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blog / Business Analytics Meeting the Demand for Government IT and Engineering Jobs

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Emerging technology capabilities—and threats—are rapidly changing the way government agencies work, from the federal to local level. Though new technologies have immense potential to transform the way agencies serve citizens, government workforces often lack the specific technical skills to make that promise a reality. 

While addressing this gap will require targeted hiring, governments may also develop strategies to upskill their more experienced employees and leverage their invaluable understanding of public sector missions, needs, and processes. Investment in the public sectors’ strongest asset—its people—is the clearest path toward preparing government workforces for tomorrow’s challenges and opportunities.

Why Government Tech Jobs Are in Demand

According to a 2023 survey by FedScoop and WorkScoop, federal government IT leaders are seeking the following areas of expertise to the greatest extent:

Cloud networking and engineering

Cloud application development

Artificial intelligence

Data analysis

Enterprise architecture and engineering


Machine learning

Survey respondents also identified the need to develop soft skills among their employees, including:

And as cyber threats from state and non-state actors grow, cybersecurity skills remain in demand across all segments of the IT workforce. 

Why Government Tech Jobs Are Hard to Fill

The American public sector comprises 24 million jobs (or 15% of the workforce). But its unique requirements and constraints have led to a significant shortage of experienced IT and engineering professionals. 

Currently, nearly two-thirds of federal IT employees are over 40 years old, and state and local governments share similar demographics. While these employees bring a wealth of relevant experience, the most seasoned and experienced personnel often lack training and skills in the areas most critical for technology-driven government transformation. 

Only 2.7% of federal IT workers were under the age of 29 in 2023, pointing to hiring challenges that make it difficult to fill those gaps with new talent. Many factors have contributed to this issue, and public sector leaders should consider the role of each within their talent strategies.

1. Perceived discrepancies in salaries between the private and public sectors

Conventional wisdom holds that working in the public sector comes at the price of a lower salary. However, data shows that actual salary differences are minimal, and emerging programs designed to recruit professionals for in-demand roles (such as cybersecurity) are designing offers to compete with those from the private sector. Efforts to highlight the public sectors’ extensive investments in employees’ growth may also help alleviate candidates’ worries.

2. Lengthy hiring processes

As all government employees know, lengthy hiring processes also pose a challenge. Federal hiring takes on average about five times as long as hiring in the private sector, in part because many positions require security clearances. And similar challenges persist in most states and localities. While background check requirements are unlikely to change in the near term, public sector employers can reduce applicants’ concerns by communicating clearly about the hiring process and providing regular updates throughout.

3. Less desirable or less dense locations

For state and local governments in particular, location can also pose a challenge. Less dense states face the challenge of a smaller pool of engineers and IT professionals looking for government jobs. Plus, cities and localities that aren’t perceived as desirable to young professionals may struggle to compete with major tech hubs like the San Francisco Bay Area.

However, the increase in remote work over the past two years may partially mitigate this issue for agencies willing to be flexible with employees’ locations and cast a broader net in their candidate searches.

Upskilling to Fill Government IT and Engineering Jobs

In a 2023 survey by FedScoop and WorkScoop, government IT leaders listed upskilling employees as among the most effective strategies for addressing the skills gap. The public sector’s hiring challenges and demographically older workforce make it an excellent candidate for talent development programs that expand on existing skills or train employees for entirely new roles. 

Additionally, investing in employees’ growth is a powerful tool for morale and retention. According to LinkedIn Learning, 94% of employees say they would stay in their role longer if their organization invested in their development and growth. Opportunities to learn on the job can be a boon for recruitment. 

Despite their clear benefits, fewer than 40% of respondents to the 2023 FedScoop survey had utilized training programs within the prior two years to address skill gaps on their teams. Budget and time were significant constraining factors, but nearly half of respondents also noted that they lacked a clear vision of what skills were needed. This suggests that additional guidance from agency leadership and educational partners could improve participation in upskilling programs.

Agencies looking to upskill government engineers should take the following considerations into account.

1. Identify and prioritize the most important skills.

Since survey responses indicate that many public-sector IT leaders lack clarity on the skills their organizations need to thrive, agency leadership must take a more active role in identifying priority skills. Conducting a skills gap analysis can help leaders find important grounding information. Resources from the Office of Personnel Management and other federal agencies can also help leaders develop a roadmap for addressing those gaps. 

2. Identify employees with transferable skills.

IT leaders should next assess their existing workforce, inventory existing skill sets, and identify employees who have a base level of skills in certain areas. For example, employees may be well-versed in traditional networking but not cloud networks. Or they may need to develop new skills to manage the technology required by a distributed workforce. These employees will likely be good candidates for upskilling programs.

3. Incentivize upskilling in the workplace.

Since mobility is traditionally more limited in the public sector, it’s essential that employees see clear incentives for learning new skills and taking on new responsibilities. Managers, for example, should work with employees to identify new positions within existing structures that they may be able to move into with targeted skills development. 

4. Enroll employees in courses or training programs.

While some tech skills can be learned on the job, many skill sets within IT and engineering require more formal training. University classes or targeted courses (like those Emeritus offers) can prepare employees to take on new challenges by developing both hard and soft skills. 

[RELATED: 5 Benefits of Team Training in the Workplace]

State governments have already seen a high rate of success with customized training programs tailored to meet the needs of specific groups of employees. A Deloitte analysis of data from the Workforce Opportunity and Innovation Act (a federal funding program aimed at upskilling public sector workers) found that employment rates and salaries increased among participants in these custom programs. 

5. Follow up and track progress.

As with any other project, leaders should set clear metrics for outcomes and performance. Tracking what works and what doesn’t and sharing that information with other agencies and organizations can help further develop a solid public-sector IT base that can compete with the private sector in terms of both talent and outcomes. 

Ultimately, while the public sector’s unique structure presents certain obstacles to building a strong base of talent in IT and engineering, concerted efforts to upskill employees can help prepare government agencies at all levels to provide public service for the future, while also improving employee recruitment, retention, and satisfaction.

By Rachel Hastings

Are you working to develop a public-sector upskilling program? Get in touch with Emeritus Enterprise to learn about our employee training programs. 

You're reading Meeting The Demand For Government It And Engineering Jobs

Wind Energy Course For Electrical Engineering

“Complete Wind Energy Course for Electrical Engineering”

The only course out there with everything you need to know about Wind Energy from A to Z

Throughout the course you will learn:

Types of wind turbines.

Rotor solidity and selection of the number of rotor blades.

Gearbox in wind turbines.

The power extracted by the turbine from the wind.

Betz limit and maximum rotor efficiency.

Factors affecting wind speed and density.

Applied force on the wind turbine, torque coefficient, and the importance of the TSR.

Wind turbine generator characteristics.

Effect of the rotor diameter and generator size on power.

Wind turbines spacing.

Wind farm feasibility study.

Weibull and Rayleigh probability density functions.

Determination of Weibull parameters.

Determination of Weibull parameters using the graphical method.

Aerodynamics of wind turbines.

Pitch-controlled wind turbines.

Passive stall controlled wind turbines.

Active stall controlled wind turbines.

Maximum power point tracking in wind turbines.

Tip speed ratio (TSR) control.

Optimal torque control (OT) MPPT algorithm.

Power signal feedback (PSF) control.

Perturbation and observation (P&O) or hill-climb searching (HCS).

Electricity generation using wind turbines.

Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG).

Wound rotor synchronous generator (WRSG).

Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG).

Brushless permanent magnet DC generator (PMDC).

Squirrel-cage induction generator.

Wound rotor induction generator.

Tubular steel wind turbine tower.

Lattice wind turbine tower.

Concrete wind turbine tower.

Hybrid wind turbine tower.

Brakes in the wind turbine.

Rotor brakes in the wind turbine.

Pitch drive or aerodynamic brakes in the wind turbine.

Simulation of a wind turbine system using the ETAP program.

MATLAB simulation of the wind turbine.

Cp plotting and lookup table in MATLAB.

MPPT in MATLAB Simulink.

After Taking This Course, You Will Be Able To

Understand everything about wind energy systems such as the basic components, factors affecting the wind generation, the different probability distribution functions used to represent wind data, and wind feasibility study.

Understand different types of control systems used in the wind turbine and the different types of electrical generators utilized.

You will be able to simulate the wind turbine system in both ETAP and MATLAB programs.

If you’ve been looking for ONE COURSE with in-depth insight into Wind Energy, take this course.


Types of wind turbines

Rotor solidity and selection of number of rotor blades

Power extracted by the turbine from the wind

Betz limit and maximum rotor efficiency

Factors affecting wind speed and density

Applied force on the wind turbine, torque coefficient, and the importance of the TSR

Wind turbine generator characteristics

Effect of rotor diameter and generator size on power

Wind turbines spacing

Wind farm feasibility study

Weibull and Rayleigh probability density functions

Determination of Weibull parameters

Determination of Weibull parameters using the graphical method

Aerodynamics of wind turbines

Pitch-controlled wind turbines

Passive stall controlled wind turbines

Active stall controlled wind turbines

Maximum power point tracking in wind turbines

Tip speed ratio (TSR) control

Optimal torque control (OT) MPPT algorithm

Power signal feedback (PSF) control

Perturbation and observation (P&O) or hill-climb searching (HCS)

Electricity generation using wind turbines

Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)

Wound rotor synchronous generator (WRSG)

Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)

Brushless permanent magnet DC generator (PMDC)

Squirrel-cage induction generator

Wound rotor induction generator

Tubular steel wind turbine tower

Lattice wind turbine tower

Concrete wind turbine tower

Hybrid wind turbine tower

Brakes in the wind turbine

Rotor brakes in the wind turbine

Pitch drive or aerodynamic brakes in the wind turbine

Simulation of a wind turbine system using the ETAP program

MATLAB simulation of the wind turbine

Cp plotting and lookup table in MATLAB

MPPT in MATLAB Simulink


No prior knowledge except basics of electric circuits

Top Jobs In Cybersecurity For The Best Careers In Technology

blog / Cybersecurity A Comprehensive Guide to the Top Jobs in the Cybersecurity Field

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With hacking and data breaches reaching an all-time peak, the current demand for cybersecurity professionals is outpacing the supply. According to a U.S. Department of Labor Statistics report, cybersecurity analyst positions are predicted to expand by 35% through 2029. So if you are looking for jobs in cybersecurity to help launch your career in this field, there is no time like the present. 

This article will look at some of the many roles available for cybersecurity professionals, provide insights into wages, and rank the top U.S. cities for cybersecurity jobs. Read on to find out!

Entry-Level Cybersecurity Jobs Information/Cybersecurity Analyst

As an information security analyst, you contribute to the defense of computer networks and systems inside an organization by:

Keeping an eye out for security flaws on networks

Examining, recording, and disclosing security breaches 

Researching IT security trends 

Providing assistance to computer users with security tools and techniques 

Developing strategies to keep organizations safe 

1.2 Skills Required 

Knowledge of scripting languages (for example, Python and PowerShell)

The idea of cybersecurity controls and frameworks (for example, the National Institute of Standards and Technology [NIST] and the International Organization for Standardization [ISO])

Intrusion detection and incident response

Knowledge of DevOps, cloud, and important operating systems. 

$82,533 per year (Glassdoor) 

Cyber/Digital Forensics Analyst

Investigators that specialize in digital forensics take information from computers and other digital devices to find out how an unauthorized user gains access to a system and gather evidence for legal purposes. Daily tasks include: 

Gathering, conserving, and evaluating digital proof 

Data recovery from damaged or destroyed hard disks 

Documenting the data-retrieval process and maintaining a chain of custody

Aiding law enforcement in criminal investigations 

Delivering expert witness testimony in court

2.2 Skills Required 

Comprehension of cybersecurity fundamentals

Understanding of law and criminal investigation proceedings 

Technical aptitude, analytical skills, and attention to detail 

Ability to work under challenging conditions 

$80,809 per year (Glassdoor) 

Information Technology (IT) Auditor

As an IT auditor, you’ll evaluate the technology used by your company to look for any security, productivity, and compliance problems. Your frequent responsibilities can be: 

Organizing and carrying out audits 

Keeping track of and presenting audit results 

Providing direction on suggested and required security measures 

Creating strategies to address any security risks 

Identifying opportunities for increasing efficiency 

3.2 Skills Required 

Extensive understanding of information security and data management principles 

A high degree of efficiency in developing, testing, and designing information security solutions

Ability to design and monitor secured data management systems

$82,560 per year (Glassdoor) 

Mid-Level and Advanced Jobs in Cybersecurity Security Systems Administrator

As a security administrator, your duty is to oversee a company’s cybersecurity systems that run on a daily basis. Some of your responsibilities include: 

Maintaining systems and performing routine backups 

Managing individual user accounts 

Creating and preserving an organization’s security policies 

Working with security teams to address unauthorized incursions 

Managing security audits for the entire business

1.2 Skills Required

Knowledge of scripting languages 

Account access management 

Management of cellphone and Internet of Things (IoT) devices

Knowledge of cloud computing

Automation and network administration 

$84,849 per year (Glassdoor) 

Security Engineer

As a cybersecurity engineer, you build defenses against cyberattacks in order to protect a company’s computers, networks, and sensitive data. Firewalls and intrusion detection systems may be included in these security systems. Daily tasks include: 

Creating security best practices and standards 

Suggesting security upgrades to management 

Ensuring that new security systems are set up and deployed properly 

Evaluating security measures 

Overseeing incident response teams 

Creating software to automate the discovery of vulnerabilities

2.2 Skills Required/Qualifications 

Degree in Computer science, IT, systems engineering, or a similar field

Related work experience in cybersecurity-related areas such as incident detection and response, and forensics 

$117,846 per year (Glassdoor)

Security Architect

3.1 Roles and Responsibilities

You establish the vision for a company’s security systems as a security architect. To keep a company protected from risks, this job in cybersecurity combines programming, threat research, and policy formulation. Your duties include: 

Construction and upkeep of security networks and systems 

Creating budgets and managing costs related to security 

Integrating the security operations of the IT and engineering departments 

Enhancing systems to prevent and take care of security breaches or flaws 

Carrying out drills for security breaches

3.2 Skills Required

Understanding of Linux, UNIX, and Windows

Knowledge of the COBIT, ITIL, and ISO 27001/27002 frameworks

A firm grasp of perimeter security controls such as firewalls, IDS/IPS, network access controls, and network segmentation

$155,909 per year (Glassdoor)

ALSO READ: Is a Career in Cybersecurity Hard? Explore Opportunities, Salaries and More

Best Locations for Jobs in Cybersecurity?

If you’re looking to leverage the current demand for cybersecurity professionals, you’re probably wondering which locations you should consider. To get you started, here’s a list of cities in the U.S. to explore for jobs in cybersecurity.

Cities in the U.S. Current Job Openings Average Salary of Cybersecurity Professionals

Washington, D.C. 



/ year

New York City, New York




Dallas Fort Worth, Texas 




Silicon Valley, California




Chicago, Illinois 




Top Hiring Companies for Cybersecurity Jobs

We know that the cybersecurity job market is hot, but who’s hiring? Many of the top companies in the U.S., according to this list of firms: 

Company Name  Jobs in Cybersecurity

Deloitte (Consulting)

Cloud engineer

Cybersecurity consultant

Cybersecurity specialist

Cybersecurity analyst

DevOps engineer

EY (Consulting) 

Cybersecurity manager

Cybersecurity consultant

Cybersecurity specialist

Automation consultant

Jacobs (Engineering) 

System administrator

System engineer

Intelligence analyst

Network specialist

VMWare (Technology)

Cybersecurity analyst

Senior security engineer

Security professional

Senior software engineer

Test engineering specialist

Accenture (Consulting)

Penetration tester


Security consultant

Security operations center analyst

Senior tester

Highest-Paying Jobs in Cybersecurity

A cybersecurity professional’s responsibilities include compliance, incident response, hacking, and breach prevention. Candidates can work toward securing some of the highest-paying jobs in the industry by enrolling in a variety of cybersecurity courses and certifications. But, before that let’s look into some high-paying jobs in cybersecurity.

Chief Information Security Officer

$187,798 average salary per year, Glassdoor

The chief information security officer (CISO) is crucial in reducing IT risks to the company. The main duties of this position revolve around cybersecurity and computer security. Professionals working as CISOs need to be well-versed in both business and technological skills. 

Penetration Tester

$102,752 average salary per year, Glassdoor

ALSO READ: How to Get the Best Cybersecurity Salary Package in the Market

Is There a Demand for Cybersecurity Jobs?

The global cybersecurity market size is expected to grow from an estimated value of $173.5 billion in 2023 to $266.2 billion by 2027, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.9% from 2023 to 2027. Therefore, now is the time to build your knowledge to make the best of the available opportunities for jobs in cybersecurity. At Emeritus, we offer the best online cybersecurity courses to help you specialize in the field. Enroll in our courses curated by industry experts and globally renowned universities, and earn a credential for your resume in less than six months. The time is ripe to make a move to enhance your knowledge and career opportunities! 

By Swet Kamal

Write to us at [email protected]

Looking For A Raise? Change Jobs

Ron Barrett has found his dream job. As director of information technology for ERE, a New York-based accounting firm, the 35-year-old Barrett has it all: a good salary, a company that pays for his continued training, a cutting edge technical environment.

He’s so satisfied that he expects to work for ERE for decades –- probably even retire from there.

But he hasn’t always felt so settled. Far from it. Earlier in his tech career, Barrett was always looking for the next opportunity. In doing so, he learned a valuable lesson: Job-hopping is an effective strategy for increasing your salary.

“Each and every time I moved, it was always for better pay,” Barrett tells Datamation. “Sometimes the position was a lateral move, but the pay was always better.” The raises were always between $3,000 and $8,000 per year, he says.

John Challenger, CEO of job placement firm Challenger, Gray and Christmas, agrees that job-hopping can be an effective strategy –- particularly in today’s hot IT job market.

Many companies are “locked in” to their current wage structure, he tells Datamation. The relative pay scale between various job titles is fixed. “It’s very hard to get out of the box.”

In a situation like this, an IT professional seeking a significant pay hike has little choice but to look for another position.

Always Hunting

Barrett landed his first IT job at age 28. Prior to that he supervised operations management for beverage maker Snapple in its New York City office. The career switch felt risky. With a family to support, staying employed was essential.

In his first IT post Barrett worked as a consultant for a firm that assisted American Express with Y2K preparedness. It was a good start, but he wasn’t satisfied. “I wanted to get more into what I’m doing now, where I actually get my hands around the whole system,” he says.

Barrett spent about eight months there. He knew it was time to leave when he asked for a raise and management offered three percent. “I just started looking.”

From there he moved into a position in which he handled user and server support. Then came a period of rapid change: Toward the end of the dotcom mania he shuffled quickly through a handful of system administrator posts.

He left the chaos of the dotcom world for a more stable job -– or at least it looked that way. He took a position with investment firm JC Bradford. However, the company soon was bought by Paine Webber.

In the merger, Barrett lost his job. Job-hopping can be perilous, he freely admits.

However, right after his Bradford layoff he found his current job with ERE, so his tale of job hunting ends happily.

Handling Wary Employers

“I don’t know if that applies anymore,” Barrett says. “It seems like five years these days is a long time anywhere.”

Still, he has faced that issue in interviews. “They would ask, ‘Well, you’ve been in a lot of places.’”

He had an answer ready. He would reply: “Yes, I’m trying to grow. I was there and I got what I could get, and now I’m looking to grow in the next direction.”

But no matter how well an IT staffer can answer such questions, job-hopping has a downside. “It can catch up with you,” Challenger says. “You can only do so much of it before employers begin to doubt your stick-to-itiveness.”

An employee’s age matters in terms of how employers perceive their employment record. “In your 20s, you can move more, but once you get to your 30s, companies are looking for people to move up into more responsible positions,” he says. “They can’t plug you in and out as easily.”

Over time, employees with stable job records become more attractive. When hiring employees in their mid-30s, firms look for three- or four-year tenures, he says.

“If they see three or four jobs where you’ve been there for a year, in the recent past, they begin to say, ‘No matter how much we like him or her, unless we just need to get the project done, the odds are that they’re going to leave again.’”

More Than Money

In Barrett’s experience, he places great weight on whether a prospective employer is willing to pay for his ongoing IT training. “If they don’t invest in my training I could become a dinosaur really quick,” he says.

In fact, the importance he places on salary is almost matched by the importance he places on an employer’s willingness to educate its IT staff. “It’s 60-40,” he says (with the 60 percent figure attributed to salary; 40 percent to an employer’s reimbursement for training.) “Maybe it’s even more 70-30.”

“I’ve had places where they weren’t willing to pay for the training, and in those places I bought the books, I bought the classes -– I did what I had to do to make sure I was educated.”

That process hasn’t stopped. He just finished a training program on Microsoft’s Exchange 2003 and is about to start a security training course.

Going forward, Barrett plans to focus heavily on security. He’s considering the CEH (Certified Ethical Hacker) training program. “It just seems like we’re getting attacked in all areas,” he says. The CEH program tends to go deeper than many security classes, according to Barrett.

Don’t give up an opportunity just because you’re comfortable in your current post, he says. “The opportunities are there. And if the company wants you and they’ve got the training you want, they’re not going to look down on the fact that you’re looking to move and grow.”

Variable Rate Demand Note (Vrdn)

Variable Rate Demand Note (VRDN)

A a long-term floating rate instrument that carries an interest rate that accrues periodically in line with the current money markets

Written by

CFI Team

Published June 29, 2023

Updated June 28, 2023

What is a Variable Rate Demand Note (VRDN)?

A variable rate demand note (VRDN) is a long-term floating rate instrument. It carries an interest rate that accrues periodically in line with the current money markets. From the outset of the loan, the assigned interest rate is equal to the sum of unique money market funds plus an extra margin.

A VRDN is a long-term municipal bond, which carries a coupon that adjusts at regular intervals – usually 7 to 35 days – leading to a short-term duration asset. The bonds tendered are then resold to the secondary market by a reseller agent or trustee.

Typically, a VRDN includes a one or seven-day put option that allows investors to put the asset back to an agent to match the notice duration. The long-term bond helps the municipality to borrow funds with long maturities while paying investors short-term rates. It is offered through money market funds, especially to small investors, because it is issued at minimum denominations of $100,000.


A variable rate demand note is a debt instrument bearing a floating interest rate that allows an investor to put the stock back to a financial intermediary.

A variable rate demand note is provided with liquidity funding from banks and other financial institutions with a high credit rating.

The debt instrument supports the demand note making the credit enhancement an attractive feature for investment.

Understanding Variable Rate Demand Notes

Highly-rated banks and other financial institutions provide VRDNs with liquidity or external credit enhancement support to help put back the asset to an intermediary at par with the notice. The enhancement support allows payment of interest and principal through a letter of credit (LOC).

The issuing agreement requires investors to present a one-day or seven-day notification to enhance the liquidity of the security by tendering to a financial intermediary. The clear majority of the outstanding VRDNs are held by either municipal money market funds, individual investors, or other investors, such as bond funds and corporations.

One feature of the VRDN is that the debt is payable on demand, courtesy of the embedded put option. Lenders or investors can, therefore, request the entire debt amount to be repaid at their discretion. Once the demand’s been made, the funds are fully repaid at a go.

How a VRND Works

The following are the two main elements of a variable rate demand note:

1. Letter of Credit (LOC)

A LOC offers liquidity enhancement and is provided by third-party financial institutions, such as banks. In case the debt instrument includes an irrevocable LOC, the investor’s primary source of credit enhancement is viewed as changed from a municipal issuer to the LOC provider. It happens because, if the issuer cannot pay per to the investor, the LOC issuer can step in as the liquidity provider of last resort.

2. Standby Purchase Agreement (SBPA)

A Standby Purchase Agreement (SBPA) is different from the irrevocable LOC, in that it serves as a conditional liquidity facility for a VRDN. An SBPA can normally be terminated under the following conditions:

Underlying obligor suffers bankruptcy

Underlying obligor fails to reach the set investment grade

Underlying tax-exempt bonds are rendered taxable

Underlying obligor defaults

In some circumstances, the municipal government is forced to pay for the principle and interest, as well as providing for the par put because a particular VRDN includes neither an LOC nor an SBPA.

Putting Back the Variable Rate Demand Note

After one or seven days of written notice, investors can put their funds into the tender agent. Even so, the marketing resellers take back the VRDN directly from the owner so that it can be put back to a financial intermediary. More often, the resellers try to trade the VRDN within the window period.

At one extreme, an agent never needs to take possession of the VRDN if it is successfully remarketed; at the other, an agent must take the debt instrument into his inventory to facilitate par payment to an investor. Additionally, if the VRDN is not resold, the tender agent then initiates par pay for the notes by drawing on the LOC or SBPA.

The majority of money-making investors seek to select a VRDN whose guarantors are well-capitalized financial institutions. It makes the credit enhancement feature of VRDN an attractive investment option, given that it supports the demand note. In addition to improving the security’s credit rating, the enhancement feature lessens default risks of the underlying securities.

An investor is guaranteed interest payment as long as the banks or financial institutions providing the LOC are solvent. In such regard, the VRDN’s interest rate tends to mimic the short maturity credit profile of the liquidity provider, rather than that of the municipal issuer. Reputable banks may use bond purchase agreements to enhance credit by reducing default risk.

A VRDN bears an interest rate that lowly correlates with bonds and stocks. It makes the debt instrument suitable for investment diversification. While the VRDN can either be taxable or tax-free, municipality governments generally issue variable-rate demands that are tax-exempted by the federal government.

Additional Resources

Top 26 Important Software Engineering Interview Questions For 2023

Introduction to Software Engineering Interview Questions And Answers

So you have finally found your dream job in software Engineering but are wondering how to crack the 2023 Software Engineering Interview and what could be the probable Software Engineering Interview Questions. Every interview is different and the scope of a job is different too. Keeping this in mind, we have designed the most common Software Engineering Interview Questions and Answers to help you get success in your interview.

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Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Below is the list of 2023 software Engineering Interview Questions and Answers, which can be asked during an interview for fresher and experience. These top interview questions are divided into two parts:

Part 1 – Software Engineering Interview Questions (Basic) 1. What is Software Engineering?

Software Engineering is a process of developing a software product in a well-defined systematic approach. In other words, developing a software by using scientific principles, methods, and procedures.

2. What is the need to learn Software Engineering Concepts?

Imagine a person, who is good at building a wall may not be good at constructing a house. In a similar way, a person who can write programs does not have the knowledge to develop and implement the software in a well-defined systematic approach. Hence, there is a need for programmers to adhere to software engineering concepts such as requirements gathering, planning, development, testing, and documentation.

3. What is SDLC OR Software Development Life Cycle?

SDLC defines a set of guidelines to develop a software product. SDLC has different phases namely: Gathering Requirements, Analysis, Planning, Development, Testing, Implementation, Maintenance, and Documentation. The order of the phases mentioned in SDLC may vary depending upon the model chosen to implement.

Let us move to the next Interview Questions.

4. What are the different types of models available in SDLC?

Many models have been proposed, to carry out the software implementation efficiently. Some of them include the Waterfall Model, Agile Model, Spiral Model, Iterative Model, V-Model etc.

5. Explain the role of a Software Project Manager?

This is the common Interview Questions asked in an interview. The project Manager is responsible for driving the software project in a systematic approach. Some of the key roles & responsibilities of a software project manager include project planning, tracking the progress of the project, risk management, resource management, execution of development activities, delivering the project under cost, time and quality constraints.

6. What is a Software Project Scope?

A scope is utilized to outline the activities performed to design, develop and deliver a software product. In other words, scope contains information on what project is intended to deliver and what it does not intend to. The scope also outlines information on what software product developed contains and what it does not contain.

7. What is Software Project Estimation?

Project Estimation is a process utilized to calculate the development costs such as effort, time, and resources required to deliver a project. Project Estimations are derived through past project experiences or with the help of consulting experts or with the help of standard predefined business formulas.

Let us move to the next software Engineering Interview Questions.

8. Explain Functional Points?

Functional points are used to measure the size of the software product. In some businesses, scenarios play a key role in tracking and estimating project delivery.

9. What is a Baseline?

Baselines are put forth by the project managers to track the overall project delivery. Baselines are usually placed to track the overall tasks listed under a phase or stage. Baselines help project managers to track and monitor the overall execution of a project.

10. What is Software Configuration Management?

Software Configuration Management helps users to track the overall changes made in software product delivery. Updates or changes made to the software are tracked in terms of development and requirements gathering.

Let us move to the next software Engineering Interview Questions.

11. What is Change Control? 12. Mention few project management tools?

Many project management tools are utilized as per the enterprise standards some of them include: Gantt Charts, PERT Charts, Milestone Checklists, Histograms, MS project, Status reports, etc.

13. What is a Software requirement?

Requirements play a key role in providing a detailed description of the software product being developed. Software requirements help the developers and other support teams associated with project delivery, to understand the proposed target system and their expectations on it.

Part 2 – Software Engineering Interview Questions (Advanced) 14. Explain the Feasibility Study?

Feasibility Study is performed to assess the beneficial and practical attributes of a software development Thorough analysis is performed by an organization with the help of feasibility study to understand the economic, operational and technical aspects involved in a software project delivery.

Economic: Economic study involves costs related to resource management, training costs, tools utilized, and project estimation costs

Technical: Technical study helps the business to analyze the technical aspects involved in software delivery such as machines, operating systems, knowledge, and skills of resource allocated, tools utilized, and training.

Operational: Operational study help business to study the change management and issues involved depending on the project needs.

15. What are functional and non-functional requirements?

Functional requirements are utilized to specify the functional features as per the business requirements. For Example, adding a payment option to buy content from a website. Whereas non-functional requirements provide insights into security, performance, user interface, interoperability costs, etc.

16. What are Software Metrics?

Metrics are utilized to guide the software product delivery as per the business standards. Metrics can also be used to measure few features of software product delivery. Metrics are divided into requirement metrics, product metrics, performance metrics, and process metrics.

Let us move to the next software Engineering Interview Questions.

17. What is Modularization?

Modularization divides the software system tasks in multiple modules. These modules are independent to other modules and tasks invoked in each module are executed independently.

18. Explain Concurrency and how is it achieved during the software product delivery? 19. What is Cohesion? 20. What is coupling?

Coupling is utilized to measure the inter-dependability of various elements defined in a module.

21. Mention a few software analysis & Design tools?

Some of the key software analysis & design tools are Data flow Diagrams (DFD), Structured Charts, Data Dictionary, UML (Unified Modeling Languages) diagrams, ER (Entity Relationship) Diagrams etc.

Let us move to the next software Engineering Interview Questions.

22. What is DFD Level 0?

DFD (Data Flow Diagrams) Level 0 depict the entire data flow along with all abstract details within a software information system. This type of DFD is also known as Context level DFD.

23. What is Data Dictionary?

A data dictionary is also known as metadata. Data Dictionary is utilized to capture the information related to naming conventions of objects and files utilized in the software project.

24. What is black box testing and white box testing?


Black Box Testing: Black box testing is performed to validate the outputs along with valid inputs given. But, it does not test the implementation part of the program.

White Box Testing: White Box testing is performed to validate the inputs, outputs and program implementation involved in its execution.

Let us move to the next software Engineering Interview Questions.

25. What are the various types of software maintenance?

Maintenance types are corrective, adaptive, perfective and preventive.

Corrective: This type of maintenance is used to remove the errors spotted by business users.

Adaptive: This maintenance activity is performed to check the changes made in the hardware and software environment.

Perfective: This type of maintenance is used to implement changes in existing or new user requirements

Preventive: This maintenance activity is performed to avoid any issues in future implementations.

26. Explain CASE tools?

CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering tools) are utilized to implement, support, and accelerate various SDLC activities involved in a software project.

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