreams of building their own businesses. Many marginalized groups have realized that starting a business may be the most pragmatic route to financial independence and prosperity. And because entrepreneurship from these demographics has been high, the communities in which these entrepreneurs live have felt the positive impact. 

According to the U.S. Senate Committee on Small Business & Entrepreneurship, minority-owned companies in the U.S. collectively amass nearly $700 billion in annual sales. When these business ventures succeed, their communities reap the rewards in the form of jobs, increased tax revenue, neighborhood leadership and more. [Related article: Successful Businesses You Didn’t Know Were Run by Women]

Did You Know?

Some small business grants are geared toward minorities. There are also business grants for women entrepreneurs.

Ways small businesses can work with local communities

Being a visible part of the neighborhood where your business is located creates closer bonds with community members who will be more apt to purchase your company’s goods and services. Here are some meaningful ways to get your business more involved with the local community.

Send staff to do charity work.

One impactful way to show your business’s commitment to the local community is by giving staffers paid time off to do charity work in the area. Ask customers and employees which local charities they care about the most, and seek organizations whose aims match the values of your client base. Commit to supporting these charities regularly through volunteer work and financial contributions. 

Charity work also has upsides for your business: Employees will appreciate the chance to give back to their own community on company time, locals will view your business as philanthropic and you could even generate favorable press coverage. [Getting local publicity should be a key goal of your small business marketing plan.]

Offer a local sponsorship.

If giving staff paid leave to work for charities is too expensive or burdensome for your business’s operations, offer to sponsor a charity drive instead. Get your name and brand on the donation forms and publicity material for the event. For example, supporting the local high school’s soccer or baseball team by taking out a shirt sponsorship is a great way to reach families with children. You’ll be marketing your business and providing funds for community events at the same time.

Give presentations at schools.

Many young Americans dream of starting their own companies but don’t know where to start, and your knowledge is valuable. Get in touch with the business studies teachers at local schools, and offer to talk to students and answer their questions about opening and running a business. 

Presentations don’t have to be limited to your exact entrepreneurial footsteps. If you run a local restaurant, for example, show parents how to prepare healthy meals on a tight budget. If your business is known for upcycling, lead a workshop showing community members how to transform things they already own into useful new products. Sharing actionable information allows you to appear as a local expert while improving the lives of those around you.

Host internships for high school students.

Seek out local students for summer internships, after-school work and weekend help. Interns are typically eager to learn and prove themselves. By regularly employing student interns from the neighborhood, you’ll exhibit your commitment to supporting and developing the community’s next generation. You may also discover a future star or burgeoning leader. With the right mentorship, they won’t forget how you helped them and will be likely to follow your example of giving back.

Meredith Wood contributed to the writing and reporting in this article.

Neolithic Surgeons Might Have Practiced Their Skull

Bovine brain surgery is pretty rare. So if you were visiting the Neolithic dig site at Champ-Durand in France and you found a roughly 5,200 year-old cow skull with a large hole in it, you’d probably assume it was an accidental goring. Perhaps some other cow stabbed this one in the head with its horn. You’d dutifully record your observations, assigning blame to some long-lost murder cow and move on, confident in your analysis.

But you’d be wrong—at least in this case.

French researchers recently revisited the purported goring victim’s skull and realized that this was no accident. The hole was too regular and round. There were no signs of trauma. And little cut-marks near the gaping hole look like the result of a sharp tool, not a giant horn. In fact, they resembled the scrapes seen on human skulls that have undergone trepanation, which is exactly what these scientists think happened to this ancient bovine. They recently published their results in the journal Scientific Reports.

What’s trepanation, you say? Glad you asked. Back in the day—the day being almost any from the Neolithic age through the Renaissance—people used trepanation in an attempt to cure all kinds of mental ailments. The procedure was simple, if dangerous: drill a hole in the person’s skull. It’s one of the earliest known operations, and there’s evidence that it was sometimes even successful. Someone suffering from a disease that increased cranial pressure, like a brain hemorrhage, could actually benefit from the procedure. Of course, ancient surgeons also thought it could cure seizures and psychological issues, none of which can be mitigated with a giant hole in your head.

Even if it rarely cured anyone, at least some people survived the operation. Archaeologists have found skulls with signs of significant healing, showing that the person lived long enough for their bones to remodel (it takes a couple days just to start that process).

Marks on the cow skull (a, b, c) as compared to a human skull that underwent trepanation (d, e) Fernando Ramirez Rozzi

Now, it’s not that any Neolithic humans thought this cow was suffering from a mental disorder, or even that they were trying to save its life. There’s no sign of bone remodeling, which means either this bovine didn’t survive the operation or the procedure started after the cow was already dead. The scientists think it may have been a kind of practice round for ancient surgeons. Drilling holes in skulls is precarious work, and it would have paid to practice on something you cared less about that a human. A live cow might have done the trick, or even a recently deceased one.

They’re not sure yet how common this was because this is the earliest known example of animal surgery. Fernando Ramirez Rozzi, one of the two co-authors on the study, noted that there is one other skull from approximately the same era that might have also been a case of trepanation. A picture of the skull (a wild boar this time) was published in a 1948 paper, but Rozzi says, “unfortunately this skull was never dated and was found out of an archaeological context.” If were a trepanned skull, it would show that this operation was more common on animals than previously thought. “But,” he says, “without dates and without archaeological context it is impossible to say anything,” and unfortunately no one has any idea where the skull might be today.

There may also be evidence hiding amongst known skull fragment as well. “It is very difficult to find the whole skull of an animal in archaeological context,” Rozzi explains. There are plenty of bone pieces that show marks from trepanation procedures, but those were all marked as human skulls—no one considered that they could belong to another creature. “Probably we need to observe these pieces more carefully and consider if they are a part of an animal skull.” Rozzi says.

If Rozzi and colleagues can reclassify some of those fragments, we might have found the answer to how ancient surgeons mastered the art of trepanation. The very fact that people survived the operation, given the state of medicine thousands of years ago, has always been impressive. Perhaps we have cows to thank for that.

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