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What is Process Scheduling?

Process Scheduling is an OS task that schedules processes of different states like ready, waiting, and running.

Process scheduling allows OS to allocate a time interval of CPU execution for each process. Another important reason for using a process scheduling system is that it keeps the CPU busy all the time. This allows you to get the minimum response time for programs.

In this process scheduling tutorial, you will learn:

Process Scheduling Queues

Process Scheduling Queues help you to maintain a distinct queue for each and every process states and PCBs. All the process of the same execution state are placed in the same queue. Therefore, whenever the state of a process is modified, its PCB needs to be unlinked from its existing queue, which moves back to the new state queue.

Three types of operating system queues are:

Job queue – It helps you to store all the processes in the system.

Ready queue – This type of queue helps you to set every process residing in the main memory, which is ready and waiting to execute.

Device queues – It is a process that is blocked because of the absence of an I/O device.

Process Scheduling Queues

In the above-given Diagram,

Rectangle represents a queue.

Circle denotes the resource

Arrow indicates the flow of the process.

Every new process first put in the Ready queue .It waits in the ready queue until it is finally processed for execution. Here, the new process is put in the ready queue and wait until it is selected for execution or it is dispatched.

One of the processes is allocated the CPU and it is executing

The process should issue an I/O request

Then, it should be placed in the I/O queue.

The process should create a new subprocess

The process should be waiting for its termination.

It should remove forcefully from the CPU, as a result interrupt. Once interrupt is completed, it should be sent back to ready queue.

Two State Process Model

Two-state process models are:

Running State

Not Running State


In the Operating system, whenever a new process is built, it is entered into the system, which should be running.

Not Running Scheduling Objectives

Here, are important objectives of Process scheduling

Maximize the number of interactive users within acceptable response times.

Achieve a balance between response and utilization.

Avoid indefinite postponement and enforce priorities.

It also should give reference to the processes holding the key resources.

Type of Process Schedulers

A scheduler is a type of system software that allows you to handle process scheduling.

There are mainly three types of Process Schedulers:

Long Term Scheduler

Short Term Scheduler

Medium Term Scheduler

Long Term Scheduler

However, the main goal of this type of scheduler is to offer a balanced mix of jobs, like Processor, I/O jobs., that allows managing multiprogramming.

Medium Term Scheduler

Medium-term scheduling is an important part of swapping. It enables you to handle the swapped out-processes. In this scheduler, a running process can become suspended, which makes an I/O request.

A running process can become suspended if it makes an I/O request. A suspended processes can’t make any progress towards completion. In order to remove the process from memory and make space for other processes, the suspended process should be moved to secondary storage.

Short Term Scheduler

Difference between Schedulers

Long-Term Vs. Short Term Vs. Medium-Term

Long-Term Short-Term Medium-Term

Long term is also known as a job scheduler Short term is also known as CPU scheduler Medium-term is also called swapping scheduler.

It is either absent or minimal in a time-sharing system. It is insignificant in the time-sharing order. This scheduler is an element of Time-sharing systems.

Speed is less compared to the short term scheduler. Speed is the fastest compared to the short-term and medium-term scheduler. It offers medium speed.

It only selects processes that is in a ready state of the execution. It helps you to send process back to memory.

Offers full control Offers less control Reduce the level of multiprogramming.

What is Context switch?

It is a method to store/restore the state or of a CPU in PCB. So that process execution can be resumed from the same point at a later time. The context switching method is important for multitasking OS.


Process scheduling is an OS task that schedules the processes of different states like ready, waiting, and running.

Two-state process models are 1) Running, and )Not Running

Process scheduling maximizes the number of interactive users, within acceptable response times.

A scheduler is a type of system software that allows you to handle process scheduling.

Three types of the scheduler are 1) Long term 2) Short term 3) Medium-term

The medium-term scheduler enables you to handle the swapped out-processes.

The main goal of short term scheduler is to boost the system performance according to set criteria

Long term is also known as a job scheduler, whereas the short term is also known as CPU scheduler, and the medium-term is also called swapping scheduler.

You're reading Process Scheduling In Os: Long, Medium, Short Term Scheduler

Hardware Accelerated Gpu Scheduling Not Showing

Hardware Accelerated GPU Scheduling Not Showing [Fix] Get back the Hardware-Accelerated GPU Scheduling feature




If Hardware-Accelerated GPU scheduling is not showing up on Windows, that is a problem you should focus on immediately.

For reasons like outdated graphics drivers, incompatible GPUs, etc., this problem may appear.

Though updating the driver may solve the issue, you may still need to follow other methods mentioned in this article.



To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by


readers this month.

Is hardware-accelerated GPU scheduling not showing on your Windows PC? Usually, you should find this option on Display Settings on Windows 11 and 10.

It is not a big concern whether you should turn on GPU scheduling or not. But, it is critical if you don’t find the option. For some users, this feature may go missing for unknown reasons, even with a decent graphics card. The good thing is you can quickly solve this problem.

Why is hardware-accelerated GPU scheduling missing on my PC?

If you don’t find this option on your computer, it might be due to the following reasons:

Outdated GPU driver: If your graphics driver is extremely outdated, many modern Windows features may stop working.

Incompatible GPU: Not all graphics cards work with GPU scheduling. For example, most AMD graphics cards got GPU scheduling support not very long ago.

Outdated Windows: If you are using a very old version of Windows, some features may go missing or may not work at all.

Problematic system files: Corrupted system files also can be a reason you do not see the option in settings.

How do I fix hardware accelerated GPU scheduling not showing?

Before trying the main methods, you should check the following things:

Make sure you use one of the graphics cards compatible with your current operating system’s WDDM version. For example, Windows 11 requires WDDM 3 or later versions.

Update Windows to the latest version.

After ensuring the above things, follow these methods to solve the hardware-accelerated GPU scheduling missing issue.

Now, go back to the Windows Display Settings and see if the hardware-accelerated GPU scheduling is showing or not.

Expert tip:

Have your GPU drivers updated so you won’t experience any more issues.

Free Trial Download Now

2. Re-install the graphics card driver 2.1 Uninstall graphics driver 2.2 Install the driver again

Go to the NVIDIA or AMD, or Intel driver download page.

Download the appropriate item and install it on your PC.

Restart Windows if necessary.

It should solve hardware-accelerated GPU scheduling not showing errors.

3. Enable using the registry

If you don’t see the GPU scheduling feature after changing the value, restart your PC. It should appear in your Display Settings.

4. Repair corrupted system files

You also can learn more about how to repair & restore corrupted system files. It will help to get back any missing Windows features due to problematic or missing required system files.

5. Upgrade to a compatible graphics card

If you are using an old graphics card, or you do not have a dedicated GPU, and the built-in one doesn’t support the latest WDDM, it can be the only reason behind the problem. So, to get the hardware-accelerated GPU scheduling feature, you must upgrade to a compatible graphics card.

You can consider these best graphics cards if gaming is your primary concern.

Still experiencing issues?

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Steps In Business Process Reengineering


Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is a management approach put forward by Michael Hammer, former professor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. According to him, reengineering is the fundamental rethinking that initiates a radical change in overall business processes with a view to achieve drastic enhancement in performance, quality, delivery time and revenue. It aims at structurally changing the work flows targeting the entire organization. The reengineering approach concentrated on business out comes than the tasks involved. Involvement of information technology is crucial in designing and developing process flows and automating tasks to make it free of human errors. As the entire reengineering effort is complex with a heavy budget allocation, structured and systematic execution of the process is highly critical for the successful completion of the project. Such organised and disciplined steps or process flow of reengineering are discussed here.

Steps Involved in BPR

Business Process Reengineering needs clarity in long term business vision, creative and determined leaders to take it ahead. It requires tremendous effort and the cost involved in its implementation is huge. Each phase needs to be accurately carried out under a reengineering activity. The steps involved in reengineering process are explained below −

STEP 1: Identify the need for change

The entire reengineering efforts are directed towards change and this makes it crucial to identify the purpose of initiating change.

Gathering information on the purpose of business, the existing process rules and systems, business vision and goals will give a clear picture of the current situation of the company. This will help to find the areas that are lacking behind the expected performance.

Determine the outcome anticipated as a result of the BPR efforts

An exhaustive identification of work rules and existing culture within the process lines will help to better understand the operational structure, requirements and the work cycle.

All these information can lead to confirming the actual need for change and this serves as a vital part prior to initiation of BPR activities.

STEP 2: BPR Team

The next step is to organize a competent team for leading and executing the BPR project. Dynamic, creative and determined people from across the functional units together with the management representatives ideally make a well balanced BPR team.

Having an efficient BPR team with the right skills to communicate, convince the need for redesigning and drive the activities towards revamping is of utmost importance.

The team does not necessarily need independent resource to cater to each roles, but the team together should have the said skills, responsibilities and accountability.

This step will help to simplify and eliminate time delays and errors during the course of BPR action plan.

STEP 3: Isolation and Selection

Once the first two steps are in place, the next task is to isolate the gaps and analyse process flaws in the existing system of operations.

The actual expected outcome of a process need to be recognized before selecting it for redesign.

Workflow bottlenecks captured, delivery time gaps, avoidable complexity in procedures, assets and resources that are not optimally utilised are recorded.

Inefficient processes that have scope of drastic improvement needs to be chosen for reengineering only after strict scrutiny.

STEP 4: Process mapping and blueprint for redesign

The business process that are found and selected for redesign needs to be precisely planned for fundamental revamping.

Activities for restructuring the operations can be productively planned through process mapping. Existing complex procedures that cause time delays and excess costs can be simplified to develop a clear process flow chart.

Blueprinting enables the aid of technology to develop workflow models and data needs of proposed business processes.

Brainstorming and benchmarking activities should be carried out with vigor, taking into consideration human resources, performance, incentives and technology infrastructure.

Another activity that needs to be carried out in this step is to develop performance indicators to measure the reengineering tasks on implementation. Ensuring performance measurements help improve the process efficiency.

This will in turn help to set realistic organizational goals

While drafting the plan for redesigning the focus should be on the resultant outcome and not on the functional unit tasks

Clarity in ownership of operational functions will facilitate easy decision making and reduce turn around time.

Activities isolated as redundant or non-essential should be discarded though it may lead to cancellation of a job role.

Collection of information should be at the source point and should be easily accessible in real time with the help of communication networks.

STEP 5: Implementation and Change management

This is the stage where all the prior efforts towards reengineering are put to action.

Implementation of planned activities requires careful and diligent execution.

As a radical change is practically introduced in this stage, techniques for change management too become a necessity. Change management can be viewed as the first step of transformation of a business.

People are the basic resources of any organization that is responsible for driving tasks towards business outcome. Change in work culture and process flows can bring in resistance. Innovative ways to tackle this issue including effective communication, reallocation of work force and providing proper training on the new processes should be carried out in parallel to implementation. Employees should be informed and convinced of the benefits of carrying out an overhaul.

Harnessing dedicated technology and systems to discard irrelevant task cycles and automations can make the business more productive.

Information technology can be leveraged to incorporate systems including software for managing business process, project management and time tracking.

STEP 6: Feedback and Monitoring

Reengineering activities does not end with implementation. Continuous monitoring, assessment, identification of errors and prompting quick action to rectify is needed to make business revamping a success.

Proper governance should be in place and performance indicators need to be modified based on customer preferences and dynamic market conditions.

Collecting feedback both from the employees and end customers is crucial to analyse the result of the reengineering process critically. This helps to improve processes as well as add customer value.

Constant improvement activities will help to sustain the benefits of reengineering and reap maximum revenue.


Business process reengineering brings a radical change to the entire business process and improves business performance substantially by discarding redundant procedures. It motivates employees by incorporating tools and technology to simplify and make task easier. BPR also significantly improves quality and customer value by reducing costs and turn over times.

How To Rank In Serps With Long Tail Keywords

Proper use of well planned long tail keywords is key to SEO success

Long tail keywords are about more than squeezing that last bit of traffic from an overused search engine. They are the closest thing to reading minds outside of a comic book. A long tail keywords is any search of 4 words or more. Since they make up about 70% of all searches, it pays to learn how to use Google to read minds.

Other People’s Problems

Understanding the long tail keywords related to your business is the first step to getting a higher ranking on Google. Search engines are so popular because people want information for solving a problem. It doesn’t matter if it’s curing an illness, buying the right camera or learning to dance the polka. The stronger the need, the more specific the search. The more specific the search, the more likely action gets taken. We use search engines because we want our problem solved.

The goal of Google is simple. Give the people what they want. Whenever people write into a search engine, Google’s goal is to get them as close to what’s in their mind as possible. If Google can’t do that, the user gets frustrated and tries a different search engine. That means less money for Google. So if Google is all about giving people what they want, a business is all about BEING what they want. A first page ranking in a long tail keyword search is one of the most profitable ways to bridge that gap.

Talk To The People Google Keyword Planner:

Pro tip: Don’t be too impressed by the big numbers. “Camera” may get 4 million searches a month, but those people could want anything. Meanwhile, “best wide angle lens for nikon” only gets 1,900 searches. If you sell Nikon lenses that’s 1,900 potential sales a month.

Power Words:

Talk To The People (A Lot!)

Once you understand how your specific customers talk about their problems, you can pretty much read their minds. Don’t shave your head just yet, Charles Xavier, because you now have the awesome power of suggestion at your fingertips.

Getting to #1 in a long tail keyword search is going to take more than a 500-word post once a month. Getting a better ranking is all about quality, unique word content with some meat on its bones. Just see for yourself…

Whoever says the people don’t read nowadays doesn’t know any people.

The more you write, the stronger your position. The more often you write, the more opportunities you create for your long tail keywords to be crawled by google.

Consistency is queen and she types from her throne upon a shiny golden keyboard. She may find knights to assist her, but she understands that only through effort and perseverance can the kingdom rise to greatness.

“The days of fly-by-night-snake-oil-salesmen SEO agencies are long gone. If anyone promises first-position rankings, run the other way. There are no guarantees in the world of SEO.” – Neil Patel

Share With The People

By then, you’ll have been reading people’s minds and fixing their problems for so long they’ll think you are utterly superhuman.

Difference Between Business Process Management And Business Process Reengineering


Two such concepts related to boosting performance are Business Process Management (BPM) and Business Process Reengineering (BPR). Though both BPM and BPR facilitate business improvement, they are significantly different from each other. The various characteristics that distinguish BPM from BPR are detailed here.

Business Process Management vs. Business Process Reengineering

A group of activities that help to achieve a business goal is termed as business process. BPM is a management approach that is used to get the tasks done and increase value through engaging tools and techniques to manage the business process. BPR on the other hand refers to the complete revamp and redesigning of the existing processes to attain a drastic increase in business outcome.

Conceptual Differences

BPR − Business process reengineering is all about bringing a radical change in the business process as a whole to achieve a quantum jump in organizational outcome. Information Technology serves as a key ingredient in redesigning the process with IT enabled process maps, flow charts and automation of repeated tasks.

Objectives BPM

Improving customer satisfaction and business value.

Facilitates constant improvement and agility.

Motivates employees towards achieving business goals as a result of process management systems.

Business processes are standardised reducing the risk of human error.

Simplifies and streamlines operational activities for boosting business.


Plan for a radical change by aligning business objectives with customer preferences and market trends.

Identify and redesign major processes with the help of information technology.

Revamp major process units to attain cost reduction and cycle time thereby improving quality.

Reorganize the structure, role, responsibility and accountability of the people involved to optimize process functions.

Ensure a dramatic leap in return of investment as a result of BPR.

Plan of Action BPM

Design − The first step of process management is to gain clarity on process design. Existing process and job rules are analysed and inputs taken from stakeholders and management. The aim of this step is to make sure that the process flows in conjunction with the overall organizational goals.

Model − The second step is to chalk out a model to compliment the current business operations by identifying and defining process enhancements where ever needed.

Execute − A pilot test is conducted at this step where the new process are put to test with a small group of stake holders before it goes for a full fledged roll out. Automated processes are also put to test in this phase.

Monitor − Performance indicators are put in place for measuring the actual performance against the scorecards. Performance from each individual units and as a whole need to be monitored with measurement yard sticks to find flaws if any.

Optimize − After capturing the defects on execution through monitoring performance, the process can be effectively optimized. It improves and reinforces each process units towards the business goals.


Identifying Information − Gathering and identifying information on the existing business process is crucial in a BPR activity. This has to start prior to the initiation of reengineering efforts.

Analyse data − An in depth knowledge in the current process will help the BPR team to identify problematic areas that require redesign. The root cause for flaws in business process is isolated here through analysis.

Plan alternatives − Once the root cause is identified alternate solutions to overcome the issue can be developed. Information technology is applied to facilitate strategic transformation plans for process redesign.

Redesigning − The most suitable design plan is selected in conjunction with business objectives from the alternatives. It should match with the time, cost and IT infrastructure allocated for the reengineering process.

Implementation − Once the new process design is accepted the same is implemented and compared with the help of performance indicators. New workflows for enhancing process functions need to be communicated to the people involved and training given for maximum optimization.

Change management − As BPR results in radical shift to the organization as a whole, there will be resistance to the changes in respect of culture, work flows, and staff layoffs. Involvement of people from the initial phase of BPR activities will help to tackle the issue of resistance and manage change more effectively.

Outcome BPM

Gather information from functional process units for real time access, evaluation and improvement.

Data to be organised automatically as and when it is captured.

Develop technical models to enhance process units.

Managing human resources by tracking their activities and applying work rules.

Existing gaps and flaws will be easily traceable and keeps the process in control.


Achieve purpose clarity on the existing business processes and to the required change areas.

Bring a simplified, strategic and efficient business process.

Better quality and customer value

Reduced costs and cycle time

Maximum return on investment

Advantages BPM

Being a continuous process BPM guides employees through decisions.

Prioritization and work flow is automatically carried out.

Access to process functions and control.

Facilitate forecasting and productivity

Lesser cost involved.


Drastically improve process efficiency and communication

Reduce costs and process cycle time

Quality improvement through clear process ownership

Integration of change management for sustainability

Optimizes return on investment (ROI)


Process centric approach of BPM limits chance for innovation.

Dynamic decisions cannot be taken due to the rigid work flow pattern.

Does not offer flexibility to employees to use their inputs

BPM needs the interference of process system experts to solve an issue of a tool used.

Do not offer ease of communication through networks


Not suitable for every business. It depends on the company size and resources involved.

Time consuming and expensive

Does not result in an immediate resolution, but is a long term outcome.

Resistance to the change is much higher

Error-free automations can result in job lay-offs.

Differences of BPM and BPR in a snapshot





Business Process Management

Business Process Reengineering


Transformative and continuous

Radical and abrupt change


Short and smooth upgrade

Long term and time consuming

Change initiation

Flexible as per requirement

One primary process at a time

People involved

Process and People alike

BPR team with expertise from each major process units, management.


Improvement of business

Can make a dramatic effect in business output

Cultural issues

Not much of a concern

Can cause serious issues

Risk involved




Does not warrant lay-offs

Employee lay-offs are much higher as a result of process automation.


To sum up, BPM is strategizing and maintaining workflow to enhance business processes whereas BPR is a complete process reconstruction to accomplish substantial increase in business outcome.

7 Hidden Or Forgotten Features In Os X

There are a lot of features in OS X, so many in fact that some don’t get used that often, which is a shame because some of them are really very useful … if you know where to find them.

In this article, we will be going over some of the best productivity hacks with hidden, or at least not very obvious, features of OS X.

1. Make custom keyboard shortcuts

We all know that the key to high productivity on the Mac is an awareness of the keyboard shortcuts for features we use often. It’s much harder and slower to hunt and peck with the mouse than it is to just bash a couple of keys.

2. Full screen mode for focus

Since Mountain Lion, in many apps you have been able to go to full screen mode to fill your screen with the current app. This helps you to focus on the job at hand without being distracted by things on your desktop.

Simply press “Command-Control-F” to enter full screen mode. Press “ESC” to return to normal mode.

3. Screen recording for tutorials

4. Purge memory

Have you ever wanted to reclaim memory which might be taking up space on your hard drive but you don’t want to restart? It happens that sometimes apps don’t release the RAM they were allocated when they don’t need it anymore, which is why your machine sometimes slows down after being logged in for a few weeks. (Do you reboot often? Most people don’t.) To fix this, you can close all your apps and use the following:

Open a terminal and type:


and any loose memory will be purged or returned to the main pool. Don’t worry this operation is very safe and will not kill anything.

5. Finder labels for getting organised

A good way to give smart folders something to search for is to use Finder labels. Not only can you assign a colour code to folders or files, you can also name the categories and even search for them using smart folders. You can even add your own categories. 

6. Use the Option key to go to the Library

Bonus points: Explore using Automator to batch process files, rename, resize, and convert multiple files with a single action. We’ll be going into details about Automator in a forthcoming article, but for now try it out and see what it can do. You can find it hiding in plain sight in your Applications folder.

Phil South

Phil South has been writing about tech subjects for over 30 years. Starting out with Your Sinclair magazine in the 80s, and then MacUser and Computer Shopper. He’s designed user interfaces for groundbreaking music software, been the technical editor on film making and visual effects books for Elsevier, and helped create the MTE YouTube Channel. He lives and works in South Wales, UK.

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