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Introduction to Scala Versions

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

In this article, we have listed down all the major releases of Scala that have shaped the language as it is now. With this article, we hope to give you a ride into what has changed over the years and how the language has evolved. So let’s get started.

Scala Versions

Below are all the versions in Scala up to date and with the main features in all the versions:


2.5.0 was released around May 2007. Below are some of the main features in this version,

Early Object Initialization: It allows initializing some fields of an object before any parent constructors are called.

For-Comprehensions, Revised: Change in the syntax of for-comprehensions. The old syntax is can be reused. It will be deprecated in future versions.

Implicit Anonymous Functions: It is now possible to define anonymous functions using underscores in the parameter position.

Refined Pattern Matching Anonymous Functions: It is now possible to use case clauses to define a function value directly for functions of arities greater than one.


Below are the changes that went towards the 2.6.0 version,

Existential Types: It allows defining existential types using the new keyword forSome.

Lazy Values: It allows defining lazy value declarations using the new modifier lazy.

Structural Types: It allows declaring structural types using type refinements.


Case Classes Functionality Extended: In every case now class a companion extractor object is generated by scala compiler.


Type Specialisation: The compiler will generate multiple versions of a given definition and will use the most specific version when the static type info at the call site allows it.

Named and Default Arguments: Added support for Named and Default args. Readability is improved by using Named args for a method call with many args. Code duplication is reduced by the use of Default args.

Package Objects: From this version onwards Packages can now have fields or type aliases apart from classes and objects. They can be added to a package by declaring a package object.

Improved Annotations: Support for nested java annotations. For annotations on fields, it allows specifying which synthetic members (getter/setter) will have the annotation.


Parallel Collections

From this version onwards every collection can be converted to its corresponding parallel implementation. This can be done using its new par method. Parallel collections are useful as they utilize the multicore processors by implementing the filter, map, foreach, etc in parallel. One can find parallel collections in package scala.collection.parallel

Thread-safe App trait replaces the Application trait.

DelayedInit trait

A new tool for customization of the initialization sequence of classes and objects is provided by the DelayedInit trait.

The @strictfp annotation is now supported.

Multiple fixes are pushed towards JavaConverters and JavaConversions allowing smooth interoperation. Now the Primitive types and their boxed versions will be implicitly converted, in both directions.

VERSION 2.10.0

Value Classes: In this version, by extending naval the class can now behave like a struct type

Implicit Classes: One can now use the implicit modified to class definitions further reducing the boilerplate code required for implicit wrappers.

String Interpolation: With the addition of string interpolation users can now add variable references directly in processed string literals.


val name = "James" println(s"Hello, $name")

Futures and Promises: Futures can run many operations in parallel in an efficient and non-blocking way. A promise is like a writable, single-assignment container, which completes a future.

Dynamic and Applydynamic: chúng tôi can now be written as x.applyDynamic(“foo”) if foo is not defined by x’s type, but is a subtype of Dynamic

Dependent Method Types:

def depMethod(a: AnyRef): chúng tôi = a

New Bytecode Emitter Based on Asm

The new version will be able to target JDK 1.5, 1.6 and 1.7

bytecode version 1.6 is emitted by default.

The older 1.5 backends are now deprecated.

Introduced a New Version of Pattern Matcher

The old pattern matcher was rewritten to provi.

code generation and analysis are now independent.

Akka Actors Are a Part of The Language Now: Akka implementation is now a standard way to use the Actor model in Scala now. The scala.actors will be deprecated from this version onwards.

Other Features

??? and NotImplementedError added.

IsTraversableOnce and  IsTraversableLike type classes added for the extension methods.

Floating point and octal literal syntax no longer used.

Scala.dbc is removed

Support for configuring custom thread pools with Parallel collections.

VERSION 2.11.0

Some of the highlights of this version are as mentioned below,

Collection performance improvements.

Faster filters, unions, and the like, with improved structural sharing (lower memory usage or churn) for Immutable HashMaps and HashSets.

 Mutable LongMap and AnyRefMap are added to provide improved performance when keys are Long or AnyRef.

BigDecimal now has support for a more verbose and explicit about numeric representations and rounding values. It also supports handling large values without exhausting memory.

Compiler performance improvements.

The incremental compilation has been improved significantly in this version.

VERSION 2.12.0

Java 8 required

Java 8 bytecode generated

Java 8 SAM (Functional interface) language support

VERSION 2.13.0

Standard library collections are rewritten towards the end goal of performance, safety and most importantly simplicity.

The future is now faster and is more robust. In the other parts, useful methods and classes have been added.

Literal types, partial unification, and by-name implicits are some of the additions on the language front.

The compiler is now 5 to 10% faster with a deterministic output. There has been some improvement in the optimizer as well.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Scala Versions. Here we discuss all the versions in Scala up to date and with main features in all the versions with a brief introduction to the major releases of scala. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more –

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Ashes Of Creation Release Date, Rumors, And News

MMORPGs, you either love them, or you hate them. I love them, always have. Any chance I get to spend hours in character creation, explore open worlds, and experience the lawless state that is voice chat is a chance I’m going to take. So, when I first set out to research this article, I was already excited. Ashes of Creation is set to be a new kind of MMORPG, where what you do really can shape the world you’re playing in, instead of just being another box ticked off your quest list.

As it stands Ashes of Creation is still in Beta testing, which means we still don’t have any kind of solid release from the creators. But, what this does mean is you’re still able to try out aspects of the game while you wait. They are currently running an open Beta which they’ve called Ashes of Creation: Apocolypse. In this limited version of the game, they’re allowing early adopters to test out the game systems and help them find and fix any bugs.

You can’t just log on when you want right now, though. They are only allowing access during scheduled play sessions. The Beta might not have all the functionality of the full game, and will definitely be packed full of bugs, but it’s a great option if you just can’t wait to get your hands on this epic MMO game. 

Apocolypse Beta Release

The battle royale version of the game is now available through Steam Early Access, so you can get your hands on a small part of the game. Some fans are still a bit disgruntled that the MMO they’ve backed on Kickstarter is still just a PvP game, but hopefully, we’ll get the full version soon.

What’s the Story?

As the game begins, you’ll be arriving on a “fallen world untouched by civilizations,” and it’s your job to build an empire, create a community, or whatever else you feel like. The decisions the players make, as a whole, will shape the world into what they want it to be. Every server will be different; no two worlds will be the same.

As with the majority of fantasy-based games, you have four races and eight sub-races to choose from when creating your character; Aela Humans (Kaelar and Vaelune sub-races), Pyrian Elves (Empyrean and Py’rai sub-races), Kaivek Orcs (Ren’Kai and Vek sub-races), and Dünzenkell Dwarves (Dünir and Niküa sub-races). Each race comes with a backstory so that you can integrate into your gameplay, a coup for fans of the RPG side of things. 

You also get to choose between eight primary classes, all of which are typical of RPG systems: Mage, Summoner, Cleric, Bard, Fighter, Tank, Ranger, and Rogue. As you progress, you will then also be able to add in a secondary class, opening up the possible builds to a total 64 – giving you plenty of scope for character building and customization. 

Ashes of Creation Gameplay

As with any MMORPG, there are multiple layers that make up the gameplay, with Ashes of Creation, these can be split into three categories; world-building, questing, and combat.


Different areas of the world are ripe for development. These areas can be bought up by players and developed in whatever way they choose. Whether you want to create a small settlement or a sprawling metropolis, the choice is yours. Or, you can stay away from civilization altogether, choosing instead to live a solitary life in the wilderness. But, beware. Without the protection of an established city, you’re at the mercy of the wild. 


It’s an MMORPG, so there has to be questing, or it just doesn’t count. But, what’s different with AoC is that the preset quest chains can change and alter based on how the players shape the world around them. The game promises to be constantly developing as it goes – and if this is true, it really will be pretty amazing. It always chafed me in WoW when your quests were setup as world-changing events, and then it reset ready for the next player. This game promises to avoid that, so I’m definitely listening. 


Whether you’re a PvP fan or not, you can’t argue that combat is an essential aspect of these games. The Ashes of Creation combat can be split into three different camps; Player vs. Player, Player vs. Environment, and Sieges. For regular MMO players, PvP and PvE will be familiar bedfellows. What’s unique here is the siege combat. 

If a group of players manages to secure their own castle, they’re going to have to defend it from the rest of the server. These massively multiplayer siege warfare options are something I certainly haven’t experienced before. I know how crazy group raids can get on games like WoW, but the chance to actually own a castle at the end of it? Pretty damn cool. 

Is It Any Good?

The standalone prequel to Ashes of Creation is still in Beta, but anyone can join and give it a try. They recently released some gameplay footage from their Alpha version though for us to investigate. The footage they released is disappointing, to say the least. The combat looks clunky, and the camera angles seem off for the most part. 

The screen layout seems pretty standard for an MMO, but so do the attacks. Part of me was expecting something a bit different in this area, given the multitude of class options available to choose from. But, until the final product is revealed, we won’t know for sure how much of this will change.

Designers Mock Up Apple Watch Versions Of Popular Ios Applications

Thinkapps’ Build Blog has published a few designer mockups showing what popular third-party applications might look like on Apple’s new smartwatch with some interesting results. The apps were created by several different designers, and you can see that each app maintains some of the branding and design you’d expect while conforming to the smaller wearable UI and its new input devices like the Digital Crown.

Above you’ll find the design for Facebook Messenger, which features a contact view made up of circular contact photos with online indicators that closely resembles the watch’s home screen. The message view sports a single reply button that presumably uses the device’s built-in dictation capability to compose a response.

Below you’ll find designs for apps like Beats Music, Skype, Uber, YouTube, and more. Keep in mind that these designs are hardly official, but represent the types of user interfaces you might see when the folks in Cupertino release the Apple Watch early next year.

The theorized watch version of the Apple-owned Beats Music maintains the same “Now Playing” screen design and the round genre bubbles that define the iOS version. The circular design language actually fits in fairly well on the Apple Watch without much coercion, since most of that UI also relies on circles.

The Skype design uses similar incoming call controls to those of the iPhone, with round accept and decline buttons matching their smartphone counterparts almost exactly. Circles are present throughout the UI, as is the case with most Apple Watch designs. Incoming text messages can be replied to using a series of canned responses or through dictation, just like native SMS and iMessages.

The bite-sized version of Yelp forgoes the popular circular interface elements for something packed a bit more densely with information. Native dictation and map views are combined with an overview that provides quick access to a venue’s phone number, location, rating, hours, and more.

Two different designs were published for the Tinder app. The first uses circles for photos and positions controls in the corners of the screen like some of the stock watchfaces. The app’s signature swiping mechanic is left intact, and the messaging system uses a combination of built-in replies and dictation like the native text messaging solution.

The second design takes a different approach to some elements. While swiping is present, most other controls are relegated to a Control Center-like menu that slides up from the bottom and presents options for using a “doodle” feature that functions like the built-in feature of the same name.

The YouTube design uses a grid of circular thumbnails, which unfortunately may not be the best shape for a video. Tapping a video on this grid brings up the player, which sports YouTube’s usual red play button and progress bar as well as the view counter and controls for liking or disliking a video, or changing the volume. It seems unlikely that users would want to watch a significant number of YouTube videos on such a small screen, though it could be used for casual viewing.

The Apple Watch mockup of Beats competitor Spotify uses a similar design for its Now Playing screen, but the similarities end there. Instead of a cluster of genres to choose from, the Spotify app makes use of a full list of artists which doesn’t display as well on the small screen and likely makes a difficult tap target. A much more convenient grid of album artwork is also present, which seems like a more appropriate design for a watch.

The Uber watch app mockups blends in well with the OS even though it maintains much of its own design. Circular displays for search progress, driver photos, and other elements fit in nicely, and the screen is uncluttered for the most part. Users can dictate a location and see driver ratings and car info from their wrist, then call a the driver directly from overview.

The Lyft car service also got mocked up by Thinkapps’ designers, though it features a less refined inerface than the Uber version. Most of the screen consist of large square images that can presumably be swiped to move to the next one. A single “request Lyft” screen proides a quick look at your car, driver, and destination.

Not much had to be changed to make the Moves app fit in on the Apple Watch. The iPhone version of the app already makes heavy use of circles, including on its icon. All that really needed to be done here was to fit the existing screens onto a smaller display. With very few minor tweaks, the app feels right at home.

The Pinterest mockup doesn’t really fit in with the iPhone version’s look or the Apple Watch design language. It uses menus filled with text which don’t seem to fit very well on a watch, along with small controls jammed into a control bar at the bottom of most screens. Pinterest as a whole doesn’t seem like the type of service you’d really want to browse from your wrist, likely due to its heavy use of images and the requirement to display a lot of text—neither of which work well at this size.

You can head over to the Thinkapps blog to get some more insight into what the designers intended for each mockup.

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Call Of Duty Modern Warfare Release Date, Rumors, And News

With what seems like almost yearly releases of Call of Duty, you’re never too far away from your next hit of action. Some people have already had the chance to play the latest title during the alpha held between the 23rd-25th August, which showcased the highly anticipated 2v2 mode.

If you missed this, then don’t worry, the rest of us will have the chance to do some catching up with the open beta that arrives September 14th. We don’t know for certain if this beta will have the same content as the alpha, but it would make a lot of sense to gather reactions from fans on some additional content before the final release. For those who are content to wait, the Call of Duty Modern Warfare release date isn’t too far away either.

Fans of the series will be able to play this ‘soft reboot’ of the Modern Warfare franchise soon enough. The release date for this title is penned to be October 25th as shown in a reveal trailer on the official Call of Duty YouTube channel. 

The newest installment in the franchise is set to take Call of Duty Modern Warfare back to its roots. It appears that, as usual, no expense has been spared when crafting the single-player experience. Players are set to experience some of the tougher choices in warfare, some of which have been compared to those seen in the popular title Spec Ops: The Line. 

Pre-Order Call of Duty Modern Warfare PS4

Pre-Order Call of Duty Modern Warfare Xbox One

With the release date looming ever closer, we’re already gearing up our PC builds to make sure they meet the system requirements needed for such a graphics-heavy game.

What We Have Seen so Far

Everybody that plays a Call of Duty title knows that the majority of time is going to be spent in multiplayer. This year the gameplay looks to be as frantic as ever! From a series known for its heart-pumping gunplay, we expected no less. 

With the game being released on Xbox One, PS4 and PC on October 25th we’ll finally be able to see how it all plays out. No doubt there will be post-release patches but the initial state of multiplayer is always unmissable. We already have some confirmed information on weapons and killstreaks, but seeing how they are balanced for the general audience is always interesting.

Final Thoughts 

With all the information we have seen so far we can’t wait to get our hands on this title and truly see how it matches up to its predecessors. Will it surpass the original Modern Warfare title or fall short? 

Infinity Ward has set themselves a tough task in matching the nostalgia we all have for those games, but if this game is as good as it looks, it could be the revamp the series sorely needs.

Of course, releasing under basically the same title as one of the most popular Call of Duty games sets the bar high, but it’s looking like this title has the content to match it. 

What do you think? Let us know your initial impressions of the game once it’s released on October 25th. Will this title be your go-to shooter for 2023?

How To Keep All Components Of Your Nintendo Switch Up To Date

Software updates come in many different forms on the Nintendo Switch, so if all this seems new to you, then you’ve come to the right place because we’re going to show you how you can keep everything on your Nintendo Switch up to date.

About Nintendo Switch software updates

There are four primary types of software updates that you’re going to want to be aware of. Those include:

Game console updates

Docking system updates

Controller updates

Game updates

Since each of the aforementioned items plays its own role in your gaming experience, we think it’s important that you keep your software up to date by performing spot checks on occasion.

There won’t always be software updates, nor are they guaranteed to become available for everything at the same time. Nintendo releases software updates as they’re needed, and this isn’t always often.

Below, we’ll walk you through the steps to check for updates for all four of the aforementioned items.

Checking for game console updates

The first thing you should check regularly is whether there are any software updates for your Nintendo Switch itself. Updates to your Nintendo Switch game console may become available for several reasons, such as:

Adding new features

Changing how the interface looks or works

Incorporating security patches

Introducing performance enhancements

Fixing bugs

To check for updates for your Nintendo Switch game console, follow the steps outlined below:

1) Wake up your Nintendo Switch and ensure that it’s connected to the internet.

2) Open the System Settings from the home screen:

3) Scroll down until you see System in the left-hand menu, then select it:

4) Select System Update in the right-hand menu.

Note: You will either see that your system is up to date, as ours is, or you will be prompted to install an update.

If you find an update here, installing it will require you to reboot your Nintendo Switch. Software updates generally only take a couple of minutes and aren’t as time intensive as updating your iPhone or Mac would be.

Checking for dock updates

Next, we recommend checking for any software updates for your Nintendo Switch’s docking station. Dock updates may become available for any of the reasons outlined below:

Enhancing video performance

Optimizing power supply to console

Fine-tuning LAN connections (if applicable)

Fixing bugs

To check for updates for your Nintendo Switch’s dock, follow the steps outlined below:

1) Make sure that your Nintendo Switch’s dock is connected to a display via HDMI and plugged into power via USB-C.

2) Attach your Nintendo Switch to the dock if it isn’t already.

3) Wake up your Nintendo Switch and ensure that it’s connected to the internet.

4) Open the System Settings from the home screen:

5) Scroll down until you see System in the left-hand menu, then select it:

6) Select Update Dock in the right-hand menu.

Note: You will either see that your dock is up to date, as ours is, or you will be promoted to install an update.

If you find an update here, installing it will be quick and painless. Your TV may go dark for a moment as the dock installs any available software updates, but it should come back up momentarily.

Checking for controller updates

Another highly recommended procedure is to check regularly for software updates pertaining to your Nintendo Switch’s controllers, whether they’re Joy-Con or Pro Controller devices. Controller updates may pop up for any of the following reasons:

Fine-tuning communication performance

Tweaking control sensitivity

Adjusting vibration effects

Correcting joystick drift

Fixing bugs

To check for updates for any of your Nintendo-branded controllers, follow the steps outlined below:

1) Wake up your Nintendo Switch and ensure that it’s connected to the internet.

2) Open the System Settings from the home screen:

3) Scroll down until you see Controllers and Sensors in the left-hand menu, then select it:

4) Scroll down until you see Update Controllers in the right-hand menu, then select it.

Note: You will either see that your controller is up to date, as ours is, or you will be promoted to install an update. You will need to perform this task individually for every one of your controllers.

If you find an update here, installing it will take a few moments. Your controller will become temporarily unresponsive while the software is being installed on it, but it will respond once more after the update completes.

Checking for game updates

Lastly, you’re going to want to keep your games up to date. Game updates happen regularly, and generally come out for the following reasons:

Adding in-game content

Boosting performance

Closing exploited in-game hacks

Fixing bugs

To check for updates for any of your games, follow the steps outlined below:

1) Wake up your Nintendo Switch and ensure that it’s connected to the internet.

2) Insert a game cartridge if you own the physical copy of the game (if applicable).

3) Attempt to launch a game from your Nintendo Switch’s home screen:

Note: If nothing happens, then that game is up to date. Otherwise, you will see a prompt like the one below:

4) Select the Download button.

5) Wait for the game to download, it will start automatically when completed:

Note: You can select the Close button and the download will take place in the background while you do other things on your Nintendo Switch.

Download times for game updates vary greatly depending on the size of the update, which range from small patches to huge in-game content updates. Just be patient if it takes longer than you thought it would.

Wrapping up

Ipad Mini Release Date And Details Splatter

iPad mini release date and details splatter

If you’re following along with the iPad mini and its imminent release, there are a collection of details you can readily assume to be true – even without Apple revealing the release date, the models, and the specifications in each device. This release will be primarily a filing of a market hole: where there’s no tablet in the market other than the iPad to placate the masses addicted to the idea that Apple’s solution is best, there will soon be two – or three, depending on how you look at the situation. If you want an iPad that costs less than $399 and you want it soon, you’ll only have to wait until November 2nd – if several sources saying the same thing are accurate.

With rumors abound that 24 models of new iPad-like devices have appeared in the Apple SKU listing in the sky, it would seem that there are two kinds of iPad mini on the way. You’ve got two different color combinations (black and white) up front, three different internal storage capacities (16GB, 32GB, and 64GB), and the option to have wi-fi-only or a mobile data connection. There being four different distinct code combinations (P101, 3, 5, or 7), we might be seeing four different color combinations instead of just two.

So that’s black, white, red, and green, six iPad minis in each category, three for wi-fi, three for mobile-data-equipped, with each of the three being 16, 32, or 64GB capacities. How does that sound to you? Another possibility is a fourth internal capacity size: 8GB.

With the iPad mini appearing to be looming with an October 23rd event date now on the books, it’s not out of the question that each of these units could be coming out on the 2nd of November. With a tablet made with the specifications that’ve been tipped many times over, we can assume we’ll have a device with a 7.85-inch display, a screen resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels and the same ratio as each iPad on the market today, and a bezel that’s significantly smaller than the current model.

These devices will appear larger than the Amazon Kindle Fire HD (the 7-inch version, at least), and will be larger than the Google Nexus 7 as well. With a price point somewhere between $200 and $300 based on estimations done with component costs, we’ll likely be seeing a competitor for the 7-inch tablet market that doesn’t beat their cost, but certainly does beat their desirability for the Apple-loyal fans in the world today. Expect a device that’s not going to rock the tablet world to its knees like the original iPad did, but one that fills the gap for Apple users who want to work with a slightly smaller device on a regular basis.

You’ll get the full lowdown when we hit up the main event on the 23rd – expect live updates from us right here on SlashGear from morning until night – you shall know all!

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