Trending November 2023 # Microsoft Starts ‘Authorized Refurbisher’ Program # Suggested December 2023 # Top 20 Popular

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How do you cut down on Windows piracy while making a little extra money selling out-of-date software?

If you’re Microsoft, you set up a program to let companies that recycle used computers buy bulk licenses that let them legally install Windows XP on those PCs before they send them back out the door.

Indeed, this week, the software giant announced its Microsoft Authorized Refurbisher (MAR) program, a part of its Genuine Software Initiative. It aims to reduce pirating of Windows, while at the same time attempting to slow adoption of Linux. Oh, and, by the way, it cuts down on pollution, too.

One of the dilemmas facing IT shops is what to do with PCs that are no longer leading edge. Rather than plow them into landfills and deal with the concomitant environmental problems that ensue, an industry has grown up to refurbish those systems and resell them, largely abroad.

“This is partly an element of Microsoft’s ‘green’ initiative,” Dwight Davis, a vice president at researcher Ovum Summit, told chúng tôi “It’s a public relations win because they’re doing another thing to deal with the landfill problem.”

But that brings up a thorny set of issues. One of those is how to be able to provide those refurbished PCs with a legally licensed operating system.

Many of the systems that are refurbished and resold are formerly leased machines that are returned to the large PC vendors like Dell and HP, David Daoud, analyst at researcher IDC told chúng tôi Those vendors refurbish the PCs and then resell them, often in emerging markets around the world.

“The biggest chunk of the refurbished PC market is essentially a non-U.S. phenomenon,” Daoud said.

Microsoft estimates that, in 2004, 20 million refurbished PCs were sold. Today, the company projects that number is closer to 28 million.

However, these refurbished PCs, at least by the time they reach the end user, will require an OS. And Microsoft would prefer that OS to be Windows. So it just made sense to set up the MAR program.

“What these companies were asking for was essentially a means of installing genuine Windows software on a large volume of the PCs that they were collecting and refurbishing,” Hani Shakeel, senior product manager of the Genuine Windows product marketing team said in a statement.

Microsoft executives have argued for years that PCs that ship without an operating system are machines that will most likely end up running pirated copies of Windows. This may be less true today than in years past thanks to the growing popularity of Linux, but piracy still takes a bite out of sales as company executives are quick to point out.

In fact, it was a Microsoft-imposed contract requirement that PC vendors had to pay for a copy of Windows on every PC they sold whether the software actually shipped with the PC or not that got the company in trouble with federal antitrust enforcers back in the early 1990s. (As a result, the company can no longer make such demands.)

“Microsoft Authorized Refurbishers can ship PCs without an OS … it’s not a requirement of the program,” a Microsoft spokesperson confirmed to chúng tôi in an e-mail.

This isn’t the company’s first foray into providing after market licensing for refurbished PCs. It piloted the idea with its Community MAR program that provides licenses to firms who sell refurbished machines to not-for-profits, educational institutions, and charities.

The trick with commercial refurbishers, however, will be to provide legitimate licenses that won’t break the bank, because customers for such machines are incredibly price sensitive, Daoud warns.

“A refurbished PC could sell for $250 or $300,” he said. So the company has to be careful what it charges per license.

He points out that, besides Windows XP, refurbishers have two other potential paths — shipping a system with no OS at all, or with a low or no-cost OS, namely Linux.

Microsoft would like to, as much as possible, encourage refurbishers to push machines out the door with Windows installed. Of course, Windows XP is no longer Microsoft’s mainstream OS offering. However, most machines coming back for refurbishment are not capable, or are only marginally capable, of running Microsoft’s new flagship, Windows Vista.

So the MAR program helps Microsoft continue to make a little money off of aging intellectual property – XP – while trying to head off the other two problems.

“I can’t believe it’s [the commercial MAR program] dramatic revenue-wise,” Davis said. At the same time, however, that’s a lot of refurbished PCs that are being sold annually. “This isn’t an insignificant market,” he added.

Microsoft’s MAR program defines a refurbished PC as one that has had any previous data completely erased, been tested to ensure it’s in good working order, and perhaps had minor repairs made to it.

In order to qualify for the program, a firm has to have a “track record of supplying an average of 5,000 refurbished PCs or notebooks per month for the last 12 months,” according to the program’s Website. Additionally, the firm would need to have “adequate systems for data wiping and Microsoft reporting requirements, as well as technical expertise to preinstall Windows … in a large scale environment.”

Under the program, refurbishers can get licenses to install Windows XP Home Edition and Windows XP Professional Edition — available initially in English, French, and Spanish. Additional languages are planned for 2008, according to company statements.

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How To Get Microsoft Edge Chromium Officially. (Microsoft Edge Insider Program)

If you are excited to try the new version of Microsoft Edge built on the open-source Chromium engine. This article will show you how to download Microsoft Edge Chromium officially and partake in the Microsoft Edge Chromium Insider Program. A Microsoft Edge Chromium test program.  

Google Chrome ‘Managed by your Organization’ Message Explained & Fixed.

After years of unsuccessfully trying to push Microsoft Edge to the masses, Microsoft have conceded defeat and moved Edge over to the open-source Chromium engine. With a mear 4.4 per cent of market share against Chromes 65 percent, the move to Chromium is only logical. 

Once you do make the switch to Edge Chromium, there are a few things you’ll probably want to change, after you’ve imported your settings. So follow along as this guide shows you how to get your hands on Edge Chromium and make a few important privacy and quality of life changes.

Related: How to Change USB Storage Device Defaults Between ‘Better Performance’ and ‘Quick Removal’.

Where Do You Download Microsoft Edge Chromium Officially?

Now all you have to do is use the chúng tôi to install Edge Chromium on your computer. Upon first opening Edge, you can opt to import all of your Google Chrome information or start from scratch. I opted to import Chrome data and the process was almost instantaneous. Though it doesn’t import Extensions or login information. 

That’s it, you can now start exploring the browser. For the most part, it’s very similar to Chrome, however, does have a very distinctive Edge/Windows feel about it. It is still a little basic but there is a lot to like about it already. 

Other Versions of Microsoft Edge Chromium. Beta Channel, Dev Channel, Canary Channel.

If you want even more options, you can choose from the following Edge Chromium variants as well.

Beta Channel – Updates every 6 weeks and is the most stable version of all tests and is suitable for everyday use. Bear in mind that unexpected problems can/may occur occasionally.

Dev Channel – Updates every week and is a slightly less stable version than Beta Channel, offering more new options and faster access to upgrades. The probability of problems is higher than for the Beta version.

Canary Channel – Updates every day and is the least stable version but you will get all the new features immediately in every daily update. Has the highest change of unforeseen problems arising.

All Edge Chromium Variants Download Page.

How to Change the Address Bar Search Engine in Edge Chromium. (Make Edge Chromium Use Google Search or DuckDuckGO)

Below are the details you need to use for DuckDuckGo.

Search Engine: DuckDuckGo

Below are the details you need to use for Google.

Search Engine: Google

URL with %s in place of query: 

{google:baseURL}search?q=%s&{google:RLZ}{google:originalQueryForSuggestion}{google:assistedQueryStats}{google:searchFieldtrialParameter}{google:iOSSearchLanguage}{google:searchClient}{google:sourceId}{google:contextualSearchVersion}ie={inputEncoding} How to Disable Data Collection in Microsoft Edge Chromium.


Designing A Suicide Prevention Program

The nation saw a decrease in suicide completion during Covid-19 school shutdowns and a resurgence of suicide rates as schools opened back up. We also see increased rates of suicide during school days and school months as compared to weekends and school breaks. As an educator, I am heartbroken to learn this. These statistics go against one of education’s most basic cornerstones: to keep kids safe and healthy. How do we support students who are so obviously struggling? How do we successfully build and operate suicide prevention programming? The Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC) outlines steps that schools can follow to implement suicide prevention programming on their campus.

Fundamentals of Suicide Prevention Programming

Prevention programming needs to be done comprehensively. A team should be put together with relevant stakeholders such as school counselors, school administrators, district administrators, mental health professionals, school nurses, teachers, coaches, and/or members of departments where the programming will take place. 

Understand the full scope of the issue: Look at data and research. Understanding the link between suicide rates and school is important during this initial investigation. Who is struggling with suicidal ideations? Use statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as local surveys and statistics such as the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System from the CDC, the Healthy Kids Survey (for California and Colorado), and local health department data. When analyzing the data, consider questions like these: 

What circumstances are surrounding suicide attempts and completions?

What community and school resources are already in place to support your work?

Where is there space for intervention?

As you do this research, identify risk and protective factors as well.

Then, figure out which protective factors or risk factors you want to focus on. Do you want to increase protective factors like help-seeking attitudes or promote positive social connections? Do you want to decrease risk factors such as isolation or the use and abuse of alcohol or drugs? What long-term goal do you want this program to address? Suicide does not have an immediate fix; time and consistency are needed to affect it positively. 

Select or develop interventions: Your team can develop a program and activities to specifically fit your school or community. What is already being done? How does it work? How can you support and improve preexisting quality programming rather than reinventing the wheel? Your team can access a set curriculum that already has evidence of effectiveness found in the SPRC’s resource center.

As you design a program, remember to include the people who will be presenting the material to students. A strong working relationship between the people administering the programming (commonly teachers or coaches) and the counseling department and mental health support within the building is important. Counseling departments and mental health supports also work to help identify students who are struggling, intervene in crises, and support the student and family as they navigate through hardship.


Identify and assist those at risk: Everyone can play a role in helping identify and assist those struggling. Learning about the warning signs of suicide is a great first step. Then, learn how to access the resources needed when you are worried about someone. Have students identify trusted adults in their life. Discuss why we cannot keep secrets about suicide. Work with your organization’s counselors and mental health professionals to figure out the best way to refer at-risk students.

Increase help-seeking behaviors: Studies show that decreasing stigma increases help-seeking behaviors. According to the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, stigma reduction happens when we know the facts. Including facts and statistics about mental health and suicide in your lessons is a great way to counteract myths that promote stigma. Use inclusive and person-first language. Focus on the positive—people can and do recover. Mental health struggles are only one aspect of a person; everyone deserves to be treated with dignity and respect. We can lead with grace.

Build out a continuity of care for those struggling, and ensure access to mental health care: Work with your counselors and mental health professionals to support students and build a consistent system to refer and support students. 

Respond effectively to crises, and reduce access to means of suicide: Teachers and students alike can learn how to respond effectively to individuals in crisis. Important! You can help only if you are safe.

During a crisis situation, follow this procedure:

Stay: Do not leave the person alone (stay on the phone if you’re not physically present).

Call: Call 911 for a welfare check, call 988 for mental health service, and/or call a caregiver.

Act: Remove the person from the vicinity of any means that could be used for suicide; take them to any emergency room. 

Enhance life and resiliency skills and promote connectedness: Educate students about positive practices and healthy coping mechanisms. By building social and emotional skills, we can build a more supportive and understanding community. Not only will we be better able to manage our own life, but also we can better support those struggling with life, including mental health and grief. (Being close to someone who has completed suicide increases risk.) 

Implementation, reflection, evaluation, adjustment: Plan implementation of the curriculum. When is this programming happening? Where will it take place? How will this curriculum roll out? How will those administering it be supported? Finally, use feedback and experience to improve. Plan how you will analyze and reflect on your programming as a comprehensive team. Was your programming effective, efficient, and delivered as intended? Assess both participant and instructor satisfaction. Psychological ownership benefits the curriculum and the students. 

Suicide is preventable. Schools can play an important role in reducing its prevalence by investing in a comprehensive prevention team and program. A broad and inclusive prevention program helps identify and assist those at risk, increase help-seeking behaviors, identify resources, respond effectively to crises, enhance life skills and resiliency, and promote connectedness and support. 

Cisco Launches National Digitization Program In Thailand

BANGKOK — Cisco and Thailand are collaborating on a framework for digitization across the country to “accelerate” Thailand’s digital and creative economies.

The framework will be under Cisco’s Country Digital Acceleration (CDA) program and also power an “inclusive recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic,” according to Cisco last month.

The framework was introduced at a hybrid event attended by several officials from Thailand and Cisco.

Cisco’s CDA team collaborates with governments to accelerate their national digitization agendas and deliver services to their citizens faster and more effectively. 

Cisco’s CDA program in Thailand will focus on three key areas: digital acceleration of local enterprises; technology and business innovation; and digitization of national infrastructure. These areas will be underpinned by a focus on cybersecurity. Through the strategic pillars, Cisco said it intends to invest its technologies, infrastructure, tools, knowledge, and expertise to “empower crucial stakeholders to enact their digital transformation plans.”

The CDA program in Thailand will drive various initiatives, with specific focus on the following areas:

Connected health care:

Cisco will work with health care stakeholders to leverage technology to enable delivery of health care services across the country, especially in rural areas. This is a critical priority area as the pandemic has highlighted the important role technology plays in ensuring quality health care for everyone, regardless of location. 

5G for enterprises:

Cisco will help develop and test new 5G network solutions to bring more value to enterprises and enhanced network experiences to customers. With the ability to transmit huge amounts of data at faster speeds, 5G will help bridge the gap between customers, apps, and business technologies. It will help boost real-time predictive maintenance, smarter automation, and new business models, especially in key sectors like manufacturing.

Smart cities and transportation:

Cisco will contribute to Thailand’s socio-economic development with its technologies that power the underlying infrastructure for smart cities. It will especially focus on modernizing transportation investment within the Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) and in mega-projects for air, rail, land, and sea transportation across the country.


Cisco will establish a cybersecurity training center in Thailand to upskill local talent in the sector. The Cybersecurity Academy is a controlled, interactive environment where current and prospective cybersecurity professionals can collaborate to detect, investigate, and mitigate cyber attacks. Organizations can incorporate skills and processes that will enhance the capability to effectively respond to an incident in real-life and reduce its potential impact. Cisco will also help build a resilient and sustainable cybersecurity framework for Critical National Infrastructure (CNI) in Thailand.

See more: IBM Partnering with Atos on Digital Transformation for Dutch Ministry of Defense

“We are focused on ensuring that we continue to lead the way in the post-pandemic future, which will be led by digital adoption, technology, and innovation,” said Chaiwut Thanakamanusorn, Thailand’s minister of digital economy and society. 

“To fully leverage the potential of a digital future, all stakeholders will be the key players. We are delighted to work together with Cisco to launch their CDA program in the country. This is a significant step in making our digital future a reality.”

Taveewat Chantaraseno, managing director of Cisco Thailand, said over the past two years, digital interactions and cloud-first models have “become the default for businesses across Thailand, driven in large part by the pandemic.”

“Businesses have seen first-hand the opportunities that digital adoption can create,”  Chantaraseno said. “That, coupled with the government’s focus on Thailand 4.0, means there has never been a better time for public-private partnership to realize the country’s digitization agenda.”

See more: How Digital Transformation is Occurring at Vodafone, Netflix, Ulta, Siam Commercial Bank, and Choice Airlines: Case Studies

C++ Switch Case Statement With Program Examples

What is a switch?

The switch statement helps in testing the equality of a variable against a set of values. Each value under comparison is known as a case.

See the switch as a multiway branch statement. You can shift the execution of the program to various parts based on the value of the expression.

In this C++ Tutorial, you will Learn:

When to use a switch?

The switch is similar to the if…else…if ladder. However, it generates a cleaner and easy-to-understand code. The switch is also faster compared to the if…else…if ladder. Use the switch statement when you need to compare the value of a variable against a set of other values.

The break Keyword

The break keyword is used inside the switch statement. It prevents the code from running into the next case. It terminates a statement sequence.

When the C++ compiler encounters a break keyword, execution of the switch terminates, and control jumps to the line that comes after the switch statement. The use of a break statement in a switch is optional. If not used, execution continues to the next case.


Here is the syntax for switch statement:

switch (variable) { case 1: break; case 2: break; default: }

The above parameters are explained below:

Variable: This is the variable for which comparison is to be made.

Case: There are many case statements. Each compares the variable with a different value.

Break: This keyword prevents execution from continuing to the next case statement.

Default: This is optional. It states what should be done, the value of the variable did not match any case.

Switch Case Program Example 1

using namespace std; int main() { int x = 20; switch (x) { case 10: cout<<“X is 10”; break;

case 20: cout << “X is 20”; break;

case 30: cout << “X is 30”; break;

default: cout<<“X is not 10, 20 or 30”; break;

} return 0; }


Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added.

The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring a variable x and initializing it to 20.

Using the switch statement and passing the argument x to it. It means that we need to compare the value of variable x to a set of other values.

The { marks start of the switch body.

Comparing the value of variable x to a value of 10.

Statement to be executed if above case is true, that is, if x is 10. The break prevents execution from continuing to the next case.

Comparing the value of variable x to a value of 20.

Statement to be executed if above case is true, that is, if x is 20. The break prevents execution from continuing to the next case.

Comparing the value of variable x to a value of 30.

Statement to be executed if above case is true, that is, if x is 30. The break prevents execution from continuing to the next case.

The default helps us state what to be done if the value of variable x is not 10, 20, or 30.

Statement to be executed if above cases are not true, that is, if x is not 10, 20, or 30.

End of the body of a switch statement.

The main() function should return a value if the program runs fine.

End of the body of the main() function.

Switch Case Program Example 2

using namespace std; int main() { int choice; cout << “Enter 1, 2 or 3: “; switch (choice) { case 1: cout << “Choice 1”; break; case 2: cout << “Choice 2”; break; case 3: cout << “Choice 3”; break; default: cout << “Not 1, 2 or 3”; break; } }


Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Including the iostream header file in our code. It will allow us to read from and write to the console.

Including the std namespace so as to use its classes and functions without calling it.

Calling the main() function inside which the logic of the program should be added. The { marks start of body of the main() function.

Declaring an integer variable named choice.

Printing some text on the console.

Prompting the user to enter the value of choice.

Using the switch statement and passing the argument choice to it. It means that we need to compare the value of variable choice to a set of other values.

The { marks start of the switch body.

Comparing the value of variable choice to a value of 1.

Statement to be executed if the above case is true, that is, if choice is 10. The break prevents execution from continuing to the next case.

Comparing the value of variable choice to a value of 2.

Statement to be executed if the above case is true, that is, if choice is 2. The break prevents execution from continuing to the next case.

Comparing the value of variable choice to a value of 3.

Statement to be executed if above case is true, that is, if choice is 3. The break prevents execution from continuing to the next case.

The default helps us state what to be done if the value of variable choice is not 1, 2, or 3.

Statement to be executed if above cases are not true, that is, if choice is not 1, 2, or 3.

End of the body of switch statement.

End of the body of the main() function.


The switch statement helps us create a simple if…else…if ladder.

The switch statement has a clear and simple syntax than if…else…if ladder.

The switch statement should be used when you need to compare the value of a variable to a set of other values.

The values are added to case statements.

The break keywords stop the execution from continuing to the next case.

An optional default part is used to state action to be taken if no case is matched.

How To Program Nfc Tags Using Android

NFC stands for Near Field Communication and it allows two devices held closely to communicate with each other. An NFC tag is a paper-like tag that can be programmed to do your tasks using the NFC technology.

If you haven’t heard of this technology before, the above might sound a bit too technical to you, but it’s not. Once you’ve learned the basics of programming an NFC tag, you’ll find that you can use it to automate a number of your tasks that you may be doing manually every day.

Table of Contents

Getting an NFC tag and programming it doesn’t require any special skills. As long as you know how to use an app on your Android device, you can program an NFC tag to do your specified tasks. Also, these NFC tags are inexpensive and available on all the major websites including Amazon. You can get a few of these for you so they can perform various tasks for you.

Requirements For Programming An NFC Tag

In order to program NFC tags, there are certain things, or requirements that you must meet. These are basic ones and as long as you use modern gadgets, you should be just fine.

You must have:

An NFC tag which can be bought very cheaply on Amazon.

An Android device with NFC compatibility. Check your phone’s specifications to confirm.

An app to program your tags. There’s a free app on the Play Store so you don’t need to worry about it.

Once you’ve confirmed you meet the minimum requirements, head onto the following section to start writing data to your NFC tag.

Writing Data To An NFC Tag Using Your Android Device

Programming an NFC tag basically means writing the actions you want to perform to your tag. This is done using a free app from the Play Store that you can download and use on your device.

When NFC is enabled, launch the Google Play Store on your device, search for the app named Trigger, and install the app on your device.

Launch the newly installed app. When it opens, you’ll need to first create a new trigger. This can be done by tapping on the + (plus) sign at the bottom-right corner.

On the following screen, you’ll find the options you can create triggers for. The option you need to tap on is called NFC as this is what allows you to perform an action when an NFC tag is tapped.

After tapping NFC, tap on Next on the following screen to continue to program your tag.

The screen that follows lets you add restrictions to your tag. Here you can define the conditions when your tag is allowed to run. Tap on Done when you’ve specified the options.

Your NFC trigger is now ready. You now need to add an action to it so that your tag performs your chosen action when it’s tapped. Tap on Next to do it.

You’ll find various actions you can add to your tag for it to perform. As an example, we’ll be using the Bluetooth toggle option so that Bluetooth is turned on/off when the tag is tapped. Hit Next when you’re done.

You can customize the action even further on the following screen. Since we want to toggle Bluetooth, we’ll choose Toggle from the dropdown menu and tap on Add to Task.

You can now see all the actions you’ve added to the list. If you want, you can more actions by tapping the + (plus) sign at the top. This’ll make your tag do more than one task at a time. Then tap on Next to continue.

Tap on Done on the following screen.

Here comes the main part where you actually write the data to your tag. Place your NFC tag near the NFC location (usually near the rear camera) and the app will automatically write your actions to your tag.

You’ll get a success message when the tag is successfully programmed.

From now on, whenever you tap your phone to your NFC tag, it’ll perform the predefined actions on your device. In our case above, it’ll toggle the Bluetooth functionality on our phone.

You can even stick these tags somewhere convenient and then all you need to do is tap your phone at them to run your tasks.

How To Erase An NFC Tag On Android

If you want to use your tag for any other task, you can do so by erasing the existing data on it. You can program NFC tags as many times as you want and it’s pretty easy to get them formatted if you wish to do it.

Enable the NFC option on your device and launch the Trigger app.

Tap on the three horizontal-lines at the top-left corner and select Other NFC Actions.

On the following screen, you’ll find an option that says Erase tag. Tap on it to select it.

Place your NFC tag on your phone like you did when you were programming it.

You’ll get a notification when your tag is erased. It’s instant in most cases.

Uses Of a Programmable NFC Tag

If this is your first time using NFC tags, we know you’ll appreciate some suggestions as to what to use them for

Create a WiFi NFC tag that lets your guests automatically connect to your WiFi.

Create an NFC tag for an alarm so you don’t need to mess with the alarm app.

Make a tag for your conference room that puts people’s devices in silent mode.

Program a tag to call someone specific in your contacts

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