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ARMONK, N.Y. — A new report shows the gap between companies’ plans for artificial intelligence (AI) ethics and the market reality. 

“AI ethics in action” by the IBM Institute for Business Value (IBV) is intended to show “where executives stand” on AI ethics and how they’re implementing AI ethics, according to IBM this month.

Yet, there’s an AI ethics gap between “leaders’ intention and meaningful actions.”

“AI ethics in action” also highlights the “radical shift” in the roles responsible for leading and upholding AI ethics at company: 80% of survey respondents pointed to a non-technical executive, such as a CEO, as the primary “champion” for AI ethics, up from 15% in 2023.

Other findings from “AI ethics in action” 

Non-technical business executives are now seen as the driving force in AI ethics:

The CEO (28%) as well as board members (10%), general counsel (10%), privacy officer (8%), and risk and compliance officer (6%) are viewed as being most accountable for AI ethics

66% of respondents cite the CEO or other C-level executive as having a strong influence on their organization’s ethics; 58% cite board directives; 53% cite the shareholder community

Building trustworthy AI is perceived as a strategic differentiator, and organizations are beginning to implement AI ethics mechanisms:

Over 75% of business leaders agree AI ethics is important to their organizations, up from about 50% in 2023

75% believe ethics is a source of competitive differentiation

Over 67% who view AI and AI ethics as important indicate their organizations outperform their peers in sustainability, social responsibility, and diversity and inclusion

Over 50% of organizations have taken steps to embed AI ethics into their existing approach to business ethics

More than 45% of organizations have created AI-specific ethics mechanisms, such as an AI project risk assessment framework and auditing/review process

Ensuring ethical principles are embedded in AI solutions is a pressing need for organizations, but progress is slow:

79% of CEOs are prepared to embed AI ethics into their AI practices, up from 20% in 2023

Over 50% of organizations have publicly endorsed common principles of AI ethics

Less than 25% have operationalized AI ethics

Fewer than 20% strongly agreed that their organization’s practices and actions match or exceed their stated principles and values

68% acknowledge that having a diverse and inclusive workplace is important to mitigating bias in AI. Findings, however, indicate that AI teams are still less diverse than their organizations’ workforces: 5.5 times less inclusive of women; 4 times less inclusive of LGBT+ individuals; and 1.7 times less racially inclusive.

IBM provides several recommendations for business leaders to implement AI ethics: take a cross-functional, collaborative approach; establish both organizational and AI life cycle governance to operationalize the discipline of AI ethics; and reach beyond the organization for partnership.

“As many companies today use AI algorithms across their business, they potentially face increasing internal and external demands to design these algorithms to be fair, secured, and trustworthy,” said Jesus Mantas, global managing partner, IBM Consulting. 

“Yet, there has been little progress across the industry in embedding AI ethics into their practices.” 

Mantas said building “trustworthy AI is a business imperative and a societal expectation, not just a compliance issue.”

“As such, companies can implement a governance model and embed ethical principles across the full AI life cycle,” Mantas said.


The IBM report “AI ethics in action” is partly based on a survey of 1,200 executives working across 22 countries and 22 industries. 

The survey was conducted in partnership with Oxford Economics in 2023.

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Decade Review: How Smartphones Have Changed Over The Years

It’s that time of the year again. Cakes, parties, long vacations, and the hope of tackling the upcoming year better than ever. On the surface, all might look eerily similar to every other year, but there’s a bit more significance to 2023’s December.

The last few days of this December not only marks the end of the year, but it also draws this decade — 2010 to 2023 — to a close. So, we are taking this time to reflect on how far the world of smartphones has come over the last 10 years.

The selection!

Many aspects have changed of the modern-day smartphones, so, it could be too big a challenge to list out all the major trends of the last decade. Hence, we have decided to strip this down to the bones and demonstrate how consumer devices have changed.

To do so, we are pitting two Samsung devices against one another — the first Galaxy S smartphone (I9000) versus the current flagship, the Galaxy S10.

Why these two devices?

With so many devices to choose from, the decision to pick two Samsung devices might seem a bit weird to you. So, we just want to assure you that we have a pretty decent reason to do so.

Apart from the obvious correlation between the two — S10 being Galaxy S’ latest successor — Samsung’s global supremacy has also been taken into account. As per the latest market data, Samsung is the leading smartphone manufacturer in the world, which clearly demonstrates how great the company has been at maintaining its stronghold, even in such a competitive market.

The main event

We all know that the Galaxy S10 is leaps and bounds ahead of the first Galaxy S smartphone ever created. So, we’re not too concerned with the spec sheet and raw numbers here. Instead, we’ll be focusing on five categories we care about the most — Display, Performance, Camera, Software, and Battery. Now, without further ado, let’s dig in.


Samsung has a reputation for delivering best-in-class displays, and we can see the trend tracking all the way back to the first-gen Galaxy S. For a device, which was launched way back in 2010, having a 4-inch Super AMOLED screen is highly impressive; probably more than S10’s 6.1-inch Dynamic AMOLED, curved screen.

The original Galaxy S came with a 480P display, which, in hindsight, feels very inferior to S10’s 1440P panel. However, considering that 480P used to be the norm for flagships back in 2010, we can’t really bash the old-timer.

Galaxy S 2010’s screen-to-body ratio clocked in at 58%, which is a whopping 30.3% less than the S10. This clearly demonstrates how much attention Samsung and other OEMs have paid to improving the screen-to-body ratio, packing more pixels in a pocketable form factor.


The Galaxy S came with 1.0 GHz Cortex-A8 chipset and 512 MB of RAM, which was more than enough at the time. A decade newer Galaxy S10 flaunts octa-core Snapdragon 855 and houses 8GB of RAM — 16 times more memory than the first generation flagship.

However, despite having 16 times more memory than the Galaxy S, S10 cannot be considered the most well-endowed device on the market. Significantly cheaper devices such as the Xiaomi Redmi Note 8 Pro or even the OnePlus 7 come with similar memory options, which goes on to show the increasing need for RAM in order to feed memory-hungry applications.


Cameras on smartphones have certainly taken a turn for the better over the past decade. From single rear-cameras to premium Penta shooters, we’ve surely come a long way. Samsung smartphones may not produce the best camera setups on the market, but they’ve never been slouches either.

The first-generation Galaxy S came with a single 5MP rear camera and a respectable VGA selfie shooter. The rear camera had 720P video recording while the front limited to SD video capture. S10, on the other hand, has three rear cameras — 12MP Wide-angle, 16MP Ultra-wide, and 12MP Telephoto — and a 10MP selfie camera. Both front and rear cameras can record in 4K.


At the time of launching the Galaxy S, Samsung only used to allow its flagships one major Android OS upgrade. So, the Galaxy S was naturally pushed from Android Eclair to Android Gingerbread. Many anticipated the update to Honeycomb, but the South Korean OEM never got around to getting it.

Thankfully, policies have changed over the decade, and the devices are now granted two Android OS updates in a timely manner. The S10 was launched with Android 9 Pie and has already been upgraded to Android 10. The current S-series flagship is also guaranteed to get Android 11, next year.


The former four subsections have clearly demonstrated that the spec-sheet doesn’t always tell the complete story. And When it comes to battery, it’s often quite the opposite. 

The decade-old Galaxy S had a 1500 mAh Li-ion, removable battery. The phone promised close to 6 h 30 mins of 3G talk time and up to 750 hours of 2G standby. The latest S-series device, Galaxy S10, on the other hand, has a 3400 mAh unit, assuring 21 hours of 3G talk time. On paper, S10’s battery seems to be 3.5 times better than the first-generation flagship. But in the real world, the outcome is quite disappointing. 

The Galaxy S10 has been widely hailed as one of the fastest phones in the world, but battery life isn’t its strongest suit. If you’re a casual user, the phone just might get you through the day, but hardcore or even moderate users are forced to plug in the charger at least once.

Back in 2010, even the Galaxy S’ 1500 mAh unit had enough juice to last the day. But now, with so many battery-hogging games and apps flooding the market, fitting a flagship with a sub-4000 mAh battery is hardly acceptable. 

Conclusion and expectations for the next decade

Now, that we’ve covered all the bases, let’s take a look at what it all means and whether it really was an eventful decade for smartphones.

The OEMs are happily granting 4500 mAh+ batteries to mid-range devices, but most flagships are still stuck with sub-4000 or even sub-3000 units. We understand the obligation of making premium devices as sleek as possible, but the compromise we’re making doesn’t seem to be worth it. We are in desperate need of an alternative, which would help us attain the best of both worlds. And we feel, it’s about time manufacturers paid more attention to the hardware that powers their entire business.

South Korean OEM, Samsung, is reportedly working on Graphene batteries, which would ideally go from 0 to 100 in under 30 minutes. Samsung has mostly kept it under wraps, so, we’re not sure how economically feasible it’ll be or whether it’ll offer a longer battery life. However, being the wide-eyed dreamers as we are, we can’t help being hopeful and pray that other companies, too, follow suit, and we witness a new efficient era of smartphones.

What are your thoughts on the evolution of smartphones?

How Autocomplete Method Can Be Implemented?

Introduction to jQuery Autocomplete

Autocomplete is basically a mechanism that provides the users with a pre-populated list of values or suggestions as they type which enables them to easily find and select a particular item from the list. This jQuery feature helps the users by preventing them to type an entire word or set of words to find options from the select box. The user can then select from the list of options available which will be displayed in the input field. To help select from the list of available options, jQuery UI provides an autocomplete An autocomplete widget is a control that basically filters the options to display only those matching with what the user is typing in control.

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$(selector, context).autocomplete (options)

$(selector, context).autocomplete (“action”, params)


Below is the syntax for jQuery Autocomplete:

Syntax #1 $(selector,context).autocomplete(options)


options: Parameter refers to an object which specifies the behavior of the list of suggestions as to the user types.

Syntax #2

The autocomplete(“action”, params) method is used when we need to perform an action on the list of suggestions. Such actions can be shown or hide for example.

$(selector,context).autocomplete("action", params)


action: specifies a string.

Implementation of jQuery autocomplete Method

Let us take a look at a few examples to understand how the autocomplete method can be implemented in web pages.

Example #1

The following example illustrates how the autocomplete mechanism works without passing any parameter to the autocomplete() method.

<link rel=”stylesheet” $(function() { var languages = [ “C”, “C++”, “Java”, “JavaScript”, “jQuery”, “PHP”, “Python”, “Ruby”, “C#”, “React” ]; $(“#langs”).autocomplete({ source: languages }); }); #divstyle { text-align: center; background-color: cadetblue; width: 400px; height: 150px; margin-left: 100px; } #pid { color: brown; font-weight: bold; font-family: Georgia, “Times New Roman”, Times, serif; }


Below screenshot is of the output which gets displayed on the page once the above code is executed. As we start typing words, for example, here, the word containing “j”, we see a list of suggestions for the words with “j” getting displayed below the input box.

We can use the up and down arrow key to navigate the list and make the selection as shown below in the screenshot.

Example #2

In the following example, we are trying to demonstrate the usage of a label in the autocomplete widget of jQuery.


<link rel=”stylesheet” $(function() { $(“#autocmp”).autocomplete({ source: [ { label: “Mathematics”, value: “MATHS” }, { label: “Chemistry”, value: “CHEM” }, { label: “Physics”, value: “PHY” }, { label: “English”, value: “ENG” }, { label: “Environmental Science”, value: “EVS” } ] }); }); #divstyle { text-align: center; background-color: cadetblue; width: 400px; height: 150px; margin-left: 100px; } #pid { color: brown; font-weight: bold; font-family: Georgia, “Times New Roman”, Times, serif }


Below screenshot is of the output which gets displayed on the page once the above code is executed.

As we start typing the word in the input box, we start getting a list of suggestions as shown below in the screenshot.

Here we are using labels in autocomplete()

If we start with typing “E” or “e” or “S” or “s”, we get a list of available options containing these letters.

We can then make the selection as per our choice.

We can use up and down arrow keys for navigation.

Example #3

In the following example, we are trying to demonstrate the usage of two options, that are, minLength and delay in jQuery autocomplete() method.


<link rel=”stylesheet” $(function() { var avaialableSubjects = [ “Mathematics”, “Chemistry”, “Physics”, “English”, “Environmental Science” ]; $(“#subjs”).autocomplete({ source: avaialableSubjects, minLength: 2, delay: 500 }); }); #divstyle { text-align: center; background-color: cadetblue; width: 400px; height: 200px; margin-left: 100px; } #pid { color: brown; font-weight: bold; font-family: Georgia, “Times New Roman”, Times, serif; } <div&gt


Below screenshot is of the output which gets displayed on the page once the above code is executed.

As we start typing the word in the input box, we start getting a list of suggestions as shown below in the screenshot.

Here we are using labels in autocomplete()

Here, minLength specifies the number of characters that must be entered before getting the matching values, the default value is 1.

delay specifies the time delay in milliseconds for which we need to wait before trying to obtain the matching values, the default value is 300.


In this article, we discussed the autocomplete widget functionality and its usage in the development of modern websites. This jQueryUI feature provides the users with the facility of obtaining a list of suggestions while typing in an input box and making a selection from the list which will be displayed in the input field. This feature helps users by not making them to type an entire word for making a selection. It can be utilized in searching and filtering purposes as well.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to jQuery Autocomplete. Here we discuss the introduction, two syntaxes, and how autocomplete method can be implemented. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more –

Ai Will Have Robot Judges Soon. What About Human Judges?

AI in Future courtrooms. Will they replace Judges?

Just like In numerous enterprises, AI provides extraordinary benefits as well as risks for the legal industry. In the court framework, however, the stakes are uncommonly high. Utilizing a predictive algorithm to decide your kid’s custody terms isn’t exactly equivalent to Netflix recommending which film you should watch next. Most specialists in AI report that in the future AI will turn into a replacement for human jobs. Notwithstanding, should AI completely supplant judges and legal officials? Xiaofa stands in Beijing No 1 Intermediate People’s Court, offering legal guidance and assisting general society with getting hold of legal terminology. She has answers to more than 40,000 litigation questions and can manage 30,000 lawful issues. Xiaofa is a robot! China as of now has more than 100 robots in courts the nation over as it effectively seeks progress to smart justice. These can recover case histories and past decisions, lessening the workload of authorities. Some of the robots even have specialisms, for example, business law or labour-related disputes. In some of the American states, they use predictive algorithms that help with reducing the heap on the judicial structure. The fact is that the American courts have confronted government strain to decrease the jail quantity yet preventing risks in crime rising. Thus, courts around the US are utilizing automated devices with the objective to rearrange litigants inside the lawful structure as securely as possible. An application named Intelligent Trial 1.0 is already diminishing appointed judges’ responsibilities by filtering through materials and delivering electronic court documents and case materials. The use of artificial intelligence in the legal domain can give judges extraordinary resources, however, it can’t replace the judges’ expertise. Author and speaker on AI Terence Mauri says that the machines will actually recognize physical and psychological signs of deceitfulness with 99.9% precision. He guarantees they will be amenable, communicate in all known languages easily and will identify if anyone is lying that couldn’t be recognized by a human. Robot judges will have cameras that catch and recognize unpredictable speech patterns, a rise in body temperature without any reason as well as hand and eye movements. Information will be then analyzed to give an error-free judgment of whether a defendant or witness is coming clean. Mauri anticipates that the machines will be common in civil and criminal hearings in England and Wales in 50 years , in view of his two-year study which will be published soon. Nonetheless, most senior judges will not have their positions taken, in light of the fact that they will be required to set lawfully binding precedents, make new laws and regulate appeals. And keeping in mind that lawyers will be protected to contend their customer’s case, other legal jobs – including paralegals, solicitors, court clerks, legal secretaries, chartered legal executives, etc. will be taken over by machines too by 2070. Artificial intelligence algorithms are not perfect as they need to at first be coded by humans. The thing adds to unintended bias from the very beginning. Artificial intelligence algorithms can even analyze and build bias from their human analogs and the information they have. It appears to be that these days we have a bigger number of questions than answers to them. It is as yet indistinct in regards to the job that will entirely fit AI algorithms in the legal framework and the manners in which governments will choose to screen that. It is still dubious which technologies may become boundless and how various governments and legal authorities will decide to monitor their use. The day when technology will turn into the adjudicator of good and terrible human behaviour and give appropriate punishments, actually lies somewhere down in the future. Nonetheless, general sets of laws frequently give ideal instances of services that could be improved, while trials are probably going to benefit from better data analysis. Intense existential questions on AI judging are going up against justice administrations across the globe. Understanding the certainty of AI in justice organization, the European Commission has embraced the ‘Ethical Principles Relating to the Use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Judicial Systems’. Hence, today it is difficult to foresee the future direction of Artificial Intelligence’s effort in the legal system.

A Serious Talk About The Unified Search Marketing Code Of Ethics

In looking at the search marketing industry as a whole, it’s nearly impossible to define exactly what it is. From agencies to in-house search departments, content marketers, link builders, paid search marketers, tool producers, black-hat practitioners –  the list goes on and on. The term Search Engine Marketer refers to someone who may fit a diverse set of disciplines and job descriptions. In order to start the conversation, we’ve defined a search engine marketer as someone who self-identifies with the term. In other words, if you think you are search engine marketer, you are a search engine marketer. And it’s in your best interest to participate in this discussion.

We also realize that too many unfocused voices makes for nothing but noise. There MUST be some sort of structure that allows all who want to participate to feel that their voice is heard. This represents a challenge. We realize that many who need to be part of this conversation are currently not members of any local organization. They may live in places where there are no eligible regional organizations. In response to this, the organizers of the inaugural Search Congress are looking for several “virtual” organizations or boards that would allow for those who want to either run as a delegate or vote for a delegate that represents them will have the opportunity to do so.

Even with the best efforts to be inclusive, we realize not everyone who wants to participate in voting for delegates can. But the organizers of the Search Congress truly do want everyone’s voice to be heard, and we have set up a form on the chúng tôi site to allow anyone to submit an idea for the code of ethics. Every relevant idea that is submitted will be presented to the delegates prior to the search congress. The delegates will know your idea, even if you can’t vote for a delegate for some reason.

What’s Being Proposed?

In October of 2014, the Search Engine Marketing Professionals Organization (SEMPO), sent out a press release calling for delegates to a “Search Congress” to draft a unified Code of Ethics. Delegates to the Search Congress will be elected from the many regional organizations that operate throughout North America – some of which are affiliated with SEMPO, but others who are not. The idea is that this group of delegates will represent the industry in framing the inaugural code of ethics, but these delegates may also decide that there is currently no need for a unified code of ethics.

One important thing to understand in our point of view on this topic: SEMPO cannot and will not create a code of ethics by itself. SEMPO’s mission is

“to provide a foundation for industry growth through building stronger relationships, fostering awareness, providing education, promoting the industry, generating research, and creating a better understanding of search and its role in marketing.”

Why Do We Need a Code of Ethics?

The idea of a Code of Ethics is not new. Since SEMPO’s inception in 2002, there has been talk about creating a Search Marketing Code of Ethics. In fact, one of the most common criticisms of SEMPO is that no code of ethics or best practices document has been created. In the past, the Board has struggled with the topic of setting industry standards, but the SEMPO leadership realized there would be a lack of full support for such standards, especially from those self-identified Search Engine Marketers who practice tactics that are against the rules, such as “black hat SEO.” A Code of Ethics is a wise step back from the potential future body of standards, and it will and it will provide something for the marketers that measure value in partner adherence to such beliefs and operating principles. Not all marketers will know or care about the Code of Ethics, but for those that do it will provide additional trust.

Until now, a code of ethics was a want, not a need. As search engine marketing has matured, the budgets have continually increased. In fact, in the SEMPO State of Search survey in 2013, more than half of the respondents indicated that they expected to increase their digital marketing budgets in 2014. The respondents indicated that more than half of that money would be earmarked for search engine marketing activities. However, since that survey, the landscape has changed. Algorithm and paid search changes in both Google and Bing have decimated the return for many search marketing activities. Companies are skittish of hiring search engine marketers for fear of being penalized by Google for unscrupulous methods. This trend is hitting search engine marketers in the pocket book. In fact, the latest (fourth annual) SEMPO salary survey indicates that search engine marketing salaries are dropping. For the first time in a long time, we may see search engine marketing budgets decline.

The reason for the decline is anecdotally apparent to most of us in the space. Too many companies who have purchase search engine marketing services in the past don’t trust us. They’ve been burned in the past – or know someone who has been burned. And currently, there are no reliable services for consumers of search engine marketing services to know which companies adhere to ethical business practices – much less strategic and tactical best practices. There are services like the Better Business Bureau that include search engine marketing agencies under their umbrella – but the BBB doesn’t understand search marketing. And the BBB’s mission isn’t to create a code of ethics for our industry. That’s our industry’s job.

Several criticisms of the proposed Code of Ethics have  said that Google itself is the regulator of our industry. The thought is that Google provides all we need to know to act ethically as a search engine marketer.  We believe this is inaccurate. We believe that we, as search engine marketers, need to take a stand in regulating ourselves, regardless of what the search engines dictate. This is our industry – and regardless of what the search engines dictate, at the end of the day we should be able to decide what’s right for OUR industry.

There are worries that a Code of Ethics will fracture our tight-knit industry. The harsh reality is that those outside of our industry care very little about it. The results and business practices are important to the consumers of Search Engine Marketing. We believe that having a unified and enforceable Code of Ethics will not only make the industry stronger, but provide benefits to both practitioners and consumers.

What the Code of Ethics Should NOT Be

The proposed Code of Ethics will most likely NOT be a tactical best practices guideline document, although that will be up to the Congress to decide. The Search Congress will make the final decision on what will (and won’t) be in the inaugural document, how the inaugural document will be amended and changed, how it will be enforced and how the Search Congress will be elected in the future. The Congress will also decide if there is a need for best practices guidelines. However, creating best practices in the ever-changing world of search is a tall order. Before best practices can be established, the industry needs to have a representative body and a Code of Ethics. The Code of Ethics is the first step toward creating a unified search engine marketing viewpoint.

What Can You Do?

In closing, we want to reiterate at this time all we are asking is that you participate. If you are the leader of a regional search engine marketing group, please volunteer to send a delegate to the Search Congress – which will likely take place later in 2024. If you want to participate as a delegate, talk to your regional group, or if you aren’t part of one, look for one to join. If you can’t join a group, send us your ideas on what should be included in the Code of Ethics – or if you don’t agree with the process or the idea of a Code of Ethics, let us know and tell us why. We truly want this to be a representative effort.

Thank you for your time and support in this effort to help us evolve our industry towards trusted full inclusion with the “big” marketing channels.

This Post was a Collaborative Effort By:

Chris Boggs

SEMPO Global Board Member since 2006

Ethics In Psychology: Meaning And Application

APA outlines general ethical principles that ensure the safety and well-being of the participants involved in a study. In addition, APA has a list of ethical standards, including protection against harm, harassment, and discrimination.

What are Ethics?

Ethics are defined as moral or philosophical codes that focus on the concept of the things that are right and which are wrong. An ethical approach guides individuals’ behavior toward what is right and wrong. In the field of Psychology, ethical guidelines are adopted to ensure that the patients who are given therapy and the participants involved in research conducted by Psychology researchers do not face any negative consequences as a result of their participation. Ethics in Psychology are of utmost importance and protect the right and dignity of individuals. Ethics in Psychology apply to various fields, including therapy, research, education, and publication.

Five general principles of APA

Following are the five general principles of APA −

Beneficence and Non-maleficence − The first principle of APA states that during the study or research, psychologists and researchers need to safeguard the rights and welfare of the individuals involved in the study and maximize their benefits. This principle states that researchers must work freely from biases and prejudices. Hence, researchers must conduct research without biases that may negatively affect the study.

Fidelity and Responsibility − This principle highlights the importance of conscientiousness in the research and study conducted by psychologists. It is a universally understood principle and is concerned with compliance with ethical principles with colleagues and others in the work network. Ethical misconduct by researchers needs to be pointed out whenever spotted by others, but the respect and dignity of the researcher should not be violated in the process.

Justice − The fourth principle states that fairness and justice should be practiced by all researchers, such that equality is practiced throughout the study and all the participants benefit from the services and the research conducted by the practitioners.

Respect for Rights and Dignity − The fifth principle of APA emphasizes obtaining individuals’ consent before the study’s conduct and safeguarding the autonomy and confidentiality of the participants involved in the study. Psychologists need to be aware of and respect cultural, linguistic, and gender differences and not violate the rights and dignity of the individuals while the research is being conducted.

Ethical considerations in Psychology

The code of ethics given by the American Psychological Association guides the appropriate conduct of psychologists and practitioners. Psychologists often need a specific framework of guidelines that help maintain their ethical practices in their specific professional context. The APA code of ethics clarifies the appropriate professional behavior in the various aspects of practice. Psychologists deal with sensitive situations, and ethical concerns play a vital role in this case.

Informed Consent

Psychologists and practitioners play multiple roles as researchers, therapists, consultants, and educators. For example, while dealing with patients, therapists must inform them about the services offered and what to expect from them. While conducting research, it is important to let participants know about the purpose of the study and the potential risks involved.

Client Welfare

Psychologists must ensure that the services they provide work toward their client’s welfare and do not harm them.


Psychologists must ensure that patients’ sensitive information and details are not shared with a third party and that privacy and confidentiality are not breached.


Therapists should only lie about their areas of expertise and provide services in the areas they are competent in if it is an emergency.

Ethical considerations followed by researchers

Avoiding harm to participants caused during the study.

Conduct the study truthfully and honestly to convey the findings to others.

Include the strengths and weaknesses of the study in the research article.

Collect facts and details accurately before actually carrying out the assessment.

Assure that the participants are provided with informed consent before the conduction of the study and are made aware of their rights.

Maintaining the confidentiality and anonymity of respondents and the results of their study.

Ethical considerations followed by Practicing Psychologists

These are −

Fidelity − Fidelity, or being trustworthy, involves the principles of loyalty, faithfulness, and fulfilling commitments. Practitioners who comply with the principle of fidelity act under the trust and faith invested in them by the client, aim to meet clients’ expectations and honor their clients’ confidentiality and privacy along with safeguarding their dignity.

Autonomy − This principle allows clients the freedom of action and choice. This involves the ability of Psychologists and practitioners to encourage the clients to be self-dependent and make their own decisions wherever possible. The practitioner has the responsibility to help the clients understand the impact of their actions on themselves and society and help them make rational and responsible decisions in the future.

Beneficence − This principle highlights the importance of acting in a way that serves the participants’ best interests and looks after clients’ welfare. Furthermore, it focuses on strictly working within the competence and providing adequate services by trained professionals.

Non-Maleficence − Non-maleficence is the principle that focuses on not causing harm to others at any cost. It focuses on not causing intentional or unintentional harm to others in any way and avoiding social, sexual, and financial exploitation of the clients. The practitioner is responsible for tackling any harm that may befall their clients.

Justice − This principle highlights the importance of treating all clients equally and fairly, irrespective of their cultural, religious, linguistic, and gender differences. Justice does not necessarily imply treating all participants equally but proportionately, and there needs to be a rational explanation for the choice to treat a client differently from others.


It is crucial for Psychology to articulate certain principles of ethics, being a scientific discipline. It gives credibility and respect to the researchers and practicing Psychologists and help in resolving ethical issues which may be ambiguous by proving guidelines and an ethical code of conduct. There are arguments that, in the past, ethical considerations may have been broken, taking an example of Little Albert’s experiment conducted by Watson because it caused harm to the participant of the study. Others argue that unethical researches are a thing of the past Psychology is evolving, and ethics have become much more important in the present than in the past.

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