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PRICE in Excel

The price function in excel is used to calculating what would be the price need to pay off a bond per 100 units (mostly in Dollars) which also pays the periodic interest. The price function is financial in Excel. This is mostly used when an investor borrows money by selling bonds instead of stocks. It requires a few more attributes, usually more than other financial functions such as settlement, maturity, yield, redemption, and frequency as mandatory attributes.

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PRICE Formula in Excel:

Below is the PRICE Formula:

Explanation of Price Function in Excel

The PRICE Formula in Excel has 7 segments:

Settlement: This refers to the calendar day on which the deal is settled. The argument passed to this bracket is the date following the date of issue when the security or bond is traded on the market to the entity that is the buyer of said security bond.

Maturity: This bracket accepts a date as a valid argument. It is the calendar day on which the security or bond reaches its expiration, and the principal amount is paid back to a person or entity holding the bond.

Rate: This bracket refers to the annual interest rate of the security or bond at which coupon payments are processed or made.

Redemption: This section refers to the security value; every $100 face value is reimbursed to the bond owner on the redemption date.

Frequency: This bracket refers to the rate of occurrence of coupon payments made every year.

Let us understand the Frequency segment a little more:

The payments can be made Monthly, Annually, Semi-annually, or Quarterly. In these cases, the Frequency would be as follows:

    Basis: This bracket is optional and refers to any integer argument which specifies the financial day counting basis.

    We shall see the possible values for “Basis” in the table below:

    How to Use the PRICE Function in Excel?

    You can download this PRICE Function Excel Template here – PRICE Function Excel Template

    Example #1

    Suppose we are given the following data to calculate the price function in Excel.

    The following screenshot shows us how the PRICE Excel function prices a bond.

    So the Final Result will be :

    Things to Remember

    For computation, Excel’s Date format is linear or sequential. That means the default value 1 refers to 1st January 1900, so 2 would ideally be the following day, i.e. 2nd January 1900.

    All the variables passed as Settlement, frequency, maturity, and basis value should be valid integers, i.e., floating-point numbers.

    If the value passed as maturity or the day of settlement is not a rational date, in that case, the formula of PRICE will result in the #VALUE! error.

    If rate < 0 or if Yld < 0 or redemption ≤ 0, then PRICE would return a #NUM! error.

    If the value passed as a frequency in the formula of the PRICE function is anything other than 4, 2, or 1, then the PRICE function would return the #NUM! error as a result.

    If the basis is greater than 4 or If the basis is less than 0, then the PRICE function will return the #NUM! error.

    If maturity value ≤ settlement value, in that case, a #NUM! the PRICE function would return the error.

    Thus, it might also be wise to enclose the PRICE function with an IFERROR function, i.e., use the PRICE function inside an IFERROR function to handle the various error cases that might arise in the Frequency, Basis, Settlement Value, etc.

    So the result will be :

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    Aggregate In Excel (Formula, Examples)

    AGGREGATE in Excel (Table of Contents)

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    AGGREGATE in Excel

    Aggregate function comprises multiple mathematical functions such as average, sum, max, min, mean, etc., along with the conditions which are customized for each of these sub-functions available under aggregate function. We can even ignore the different cells or rows, such as a blank row, error value, etc., and get the desired output. We have 19 sub-functions available in the Aggregate function with different Options.

    Definition:

    “Returns the AGGREGATE in a database of values or list”

    It means it performs several calculations (19 Excel statistical functions)

    AGGREGATE Formula in Excel

    An AGGREGATE function has two types of formula

    It can be noticed when you type the AGGREGATE function in an Excel cell

    1) AGGREGATE in Reference form

    2) AGGREGATE in Array Formula

    Function_num: It is a number; it can be from 1 to 19. It depends on which specific function you want to use in the below-mentioned list

    Here each number represents a function; it is a compulsory argument

    1 to 13 are Reference forms, and 14 to 19 are array form

    1: AVERAGE

    2: COUNT

    3: COUNTA

    4: MAX

    5: MIN

    6: PRODUCT

    7: STDEV.S

    8: STDEV.P

    9: SUM

    10: VAR.S

    11: VAR.P

    12: MEDIAN

    13: MODE.SNGL

    14: LARGE

    15: SMALL

    16: PERCENTILE.INC

    17: QUARTILE.INC

    18: PERCENTILE.EXC

    19: QUARTILE.EXC

    Options: is the number 0 to 7 that specifies which values to ignore for the aggregate function Note: If the options parameter is omitted, by default, options are set to 0

    0: Ignore nested SUBTOTAL and AGGREGATE functions

    1: Ignore nested SUBTOTAL, AGGREGATE functions, and hidden rows

    2: Ignore nested SUBTOTAL, AGGREGATE functions, and error values

    3: Ignore nested SUBTOTAL, AGGREGATE functions, hidden rows & error values

    4: Ignore nothing

    6: Ignore error values

    7: Ignore hidden rows and error values

    ref1, ref2, ref[3]: It is the first numeric argument for the function when using the REFERENCE syntax. It is values or numeric values on which we want to perform the computation. You must provide at least two arguments, and you can include additional arguments if needed; or the second reference, Numeric arguments should be between 2 to 253 for which you want the aggregate value

    Array: An array refers to a range of cells when using the ARRAY syntax

    [k]: The last 6 functions (under 1 to 19 function list): k value as a fourth argument

    It is an optional argument used if we need to find out LARGE, SMALL, chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi or chúng tôi when using the ARRAY syntax

    How to Use the AGGREGATE Function in Excel?

    This AGGREGATE function is very simple and easy to use. Let us now see how to use the AGGREGATE function with the help of some examples.

    You can download this AGGREGATE Function Excel Template here – AGGREGATE Function Excel Template

    Example #1

    The following table contains yearly sales data (2024)

    If you run the =SUM (B8:B16) function directly in cell B17,

    It gives the correct value because that column does not contain hidden rows, errors & nested subtotals

    Here will calculate the SUM using an AGGREGATE function in cell B19.

    =AGGREGATE(9,4,B8:B16),

    The result will be 487.

    Function_ num: For the SUM function, the function_ num is 9

    Option: In Column B, i.e. For 2024-year sales data, all values are given, and we won’t have to ignore any values; it does not contain hidden rows, errors & nested subtotals. so we will select Option 4 (ignore nothing)

    Array: is a range for which you want to calculate aggregate functions. Here reference range of values is B8:B16. It is selected as an array of numeric values

    ‘k’ is an optional argument, and is used only for a function like LARGE, SMALL, chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi or chúng tôi We are calculating the SUM here to omit the value of k. 

    Example #2

    The following table contains yearly sales data (2024)

    In column C, for the 2024 yearly sales data. In the range C8:C16, a cell C11 & C12 contains an error value (#DIV/0! & #N/A); in the AGGREGATE formula, when an appropriate option is used, the AGGREGATE in Excel gives the correct SUM value, neglecting the error value.

    It returns an error value due to an error in that range. Because that column contains #DIV/0! & #N/A errors.

    To ignore the error values, we have to use option 6 in an AGGREGATE function

    =AGGREGATE(9,6,C8:C16).

    The result or output will be 334.

    Function_ num: For the SUM function, the function_ num is 9

    Option: In Column C, i.e. For 2024-year sales data, In the range C8:C16, a cell C11 & C12 contains an error value (#DIV/0! & #N/A). To ignore these errors, we will select Option 6 (Ignore error values)

    Array: It is a range for which you want to calculate aggregate functions. Here reference range of values is C8:C16. The system has chosen it as an array of numeric values.

    ‘k’ is an optional argument used only for functions like LARGE, SMALL, chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi or chúng tôi We are calculating the SUM here to omit the value of k.

    When an appropriate option is used in the AGGREGATE function, the AGGREGATE in Excel returns or gives the SUM of the remaining values neglecting the error value in cells C11 & C12. i.e. 334

    Example #3

    The following table contains yearly sales data (2024)

    In column D, for the 2023 yearly sales data. In the range D8:D16, cell D9 is a blank cell or hidden row & D12 contains an error value (#N/A). In the AGGREGATE formula, when an appropriate option is used, the AGGREGATE in Excel gives the correct SUM value, neglecting the hidden row & error value.

    If you run the =SUM (D8:D16) function directly in cell D17,

    It returns an #N/A error value due to an error in that range. Because that column contains #N/A error & hidden row or blank value.

    =AGGREGATE(9,7,D8:D16),

    The result or output will be 262

    Function_ num: For the SUM function, the function_ num is 9

    Option: In column D, for the 2023 yearly sales data. In the range D8:D16, cell D9 is a blank cell or hidden row & D12 contains an error value (#N/A). To ignore these errors, we will select Option 7 (Ignore hidden rows and error values)

    Array: It is a range for which you want to calculate aggregate functions. Here reference range of values is D8:D16. It is selected as an array of numeric values

    ‘k’ is an optional argument and is used only for a function like LARGE, SMALL, chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi or chúng tôi We are calculating the SUM here to omit the value of k.

    when an appropriate option is used in an AGGREGATE function, the AGGREGATE in Excel returns or gives the SUM of the remaining values neglecting the error value in cells D9 & D12. i.e. 262

    Things to Remember

    The AGGREGATE function is applicable only for vertical ranges or columns of data. It is not designed for horizontal range or rows of data.

    It has a limitation; it only ignores the hidden rows; it does not ignore the hidden columns.

    An AGGREGATE function is applicable only for the numeric value

    Function _ num argument value should not exceed 19 or less than 1. Similarly, for option argument should not be greater than 7; otherwise, it will give #VALUE! error

    In the AGGREGATE function, if in function number argument, if you are using 14 to 19 (LARGE, SMALL, chúng tôi chúng tôi chúng tôi or QUARTILE.EXC), the “K” argument should be used. g. =AGGREGATE(15, 6, A1:A9, 3). If the “K” value or second reference argument is ignored, it will result in a #VALUE! error

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    How Accumulated Depreciation Works? Formula & Excel Examples

    What is Accumulated Depreciation?

    Accumulated depreciation is the total depreciation recorded for an asset over its useful life. For Example, Max, a businessman, buys a private plane for $3,000,000. After using it for three years, its value depreciated to $2,700,000. Thus the accumulated depreciation for three years is $300,000.

    It is the cumulative asset depreciation up to one point. Each period starts with the depreciation cost applied to the total. One can choose not to use MACRS for depreciated assets if one uses a method other than straight-line depreciation over a set number of years. For example, the unit-of-production method is one such method.

    Key Highlights

    Accumulated depreciation is an accounting method that allows for the gradual deductibility of long-term assets.

    It applies to tangible assets like machinery and equipment and intangible assets like goodwill and patents.

    To find it, subtract the salvage value from the asset’s original cost, divide the result by the asset’s valuable life, and multiply by the number of years.

    It helps the company’s administration make informed decisions about when to replace and repair the assets.

    How Does Accumulated Depreciation Work?

    Depreciation is a way to track the spread of the cost of an asset over its useful life.

    It includes wear and tear on a business’s equipment, which can affect the asset’s value over time.

    It can be subtracted yearly from the business’s taxable income, reducing the company’s taxes.

    It helps lower taxes and net profits resulting from this taxable income reduction.

    Its basis is that an investment will last longer than its estimated lifetime, even if one uses it only half the time. Depreciation allows a more accurate reflection of the asset’s value over time.

    It allows a more accurate reflection of the asset’s value over time by spreading its cost over its useful life.

    Formula

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    Accumulated Depreciation= ((Asset’s Original Cost – Salvage Value)/ Useful Life) * No. Of Years

    Where,

    The initial cost of goods is the initial cost at which one purchases the goods and determines its initial value.

    The salvage cost of an asset is its book value after deducting all depreciation.

    Useful life is the product’s rough lifespan in years.

    The number of Years refers to the period the company has used the product.

    Accumulated Depreciation= Accumulated depreciation at the beginning of the year + Depreciation expense for the period – Accumulated depreciation on disposed of assets

    Where,

    Depreciation at the beginning of the year refers to the depreciation of the asset until the beginning of the year.

    Depreciation for the period means the amount of asset depreciation in the particular year.

    Depreciation on disposed of assets refers to the depreciation associated with the company’s assets, either disposed of or sold.

    Examples of Accumulated Depreciation

    You can download this Accumulated Depreciation Template here – Accumulated Depreciation Template

    Example #1

    Lily purchased a new car worth $500,000. The company has a useful life of 6 years and a salvage value of $50,000 at the end of its useful life. Calculate the accumulated depreciation after 2,4, and 5 years of use.

    Given,

    Solution:

    Let us calculate the depreciation for the year 2,

    Similarly, for the year 4,

    Next, for the year 5,

    Example #2

    An US corporation ABZ purchases heavy industrial machinery for $2,500,000. At the beginning of the year, the depreciation was $600,000. During the period, the machinery’s value depreciated by $470,000. Value of the disposed assets is $235,000. Calculate the Accumulated depreciation.

    Given,

    Solution:

    Implementing the formula,

    Thus, the accumulated depreciation is $835,000 as a result of adding the aggregates of depreciation till the start of the period and during the period and then subtracting the depreciation of assets disposed of from the sum.

    Methods to Calculate Straight-line Depreciation Method

    Multiply the valuable life of a fixed asset by the depreciable base to determine straight-line depreciation.

    The difference between an asset’s total expenditures and its anticipated salvage value at the end of its useful life is known as the depreciable base.

    The years that the asset will provide financial benefits indicate the useful life.

    Formula: (Asset cost – Estimated residual value) / Anticipated years of use = Accumulated Depreciation

    Decreasing Balance Method

    A decreasing balance approach accelerates the reporting of depreciation expenditure for assets in their early stages of useful life.

    It means they will incur less depreciation expense later in their useful lives.

    Formula: Total annual depreciation = Depreciation factor x (1 / Asset life) x Remainder value

    Double-Declining Balance Depreciation Method

    The double declining balance (DDB) depreciation method is an accounting approach that involves depreciating some assets at twice the rate specified by straight-line depreciation.

    As a result, depreciation is most significant in the first year of ownership and gradually decreases over time.

    Formula: Total annual depreciation = 2 x Depreciation factor x (1 / Asset life) x Residual value

    Depreciation vs. Accumulated Depreciation

    Depreciation

    It is the total amount recorded up to a specific date and reported on the balance sheet. Depreciation is the amount of the decrease in value for a given period and is typically recorded as an expense on the income statement.

    It is the total depreciation that has occurred up to a specific date. Depreciation is the amount of depreciation for a specific period for example, 1 year.

    It is the total depreciation taken over the asset’s lifetime, subtracted from its cost to calculate its book value.  To figure out depreciation, take the asset’s cost minus its expected salvage value and divide it by how long it is expected to last.

    It is an asset’s total depreciation since purchase.

     Objectives

    To give an accurate record of an asset’s historical cost and depreciation over time.

    Matching an asset’s price with the income it generates is a crucial principle of accounting.

    To provide a way to assess an asset’s remaining useful life and value.

    To help management make informed decisions about when to replace or repair assets.

    To assist in tax planning, it can help reduce taxable income.

    To provide a means of allocating the cost of a purchase over its useful life systematically and rationally.

    Importance

    It reflects the wear and tear on an asset over time, which is a critical component of the asset’s value.

    It provides a way to match the cost of an asset to the income it generates, which is a crucial accounting principle.

    It helps companies make informed decisions about when to replace or repair assets.

    The company can use it in accounting for tax purposes, reducing their taxable income.

    It is also used in financial statements such as the balance sheet to indicate the depreciation worth of assets over time.

    It also aids in budgeting for future expenses for the replacement of assets.

    Final Thoughts

    Accumulated depreciation is a way for businesses to track the decrease in the value of their assets over time. The most common method is the straight-line method, which considers the asset’s initial cost, scrap value, and valuable life. This method assumes a steady decrease in value over the asset’s life. Businesses should regularly check and update their depreciation calculations to ensure their financial statements are correct. It will help them make intelligent decisions about replacing assets and managing their money.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q1. Are depreciation costs a current asset?

    Answer: No. The company reports depreciation expenses in the income statement and other typical business expenses; it is not a current asset. The balance sheet includes accrued depreciation.

    Q2. Is accumulated depreciation an expense?

    Answer: No. The total amount of asset wear and tear is measured by cumulative depreciation. In other words, it represents the sum of all depreciation costs incurred up to this point.

    Q3. Where does accumulated depreciation go on a balance sheet?

    Answer: Balance sheets include detailed information about a company’s assets and their original and current value. It is the dollar amount in which an asset’s value decreases from actual to present value.

    Q4. What is the difference between depreciation and accumulated depreciation?

    Answer: Accumulated Depreciation is the total amount of depreciation in previous periods. Depreciation expense, on the other hand, is the amount of depreciation in a particular period.

    Q5. How frequently should the balance sheet’s accumulated depreciation be updated?

    Answer: Since most cumulative depreciation occurs annually, one might only need to manually calculate new rates if you update his balance sheets monthly. The balance sheet should be rechecked for any significant changes, though.

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    How To Use Normsinv Formula In Excel?

    Excel NORMSINV (Table of Contents)

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    Introduction to Excel NORMSINV

    The NORMSINV function in Excel calculates the probability of inverse normal cumulative distribution, which has a mean and standard deviation. Normsinv function can be seen as chúng tôi To find NORMSINV, first, we need to calculate the Normal Distribution; we must have X, Mean, and Standard Deviation. Once we get the value of Normal Distribution, we can easily calculate NORMSINV using the probability we got as per syntax.

    Syntax of Excel NORMSINV

    Argument:

    Probability – Which is nothing but probability corresponds to the normal distribution.

    How to Use NORMSINV Formula in Excel?

    Microsoft Excel categorizes the NORMSINV built-in function under the statistical function. This is illustrated in the screenshot below, which calculates the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for a given probability.

    Go to Formulas Menu.

    Choose a Statistical category under that we will find the NORM. The DIST function is shown below.

    Example #1 – Using chúng tôi and NORMSINV

    To use chúng tôi function, let’s start with an easy example where we need to find out the Student’s Grades; suppose we have the class exam with an average grade of 70, i.e., mu=70 and class standard deviation is 3 Points, i.e., sigma=3 here we need to find out what is the probability that students got the marks 73 or below, i.e., P(X<=73). So let’s see how to find out the probability using the chúng tôi function.

    X=3

    Mean=70

    Standard Deviation=3

    Apply the chúng tôi function as below.

    Suppose we apply the above chúng tôi function, we will get the probability of 0.0807.

    Now apply the NORMSINV function to find the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution, as shown below.

    Result –

    In the below result, we can see that we got negative values -1.40067 for the given probability, i.e., the inverse of normal cumulative distribution.

    Example #2 – Mean and Exact Standard Deviation

    Let’s see another example with curve-based data to get to know the mean and exact standard deviation.

    Mean =7

    Standard Deviation=1.3

    Standard Deviation Increment as -3

    To get the bell curve, we have to add a 0.1 to standard deviation increment where the data is shown below.

    After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

    Drag the values to get more ones until we get the positive ones to get a left curve.

    We must apply the formula as =mean-standard deviation * 3 to get the exact curves to get the right curve.

    After using the formula, the result is shown below.

    As in the above data for standard deviation increment to get the left curve, we have incremented the values by 0.1

    The same scenario is used by applying the formula as =3.1+STANDARD DEVIATION/10 to get the curve increment of 0.1

    After using the formula, the result is shown below.

    Drag the values to get the exact result shown in the screenshot below.

    Now apply the normal distribution function with the formula = NORM.DIST(DATA value, mean, standard deviation, false).

    We will get the below result as follows.

    Drag the values to get the exact result which is shown below.

    As shown in the above screenshot, we calculated the NORMAL distribution from the mean and standard deviation. Now let’s see what will be the inverse of NORMAL distribution by applying the NORMSINV, which is shown below.

    Here, Value Zero (0) has a standard deviation of 7.

    Applying scattered graph to look at how the left and right curve appears.

    First, select the data and the Normal column.

    Go to the Insert tab and select the scattered graph as follows.

    We will get the below curve graph as shown below.

    Here we can see that Mean value 7 has a standard deviation shape, and we can show that by drawing a straight line to represent it.

    Mean =7

    1 –Standard deviation indicates 68% of Data.

    2 –Standard deviation indicates 95% of Data.

    3 –Standard deviation indicates 99.7% of Data.

    Normal Distribution Graph:

    NORMSINV Graph:

    Select the data column and NORM SINV from the above figure to get the graph below.

    First, select the data and the Normal column.

    Go to the Insert tab and select the scattered graph.

    We will get the below graph which is shown in the below screenshot.

    From the above screenshot, we can see that we got an exact inverse of a normal distribution which shows the same value figure below.

    Example #3 – Configuring the Left and Right Curve

    We will configure the left and right curves using the normal distribution function in this example. Consider the data below, where x has negative values and gets incremented to positive values.

    Apply the formula =NORM.DIST(A2,0,1,1).

    After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

    Drag the formula into other cells.

    Apply formula =1-B2.

    After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

    Drag the same formula into other cells.

    The result of the above-applied formula is shown below.

    Left curve values have been calculated by applying the NORMAL DISTRIBUTION formula by setting the cumulative value as True, and the NORMSINV has been calculated using the left curve.

    After applying the formula, the result is shown below.

    Drag the same formula into other cells.

    As we can see that we got the same value for NORMSINV, which is nothing but the inverse of the normal distribution. In the same way, we will get the right curve value by calculating the 1-left curve value. In the next step, we will check how we get the x’s height using the scattered graph.

    Select the left cure and right curve columns.

    Go to insert menu.

    Select the scattered graph as follows.

    We will get the below graph result as shown below.

    NORM SINV Graph:

    The graph below shows that the NORM DISTRIBUTION value left curve has the exact match for (0, 0.5 ), which lies at the center of the line where we will get the same graph if we apply for NORMDIST.

    Here in the above graph it shows very clearly that we got the exact mean at a center point which denotes:

    X=0

    Left Curve=0.5

    Right Curve=0.5

    We displayed it to view the NORMSINV values in a graphical format, as shown below.

    Things to Remember About Excel NORMSINV

    #value! The error occurs when the given argument is a non-numeric or logical value.

    In the Normal Distribution function, we usually get #NUM! Error due to the standard deviation argument is less than or equal to zero.

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    Highlight Duplicates In Excel (Examples)

    Highlight Duplicates in Excel

    We can highlight the duplicate values in the selected dataset, whether a column or row of a table, from the Highlight Cells Rule, available in Conditional Formatting under the Home menu tab. To highlight the duplicates, select the data from where we need to highlight the duplicates, then select the Duplicate Values option, which is there under Conditional Formatting. From the box of Duplicate Values, choose Duplicate with the type of color formatting we want. Mainly Red text is selected by default to highlight duplicates. In this article, we will learn about Highlight Duplicates in Excel

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    Conditional Formatting – Using Duplicate Values Rule

    Conditional Formatting – Using Excel Function or Custom Formula (COUNTIF)

    How to Highlight Duplicate Values in Excel?

    Highlighting Duplicate Values in Excel is very simple and easy. Let’s understand how to find and highlight duplicate values in Excel using two methods.

    You can download this Highlight Duplicates Excel Template here – Highlight Duplicates Excel Template

    Conditional Formatting – Duplicate Values Rule

    Here we will find the duplicate values in Excel using the conditional formatting feature and highlight those values. Let’s take an example to understand this process.

    Example #1

    We have given the below dataset.

    To highlight the duplicate values in the above dataset, follow the below steps:

    Select the entire dataset.

    Go to the HOME tab.

    It will open a drop-down list of formatting options, as shown below.

    It will open a dialog box of Duplicate Values, as shown in the below screenshot.

    Select the color from the color palette to highlight the cells.

    It will highlight all the duplicate values in the given data set. The result is shown below.

    With the highlighted duplicate values, we can take action accordingly.

    Conditional Formatting – Using Excel Function or Custom Formula (COUNTIF)

    We will use here COUNTIF function. Let’s take an example to understand this method.

    Example #2

    Let’s again take the same dataset values to find the duplicate values in Excel.

    For highlighting the duplicate values here, we will use the COUNTIF function that returns TRUE if a value appears more than once in the list.

    The COUNTIF function we will use like shown below:

    Follow the below steps to do this.

    Select the whole dataset.

    It will open a drop-down list of formatting options, as shown below.

    It will open a dialog box for creating a new custom rule, as shown below.

    Select the last option, “Use a formula determining which cells to format,” under the Select a Rule Type section.

    It will display a formula window, as shown below.

    This will highlight all the cells having duplicate values in the dataset. The result is shown below:

    Things to Remember about Excel Highlight Duplicate Values

    Finding and highlighting duplicate values in Excel often comes into use while managing attendance sheets, address directories, or other related documents.

    After highlighting duplicate values, if you delete those records, be extra cautious about impacting your entire dataset.

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    Balance Of Trade: Meaning, Formula, Calculation, Examples

    What is the Balance of Trade?

    The balance of trade (BOT) is a measurement of a country’s exports compared to its imports. For example, the exports and imports of the US stand at $258 Billion and $331.3 Billion, respectively, as of November 2023. The country is in a trade deficit because the trade balance is negative (-$73.3). Therefore, the US has a $73.3 billion deficit in it. 

    It can measure a country’s economic health and relations with other countries. A positive BOT shows a country’s trade surplus, while a negative BOT indicates a deficit. It means a country has a trade deficit when it imports more than it exports and vice versa. It is also known as net exports.

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    Key Highlights

    A BOT is an economic metric that measures the gap in a nation’s importing and exporting values. 

    It is of three types: favorable, unfavorable, and equilibrium

    To calculate this value, economists usually subtract imports from exports

    It is a crucial economic indicator of a country’s trading practices and helps analyze its global standing

    While the BOT is the import-export difference, the balance of payment is the transactional record of a nation’s capital inflow and outflow.

    Real World Examples Example #1:

    The September report shows that the United Kingdom has a total trade deficit of $3.13 billion for 2023. It fell from $5.53 billion in 2023. The primary reason for this downfall is the decrease in oil prices which reduces the value of imports.

    Example #2:

    India’s trade balance shows a deficit of $25.7 billion as of September 2023. It is a recovery from $27.8 billion, a record low it saw in July 2023.

    Example #3: Types Favorable

    It indicates that exports are higher than imports, resulting in a net gain for the country

    Countries with a favorable trade balance can often reduce shipping and import costs due to their strong trading relationships with other countries. 

    Unfavorable

    It means that imports are more than exports, resulting in a net loss for the country.

    A weak currency is one of the common reasons for unfavorable BOT, as it makes exports expensive while imports become cheaper. 

    Equilibrium

    It is when both exports and imports are equal in value

    It can be either because both trading countries are satisfied with the trade or are significantly damaged by the imbalance. 

    How to Calculate Balance of Trade?

    To calculate the BOT, use the following formula,

    Balance of trade = Value of Export – Value of Import

    Gather the necessary data regarding the nation’s exports and imports value for the specific period

    Calculate the difference between both values by subtracting the value of imports from the exports

    A positive result indicates a trade surplus, while a negative number indicates a trade deficit

    For example, let’s say that Country A has exports totaling $50 billion and imports totaling $40 billion. The trade balance would be $50 billion less $40 billion, which is $10 billion. It indicates that Country A has a trade surplus of $10 billion.

    Balance of Trade vs. Balance of Payment

    Balance Of Trade

    Balance Of Payment

    Definition

    It is the difference in value between the goods/services it buys and sells during a specific period.

    It is a record of all of its international economic deals and transactions

    Calculation

    It is generally the net exports, i.e., exports minus imports

    It is a sum of a country’s current, capital, and financial account along with its trade balance

    Impact

    The overall impact can be positive, negative, or zero 

    The result will always be zero

    Major difference

    It does not consider any international capital transfers.

    It includes all capital transfers for its calculation.

    Importance

    It includes goods and services, presenting a more accurate picture of a country’s overall economic health and stability.

    It also affects a nation’s currency values, inflation, and interest rates 

    It provides an understanding of a country’s competitiveness in global markets

    It can help evaluate the trade relationship among various economies.

    Final Thoughts

    The BOT is an essential factor to consider when looking at the health of a country’s economy. It is a necessary factor in a country’s economic stability and prosperity. Therefore, nations must carefully manage their imports and exports to ensure a healthy trade balance.

    Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)

    Answer: All variables that impact international commerce affect a country’s trade balance. A few significant causes are trade policies, currency reserves, inflation, exchange rates, and aggregate demand & supply.

    Conversely, a country with an unfavorable trade balance will see its currency depreciate, making its imports more expensive and slowing economic growth.

    Answer: Several factors can lead to changes in the trade balance. These factors include goods/services, exchange rates, and government policies. In addition, changes in global demand for different economic factors can affect imports and exports. 

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