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Introduction to JavaFX HBox

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Constructors of JavaFX HBox

Four constructors can be used to implement HBox in Java.

HBox(): An HBox layout will be created with 0 spacing.

HBox(Double s): An HBox layout will be created with the spacing s specified as the argument.

HBox(Double spacing, Node children): An HBox layout will be created with the spacing and children nodes specified in the argument.

HBox(Node? children): An HBox layout will be created with the spacing 0 and children nodes specified since the spacing is not set, here it is taking the default value is 0.

Properties of JavaFX HBox

JavaFX HBox has three properties as shown below.

alignment: Property that is used for the alignment of the children that is within the height and width of HBox.

fillHeight: Resizable children nodes will be resized to the HBox height or kept in the preferred height on setting this property as true.

spacing: The amount of horizontal space between the child nodes in HBox will be set.

Top 15 Methods of JavaFX HBox

Following are the commonly used methods in JavaFX HBox.

getSpacing(): Spacing property’s value will be returned.

getHgrow(Nodechild): Hgrow property’s value will be returned.

setFillHeight(boolean value): FillHeight property’s value will be set.

clearConstraints(Nodechild): HBox constraints will be removed from the child node.

isFillHeight(): FillHeight property’s value will be returned.

setAlignment(Posvalue): Alignment property’s value will be set.

setSpacing(double value): Spacing property’s value will be set.

getMargin(Nodechild): Margin property’s value will be returned.

spacingProperty(): Horizontal space between the child nodes in HBox will be set.

setMargin(Nodechild, Insets value): Margin for the child will be set in the HBox.

computeMinWidth(double height): The minimum width of the region will be computed using this method.

computeMinHeight(double width): The minimum height of the region will be computed using this method.

getAlignment(): Alignment property’s value will be returned.

computePrefWidth(double height): Preferred width for the region that is needed for the given height will be computed.

computePrefHeight(double width): Preferred height for the region that is needed for the given width will be computed.

Examples of JavaFX HBox

Now, let us see some examples of HBox with some of the methods explained in the above section.

Example #1

Firstly, 2 buttons b1 and b2 are created with the text ‘Sample button 1 for HBox’ and ‘Sample button 2 for HBox’. Then, create an HBox and a scene. After setting the scene, the results will be displayed.

Code:

import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.control.Button; import javafx.scene.layout.HBox; import javafx.stage.Stage; public class JavaFXHBoxExample extends Application { @Override public void start(Stage s) throws Exception { s.setTitle("HBox Example"); Button b1 = new Button("Sample button 1 for HBox"); Button b2 = new Button("Sample button 2 for HBox"); HBox hb = new HBox(); Scene sc = new Scene(hb,400,200); hb.getChildren().addAll(b1,b2); s.setScene(sc); s.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { launch(args); } }

Example #2

Firstly, create an HBox and a label. Then, add the created label to HBox. Create buttons using a for loop so that button creation syntax needs not written again. Create a scene and set it. After setting the scene, buttons will be displayed in the center.

Code:

import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.control.*; import javafx.scene.layout.*; import javafx.stage.Stage; import javafx.event.ActionEvent; import javafx.event.EventHandler; import javafx.scene.Group; import javafx.geometry.Pos; public class JavaFXHBoxExample extends Application { public void start(Stage s) { try { s.setTitle("HBox Example"); HBox hb = new HBox(10); Label lb = new Label("Hey ... This is the sample for JavaFX HBox !!"); hb.getChildren().add(lb); hb.setAlignment(Pos.CENTER); for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) { hb.getChildren().add(new Button("Sample Button " + (int)(i + 1))); } Scene sc = new Scene(hb, 700, 300); s.setScene(sc); s.show(); } catch (Exception e) { System.out.println(e.getMessage()); } } public static void main(String args[]) { launch(args); } }

Output:

Example #3

Code:

import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.geometry.Insets; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.control.Button; import javafx.scene.control.Label; import javafx.scene.layout.HBox; import javafx.scene.text.Font; import javafx.scene.text.FontWeight; import javafx.stage.Stage; public class JavaFXHBoxExample extends Application { public static void main(String[] args) { Application.launch(args); } @Override public void start(Stage s) { s.setTitle("HBox Sample"); HBox hb = new HBox(); hb.setPadding(new Insets(10, 50, 50, 50)); hb.setSpacing(10); Label lbl = new Label("This is the HBox"); lbl.setFont(Font.font("Amble CN", FontWeight.BOLD, 24)); hb.getChildren().add(lbl); Button b1 = new Button(); b1.setText(" I am Button1"); hb.getChildren().add(b1); Button b2 = new Button(); b2.setText("I am Button2"); hb.getChildren().add(b2); Button b3 = new Button(); b3.setText("I am Button3"); hb.getChildren().add(b3); Button b4 = new Button(); b4.setText("I am Button4"); hb.getChildren().add(b4); Scene sc = new Scene(hb); s.setScene(sc); s.show(); } }

Output:

Conclusion

JavaFX HBox is a component that helps the child nodes to layout in a horizontal manner. Also, the new child will be added right to the previous child.

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This is a guide to JavaFX HBox. Here we discuss the Constructors, Methods, Properties of JavaFX HBox along with Code Implementation. you can also go through our suggested articles to learn more –

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Learn How Does Javafx Animation Work In Java?

Introduction to Java Animation

Animation in Java requires two basic steps, creating an animation frame and then allowing Java to color the frame. Applets, AWT, Swing, and JavaFX, can do Java animation. Applets animation is for browser-compatible applications, whereas AWT, Swing, and JavaFX are standalone applications. In real-time, most of the applications are standalone only. So, we will deal with our animation with JavaFX.

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Why JavaFX Why not AWT and Swing?

Types of Animations in JavaFX:

Rotate transition

Scale transition

Translate transition

Fade transition

Fill transition

Stroke transition

Sequential transition

Parallel transition

Pause transition

Path transition

How Does JavaFX Animation Work in Java?

JavaFX animation package is an animation that contains all the animation classes. So, while we are applying animations, we must import them. Apply animations to our class; we must extend the Animation class. This Animation class has all the required animation packages within it.

1. Rotate transition

This animation gives a rotation feature. The package is animation.RotateTransition

Syntax:

RotateTransition rotate = new RotateTransition();  rotate.play();  2. Scale Transition

This animation moves the object in all three directions X, Y, and Z. The package is animation.ScaleTransition

Syntax:

ScaleTransition rotate = new ScaleTransition();  rotate.play();  3. Translate transition

This animation moves the object from one position to another position at regular intervals of time. The package is animation.TranslateTransition

Syntax:

TranslateTransition rotate = new TranslateTransition();  rotate.play();  4. Fade transition

This animation makes the object dull by specifying the opacity value. The package is animation.FadeTransition

Syntax:

FadeTransition rotate = new FadeTransition();  rotate.play();  5. Fill transition

This animation makes the object fill with 2 colors, one after the other, by specifying the time interval. The package is animation.FillTransition

Syntax:

FillTransition rotate = new FillTransition();  rotate.play();  Examples

Let’s see the examples of java animation are given below:

Example #1 – Rotate Transition

Code:

package com.rotate.transition; import javafx.animation.RotateTransition; import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.scene.Group; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.paint.Color; import javafx.scene.shape.Polygon; import javafx.scene.transform.Rotate; import javafx.stage.Stage; import javafx.util.Duration; public class RotateTransitionAnimation extends Application { @Override public void start(Stage outStage) throws Exception { Polygon traingle = new Polygon();// Creating triangle Double[] doubleValues=new Double[] { 5.0, 5.0, 20.0, 10.0, 10.0, 20.0 }; traingle.getPoints().addAll(doubleValues); traingle.setFill(Color.LIMEGREEN); traingle.setStroke(Color.HOTPINK); traingle.setStrokeWidth(5); RotateTransition rotateTransition = new RotateTransition();// Creating object for Rotate Transition class rotateTransition.setAxis(Rotate.Z_AXIS);// Set Axis rotation in Z axis rotateTransition.setByAngle(360);// Set angle rotation 360 degrees rotateTransition.setCycleCount(500);// Set cycle count rotation 500 rotateTransition.setDuration(Duration.millis(1000));// Set time duration for change the object rotateTransition.setAutoReverse(true);//auto reverse activation rotateTransition.setNode(traingle);//applying rotate transition on triangle rotateTransition.play();// applying rotation by play method Group root = new Group(); root.getChildren().add(traingle); Scene scene = new Scene(root, 700, 500, Color.BLACK);//creating scene outStage.setScene(scene);//adding scene to stage for display window outStage.setTitle("Triangle Rotate Transition"); outStage.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { launch(args);//launch method calls start() method internally } }

Output:

In this way, the triangle rotates.

Example #2 – Scale Transition

Code:

package com.scale.transition; import javafx.scene.Group; import javafx.stage.Stage; import javafx.util.Duration; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.paint.Color; import javafx.scene.shape.Circle; import javafx.animation.ScaleTransition; import javafx.application.Application; public class ScaleTransitionAnimation extends Application { @Override public void start(Stage stage) { Circle circle = new Circle(); circle.setCenterX(280.0f);// position in X direction circle.setCenterY(125.0f);// position in Y direction circle.setRadius(40.0f);// circle radius circle.setFill(Color.AQUAMARINE);// circle color circle.setStrokeWidth(21);// stroke width of circle ScaleTransition scaleTransition = new ScaleTransition();// creating scaleTransition.setDuration(Duration.millis(2000));// set time duration scaleTransition.setNode(circle);// applying rotate transition node on scaleTransition.setByY(1.5);// Y direction movement scaleTransition.setByX(1.5);// X direction movement scaleTransition.setCycleCount(55);// Set cycle count rotation 55 scaleTransition.setAutoReverse(true);// auto reverse activation scaleTransition.play();// applying rotate transition on circle Group root = new Group(); root.getChildren().add(circle); Scene scene = new Scene(root, 600, 500, Color. AZURE);// creating scene stage.setScene(scene);// adding scene to stage for display window stage.setTitle("Circle Scale Transition"); stage.show(); } public static void main(String args[]) { launch(args); } }

Output:

In this way, the circle scales.

Example #3 – Translate Transition package com.translate.transition; import javafx.stage.Stage; import javafx.util.Duration; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.paint.Color; import javafx.scene.shape.Rectangle; import javafx.animation.TranslateTransition; import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.scene.Group; public class TranslateTransitionAnimation extends Application { @Override public void start(Stage outStage) throws Exception { Rectangle square = new Rectangle(50, 50); square.setFill(Color.AQUA); square.setStroke(Color.BLUEVIOLET);// square area color TranslateTransition translateTranstion = new TranslateTransition();// creating object for Translate transition translateTranstion.setByY(350);// movement in Y direction translateTranstion.setDuration(Duration.millis(1500));// time duration translateTranstion.setCycleCount(450);// Set cycle count rotation 450 translateTranstion.setAutoReverse(true);// auto reverse activation translateTranstion.setNode(square);// applying rotate transition node on square translateTranstion.play();// applying rotate transition on circle Group root = new Group(); root.getChildren().add(square); Scene scene = new Scene(root, 600, 500, Color.CHOCOLATE);// creating scene outStage.setScene(scene);// adding scene to stage for display window outStage.setTitle("Square Translate Transition"); outStage.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { launch(args); } }

Output:

This is how to square scale transition moves.

Example #4 – Fade Transition

Code:

package com.fade.transition; import javafx.animation.FadeTransition; import javafx.application.Application; import javafx.scene.Group; import javafx.scene.Scene; import javafx.scene.paint.Color; import javafx.scene.shape.Ellipse; import javafx.scene.shape.Rectangle; import javafx.stage.Stage; import javafx.util.Duration; public class FadeTransitionAnimation extends Application { @Override public void start(Stage outStage) throws Exception { Ellipse ellipse = new Ellipse();  ellipse.setCenterX(300.0f); ellipse.setCenterY(150.0f); ellipse.setRadiusX(150.0f); ellipse.setRadiusY(75.0f);//setting radius in y direction ellipse.setFill(Color.AQUA); ellipse.setStroke(Color.BLUEVIOLET);// ellipse area color FadeTransition fadeTransition = new FadeTransition();// creating Fade transition object fadeTransition.setDuration(Duration.millis(5000));// time duration fadeTransition.setFromValue(10);//setting opacity value for fading fadeTransition.setToValue(0.1); fadeTransition.setCycleCount(900);// Set cycle count rotation 900 fadeTransition.setAutoReverse(true);// auto reverse activation fadeTransition.setNode(ellipse);// applying fade transition node on ellipse fadeTransition.play();// applying fade transition on ellipse Group root = new Group(); root.getChildren().add(ellipse); Scene scene = new Scene(root, 600, 500, Color.CHOCOLATE);// creating scene outStage.setScene(scene);// adding scene to stage for display window outStage.setTitle("Ellipse Fade Transition"); outStage.show(); } public static void main(String[] args) { launch(args); } }

Output:

In this way, the fade transition happens.

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10 Significant And Inspiring Architectural Projects Of Frank Gehry

Frank Gehry is an illustrious architect whose innovative and avant-garde designs have consistently challenged the conventions of modern architecture. Born in Toronto in 1929, Gehry established his architectural practice in 1962 in Los Angeles, where he continues to cultivate his legacy as a visionary architect.

Gehry’s works are characterized by his distinctive approach to architecture, employing non-traditional materials and a deconstructivist style. During his career, he designed some of the most iconic and unconventional structures around the globe. In this article, we shall explore a selection of Frank Gehry’s most eminent works that created a profound impact on the world of architecture and design.

“For me, every day is a new thing. I approach each project with a new insecurity, almost like the first project I ever did. And I get the sweats. I go in and start working, I’m not sure where I’m going. If I knew where I was going I wouldn’t do it.”

Frank Gehry

Here are 10 significant architectural works by Frank Gehry:

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao

Photo by David Vives

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a pioneering work of contemporary architecture, located in the Basque city of Bilbao, Spain. Commissioned by the regional government to revitalize the area’s economy, the building’s dynamic and undulating exterior, featuring curved titanium panels, has become an iconic symbol of the city’s industrial history and cultural identity.

The museum’s interior is equally impressive, with an atrium and galleries arranged on multiple levels that offer great flexibility and adaptability to diverse exhibitions. The museum’s impact has been profound, both locally and globally, with its unparalleled success being a testament to Frank Gehry’s visionary approach to design.

Walt Disney Concert Hall

Photo by Anthony Fomin

The Walt Disney Concert Hall is a landmark building located in the heart of downtown Los Angeles, California. The concert hall is known for its striking and innovative design, which features sweeping curves and a shimmering stainless-steel exterior that reflects and amplifies the city’s vibrant atmosphere.

The structure’s design was inspired by the acoustical needs of a modern concert hall, and it is widely considered to be one of the finest in the world. Gehry’s masterful use of complex geometries and materials, such as the curved stainless-steel panels that cover the building’s exterior, creates a sense of fluidity and movement that is both dynamic and visually stunning.

The interior of the concert hall is equally impressive, with a warm and intimate atmosphere that is designed to enhance the experience of live music. The hall’s seating is arranged in a vineyard style, with the audience surrounding the stage, creating a sense of intimacy and connection between performers and audience members. Its innovative design and state-of-the-art acoustics have made it a favorite of musicians and architects alike and has hosted some of the world’s most renowned orchestras and performers.

Museum of Pop Culture- MoPOP

Photo by Hester Qiang

MoPOP (Museum of Pop Culture), originally called the Experience Museum Project – EMP (Experience Museum Project), was designed by Frank Gehry and constructed between 1995-2000. MoPOP is a unique cultural institution located in Seattle, dedicated to exploring the history of music and its impact on culture. It is one of a kind destination for music enthusiasts and historians alike.

The building’s design is characterized by its use of vibrant colors and bold, undulating forms that create a sense of movement and dynamism. The museum features a mix of steel and aluminum panels, which reflects the surrounding landscape and changes color depending on the time of day and the angle of the sun.

The museum’s innovative design and groundbreaking approach to presenting music history have earned it international acclaim and have inspired a new generation of museums and cultural institutions around the world.

Dancing House

Photo by thewonderalice

Dancing House is an architectural masterpiece that is located in Prague, Czech Republic. Originally known as the Fred and Ginger building, it was named after the famous dance duo Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers, due to the building’s curvaceous forms that resemble a pair of dancers.

The building’s design was conceptualized to be a departure from the traditional architecture of Prague, which is characterized by Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque styles. Instead, the Dancing House is a prime example of deconstructivist architecture, which challenges traditional notions of form and function. On an empty riverbank land, it was designed by Croatian-Czech architect Vlado Miluni in collaboration with Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry.

When the building’s unconventional design was first unveiled to the public, it was greeted by a mixture of admiration as well as criticism. While some considered the building to be too modern and out of place, others praised the architect’s visionary thinking for its bold form. Despite the controversy, the Dancing House has become one of the favorites of Prague and an icon of contemporary architecture.

Foundation Louis Vuitton

Courtesy of L’Observatoire International

The Foundation Louis Vuitton is an avant-garde art institution situated in the heart of Paris, France. Designed to take a sail-like form, the building is composed of complex geometric shapes made of glass and steel, giving it a sense of weightlessness and grandeur. This building’s unique design is characterized by the dynamic interplay of light and shadow, creating a visually engaging and constantly changing environment for visitors.

The structure is dedicated to promoting contemporary art and culture through its innovative programming, which includes exhibitions, performances, and educational activities that engage with the public and stimulate critical thinking.

Overall, Its stunning form, innovative use of materials, and commitment to promoting contemporary art and culture make it a true cultural landmark and a must-see destination for art lovers and architecture enthusiasts alike.

New World Center

Photo by Emilio Collavino

The New World Center is an exceptional architectural masterpiece manifested by visionary imagination of Frank Gehry. Situated in Miami Beach Florida, this building’s striking form features a complex, angular design that defies traditional notions of symmetry and balance, that challenges conventional architectural norms, and pushes the boundaries to maximize the creative output.

Weisman Art Museum

Photo by betteratf8

The Weisman Art Museum, located in Minneapolis, USA, is a landmark building distinguished by its singular and audacious aesthetic. Similar to the form of the Walt Disney Concert Hall, this building is also characterized by an asymmetrical form and the inclusion of curved surfaces.

The structure is adorned with a distinctive metallic skin, which acts as a canvas for the play of light and shadow, creating an ever-changing interplay of light and reflections as time passes through the day.

The museum’s unique design has become a symbol of the city of Minneapolis and acts as a source of inspiration for architects and designers around the world.

Biomuseo

via tourismpanama

Biomuseo, located in Panama City, is a strikingly innovative museum dedicated to conserving the natural history and biodiversity of Panama. The building’s vibrant and angular forms are intended to evoke the country’s unique natural landscape and the importance of biodiversity conservation.

The building’s complex geometry is composed of a series of intersecting volumes that convey a sense of motion and energy. The structure’s central atrium along with the surrounding landscape forms an integral part of the museum’s design, providing visitors with a sense of immersion in the natural world. The selection of materials, external cladding, and textured contrast justify well with the local context and create an aesthetically stunning and deeply meaningful design.

Stata Center

Photo by Zayn Shah

The Stata Center is a labyrinthine complex of interconnected spaces, designed to promote collaboration and innovation among MIT researchers and students. The structure is composed of a series of dynamic and asymmetrical forms, which appear to be in a state of constant flux and change.

One of the most innovative aspects of the design is the incorporation of cutting-edge technology into the building’s architecture, which flowed with the essence of Frank Gehry. It also features a series of interactive installations and digital displays, which serve as a reminder of the building’s purpose as a center for research and innovation.

Its dynamic and unconventional design serves as a fitting tribute to MIT’s culture of innovation and creativity, and to its playful and organic forms, creating a sense of wonder and delight for visitors and occupants alike.

8 Spruce Street

Photo by Chris Barbalis

Located in the Financial District of Manhattan, is a stunning residential skyscraper named 8 Spruce Street. At 76 stories and spanning up to 870 feet tall, it is one of the tallest residential buildings in the Western Hemisphere. Its distinctive design features along with a striking stainless steel exterior that curves and undulates create a dynamic and fluid form that is unlike anything else in the city’s skyline.

The intricate and complex design of the façade is a result of Gehry’s masterful use of parametric modeling, a process that involves utilizing complex algorithms to generate and manipulate digital models, allowing for a highly detailed and customizable final product.

Its innovative and complex designed form, combined with its extensive amenities and luxurious interior spaces, make it a true icon of the New York City skyline.

In conclusion, the architectural legacy of Frank Gehry is marked by an unparalleled combination of innovation, creativity, and technical mastery. His designs represent a triumph of the imagination, where form and function fuse to create truly iconic structures that challenge our preconceptions of possibilities in architecture.

Understanding Methods Of Isinstance With Python

Introduction to Python isinstance

This function checks if the object is an instance of the class or in for a class. This function allows you to check the object against the subclass. This function always returns a boolean value. The object we are passing into the isinstance method of the same type then the isinstance method will true; otherwise, it will return false. Let’s suppose we have a number 25, and we want to check whether it is an integer type; then, we can use the isinstance function, and in it will return true, as 25 is int.

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Syntax:

isinstance(object, classinfo) Examples of Python isinstance Example #1

Code:

lst = [1,2,3,'a'] print(isinstance(lst, list))

Output:

We have created a list and stored it in a variable lst. We have lst as an object in isinstance function and object type as a list. They match, and isinstance returns true.

lst = [1,2,3,'a'] print(isinstance(lst, tuple))

Output:

In the above example, this time, we have passed object type as a tuple and isinstance return false, as lst is not tuple type. Isinstance method can be used to check variables with multiple data types.

Example #2

Code:

lst = [1,2,3,'a'] dist = {'A':[1,2,3], 'B':['a','b','c']} print(isinstance(dist, tuple))

Output:

We have made a dictionary, and it consists of two sets. Now, if I pass this dictionary to isinstance and check with tuple class, it will return false. As we know, a dictionary is a distant object type.

lst = [1,2,3,'a'] dist = {'A':[1,2,3], 'B':['a','b','c']} print(isinstance(dist, (tuple, dict)))

Output:

Example #3

Code:

class test1: a = 1 class test2: b = 2 t1 = test1() t2 = test2() print(isinstance(t1, test1))

Output:

In the above program, we have created two classes test1 and test2 and created two variables, a and b, with values 1 and 2. t1 is the instance of the class test1, and t2 is the instance of class test2. Now we are checking t1 objects with the object type of test1. Isinstance will be true because it belongs to the same instance.

Example #4

Code:

a = 5 print('Is a is int ?: ', isinstance(a, int)) b = 2.5 print('Is b is floaf?: ', isinstance(b, float)) c = 'lol' print('Is c is String: ', isinstance(c, str)) e = (1, 2, 3) print('Is e is tuple?: ', isinstance(e, tuple)) f = [] print('Is f is list?:', isinstance(f, list)) g = {} print('Is g is list?:', isinstance(g, dict))

Output:

In the above example, we have created the variable of different data types, and we have checked every variable in the isinstance method, and the following outputs are generated.

Example #5

Code:

def multiplication(p1,p2): if isinstance(p1,(int)) and isinstance(p2, (int)): return f'Params Ok! Result: {p1*p2}' else: return 'Params must be type of (int)' print(multiplication(2,'f'))

In the above program, we have created a method multiplication that is taking two parameters p1 and p2. Then we are using isinstance method two checks whether both the parameters are of int type or not. If any of the parameters is not integer type, then isinstance will return false, and we will display an error message. We have used the print function to call the method and passed 1 integer, and the second parameter as character and function has returned an error message as expected.

Now we are passing both the parameters as an integer, and this time we get the multiplication of both the numbers.

Code:

def multiplication(p1,p2): if isinstance(p1,(int)) and isinstance(p2, (int)): return f'Params Ok! Result: {p1*p2}' else: return 'Params must be type of (int)' print(multiplication(2,3))

Output:

Difference between isinstance and Type Function

The purpose of both functions is the same to check the data type of the parameter, but implementation is different with different use cases. Type function will return the object’s data type, while the isinstance will return value based on the object and data type we pass.

Suppose you just want to know the data type of the parameter, then the type function is a good choice, and if we want to check if the data type of pass is the same as the data type of the second parameter, then it isinstance function is recommended. It will return a boolean value.

Conclusion

Isinstance method is a very useful functionality in the python program for functional programming because many times, we need to check that the object is the instance of the class or not, and this function returns the boolean output. The object we are passing into the isinstance method of the same type then the isinstance method will true; otherwise, it will return false.

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Methods And Purpose Of Statutory Reserve

Introduction to Statutory Reserve

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Statutory reserves are the amount set aside from companies’ net profits, funds, and other assets in order to meet future liabilities. Insurance companies charge a premium from their customers instead of insurance coverage provided to them. They will receive a certain sum of money in any kind of uncertainty. The regulatory authorities do not want to take any default risk, so it has mandated it for smooth claim processing. Companies to maintain a statutory reserve out of their asset portion. These reserves said such companies to meet the claims even if the company is bearing a loss. Maintenance of stat. reserves are acknowledged as an efficiency tracker. Rates of SR may vary from country to country as fixed by its local regulatory authorities.

Purpose of Statutory Reserve

The prime motive for creating statutory reserves is to ensure enough availability of funds whenever required to meet future obligations. Insurance companies provide various types of insurance such as life, motor vehicle, fire, theft, accidental, medical, etc.; thus, depending upon varied business forms, the probability of claim liability is certain. In the case of natural calamities also, statutory reserves play a vital role in meeting companies’ obligations. Also, it helps to ensure the smooth running of insurance companies.

Examples of Statutory Reserve

Examples of the SR are given below:

Banking Company: As per the guideline set under the banking regulation act of any country, each banking company must transfer a certain portion of profits or Net Assets to a fund known as a “Reserve Fund” or statutory reserve. Rates may vary from country to country from 1 to 30% or even more.

Life Insurance Company: Commissioner’s Reserve Valuation Method: In the USA, life insurance companies are required to create and maintain SRs depending upon various factors like age, sex of the person insured, the policy period, insurance plan, the mortality rate of region, and actuarial present values. Life insurance companies calculate the Solvency Ratio (SR) based on prescribed rates for different levels, depending on the above factors.

Non-Financial Institution: Non-financial institutions are sometimes required to maintain SR. Example: income tax waived on goods manufactured and exported from Special economic zones(SEZs) with the condition of creating a certain percentage of such profits as reserves for the stated number of years, which can be utilized only in a specific manner, say for the development of unit in SEZ, etc. Companies benefitting from such schemes will create statutory reserves per the applicable timelines.

Methods of Statutory Reserve

Rule-Based Approach: States commonly employ this traditional approach. Insurance companies use standardized formulas and assumptions to calculate the amount of reserve that should be held. We must maintain funds in assets form to meet our future obligations after calculation. It does not cover the complete liability risk as it is formula-based and does not cover all factors determining the risk. There is no leeway under this approach.

Principle-Based Approach: Under this method, insurers must hold more reserves based on future economic conditions. There is leeway for the maintenance of statutory reserve under this approach. Businesses calculate the reserve amount by considering the risks they take, which helps sustain their solvency.

Statutory Reserve Requirement

The statutory reserve requirement is the tool for managing the organization’s liquidity. It is mandated for insurance and banking businesses to maintain funds in statutory reserve which is in proportion to the eligible liabilities and claims to be settled for the period. This reserve requires building up adequate liquidity in the business. Non-compliance with SRs, in turn, may create financial imbalance and lead to a risk of financial instability. Also, as part of compliance against benefits granted, some non-financial institutions must create and maintain SRs.

Statutory Reserve Rate

Regulatory authorities do not impose a fixed rate of statutory reserves that each organization must maintain. Depending upon the nature of business and the ruling state rules and regulations, rates may vary. Like marine insurance companies, they may need to keep 100% of the consignment value handled as SRs. Some other business-related insurance companies must maintain 50% of the sum assured amount. Regulatory authorities may impose different reserve requirements on life insurance companies. Also, financial institutions like banks may be necessary to keep SRs. Rates vary from industry to industry. Rates may be based on profits, asset value, claim values, etc.

Statutory Reserve vs General Reserve

Companies must keep and maintain statutory reserves according to prevailing rules and regulations, whereas general reserves are reserves that the company creates and maintains voluntarily. The regulatory authority prescribes fixed statutory reserve rates that companies must maintain, whereas there is no prescribed rate for general reserves. Non-compliance with SR may lead to financial penalties and goodwill loss, which is not the same as GRs. Companies must keep and utilize statutory reserves for specific purposes only, but they may maintain general reserves for undefined purposes.

Advantages of SR

The statutory reserve assures the investors that the amount they are going to invest in the company’s products is secured by means of reserves, i.e., it helps to build trust among the customers and clients.

Maintenance of statutory reserve represents goods business health as it has a well-maintained statutory reserve which gives confidence to its various stakeholders.

Organizations maintain statutory reserves as cash or highly liquid investments to ensure liquidity.

Maintaining SR ensures the smooth running of the business, even in heavy claims lodgement periods.

Since maintaining a statutory reserve is a mandatory requirement, every organization must keep one, regardless of their needs.

Regulatory authorities determine the amount of the statutory reserve, resulting in a loss of autonomy.

Companies can only use funds maintained in the statutory reserve to meet obligations. They cannot use these funds for emergency business operations.

The company must maintain reserves regardless of its profit, which weakens its position.

Conclusion

To protect the interests of insurance companies and financial institutions’ clients, regulatory authorities require the creation and maintenance of statutory reserves. These reserves also aid companies in ensuring the smooth running of business operations. However, it may sometimes become cumbersome to follow if the company faces tough times. Non-compliance to statutory reserves may lead to financial loss in the form of penalties and may hamper the organization’s goodwill.

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10 Globally Significant Crypto Companies

In the Cryptocurrency industry, 10 globally significant crypto companies are included in this list

People can conduct financial transactions without the use of banks or other government agencies as intermediaries thanks to cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum. The number of globally significant crypto companies worldwide has also increased in tandem with the exponential growth of the cryptocurrency industry. Some of these businesses have been in operation since Bitcoin’s infancy, while others are relatively new startups utilizing blockchain technology. These cryptocurrency businesses are some of the most successful businesses in history because they are worth billions of dollars and continue to expand despite their launch dates. In this article, we’ll talk about the biggest crypto companies in the world and what they do. We ought to dive to move forward.

Binance:

Binance was quite possibly the earliest trade to offer various government-issued money choices for clients to store assets in their records, including USD, EUR, CNY, and JPY. At present, the organization has north of 30 million clients across its worldwide stage. There were only around 120,000 users when it first came out in 2023. Nearly 29 million people visit the Binance apps and website every week. The application’s daily trade volume, close to $10 billion, is the highest in the world. In 2023, the company’s sales were more than $20 billion, according to Bloomberg.

Company: Coinbase Global

Coinbase, or Coinbase, is a public company that runs a platform for trading cryptocurrencies. By trading volume, it is the largest crypto exchange in the United States. Established by Brian Armstrong and Fred Ehrsam, Coinbase gives digital money trade exchange, wallet capacity, executives, and dealer administrations.

Worldwide Business Machines Organization:

One of the first companies to incorporate punch card technology into its systems, IBM was founded as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. In 1924, the organization changed its name to Worldwide Business Machines Company (IBM). The business now employs more than 280,000 people worldwide and made nearly $60 billion last year.

Grayscale:

Grayscale Investments is a digital asset management company that focuses on Bitcoin, Ethereum, XRP, and Litecoin among other digital assets. Barry Silbert, the creator of SecondMarket, an online marketplace for trading shares, came up with the idea.

OpenSea:

OpenSea is a digital goods marketplace online. It has grown into a global marketplace for trading cryptocurrencies since its inception in 2023. The stage had north of 600,000 clients as of mid-2024. From March 2023, when there were only 4,000 users on the platform, this significantly increased. Each month, more people are visiting the OpenSea website. More than 120 million people visit the site each month, according to conservative estimates. This altogether outflanks the opposition in the NFT market area. In 2023, the company made more than $365 million from selling NFTs on the Ethereum blockchain.

Sandbox:

The metaverse is driving the popularity of The Sandbox, a platform and virtual reality game driven by the community. Adidas, numerous brands, and well-known personalities are partners in the game. On the blockchain, creators can make money from voxel assets and gaming experiences. In the commercial center, clients can trade the best resources.

Trust Company of Gemini:

Customers can buy, sell, and store digital assets through the cryptocurrency exchange and custodian Gemini Trust Company, LLC (Gemini). Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss established it in 2014. Gemini has layered help with isolated points of interaction and charge structures for easygoing financial backers and no-nonsense brokers. It likewise has a versatile application, an installment application, a crypto Visa, and its own money, the Gemini dollar. The Gemini dollar is a “stablecoin” that is linked to the US dollar, in contrast to the majority of cryptocurrencies.

Kraken:

The US-based cryptocurrency exchange Kraken, which has been around since 2011, ranks eighth on our list of the largest crypto companies. Professional trading services for cryptocurrencies and digital assets are Kraken’s mission. The company’s primary focus is high-frequency trading, which enables users to quickly enter and exit trades.

Uniswap:

A decentralized exchange called Uniswap aims to make it easier for people to trade their favorite cryptocurrencies. It combines basic and more sophisticated trading tools into a single user interface. Hayden Adams started Uniswap in 2023 to make cryptocurrency trading accessible to everyone with its user-friendly interface that makes use of cryptocurrency to make it simple for people to trade their crypto coins and token collections.

Chainalysis:

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