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Samsung and RealD create RDZ 3D: active-shutter 3D with passive specs

What do we need from CES 2011 this week? If you shouted “another 3D standard” then you’ll be pleased to hear that RealD – who outfit most 3D-capable US theaters with their 3D display tech – and Samsung have been fettling a new LCD-based RDZ 3D technology for home use. RDZ uses the same 3D glasses as in theaters, meaning if you have a swanky Polaroid or Calvin Klein set you can use them at home, but pairs them with an active shutter display.

That means the glasses are still lightweight, like regular passive 3D specs, but you don’t lose out on brightness or resolution as is normally the case with patterned retarder 3D systems. It also means no battery recharging, as you have with active 3D glasses, since the RDZ 3D display technology is integrated with the LCD panel, which actively syncs with the left and right eye images for full resolution high definition 3D video. Samsung is currently working on RDZ compatible panels for a new range of HDTVs.

Press Release:

RealD and Samsung LCD Jointly Develop New LCD Based RDZ™ 3D Display Technology

Full Resolution 3D Video with No Reduction of 2D Image Quality

Compatible with the Same 3D Eyewear Used in RealD 3D-Equipped Theatres Around the World

LOS ANGELES, USA and SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA (January 4, 2011) – RealD Inc. (NYSE: RLD), a leading global licensor of 3D technologies for cinema, consumer electronics and professional applications, and Samsung Electronics LCD Business announced today that the companies are jointly developing a new 3D display technology called RDZ™ that offers full resolution high definition 3D video and is compatible with the same 3D eyewear used in RealD 3D-equipped motion picture theatres around the world. Unlike patterned retarder based 3D display technologies that cut resolution in half or diminish brightness, RDZ 3D display technology delivers full resolution high definition 3D images by adopting active shutter technology on the display. Based on RealD technology used in many of the world’s 3D-equipped motion picture theatres today, RDZ displays are also 2D compatible, resulting in no reduction of image quality in 2D mode.

RealD and Samsung LCD Business will be demonstrating RDZ 3D displays at CES in Las Vegas, January 6-9, 2011.

“RealD is focused on delivering a premium 3D experience on screens of all sizes, from motion picture theatres to consumer electronics, and we look forward to working with Samsung LCD to develop this new 3D display technology,” said Bob Mayson, President of Consumer Electronics at RealD. “Patterned-retarder based 3D TV’s today reduce 3D video resolution by half for compatibility with passive 3D eyewear. Conversely, RDZ 3D displays deliver a full resolution high definition 3D experience through an active switching LCD panel that can be viewed with the same eyewear used in RealD-equipped theatres and do not compromise 2D image quality.”

Seonki Kim, Master of R&D at Samsung Electronics LCD Business, said “We believe all displays should have the same high resolution video and free viewing angles both in 2D and 3D. LCD based RDZ 3D displays will offer consumers the choice of eyewear technologies without compromising image quality, which only active sync 3D technology can do.”

Samsung LCD is developing displays based on RealD’s proprietary RDZ 3D technology, which adopts characteristics from the company’s Cinema System utilized in motion picture theatres around the world. The LCD based RDZ 3D display technology is integrated on the LCD panel and actively syncs with the left and right eye images for full resolution high definition 3D video.

About RealD Inc.

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Satellite Communication Active And Passive Satellite

Introduction

In order to shape telecommunication in the present day, satellites are considered one of the crucial parts of the entire communication system. The presence of artificial satellites helps in receiving a fast and easy transmission of both kinds of signals such as analogue and digital. Focusing on this particular parameter of telecommunication the parent tutorial will discuss satellite communication in a brief manner along with defining the active and passive satellites.

What is Satellite Communication?

Figure 1: Satellite communication

Satellite communication can be defined as the particular communication that is established with the help of different stations present on the earth’s surface and satellites in space. The entire communication happens on the basis of an electromagnetic spectrum (Yan et al. 2023). In simpler terms, it can be stated that while the establishment of communications between two or more ground-based units if artificial satellites are used, the communication will be considered satellite communication.

Requirement of Satellite Communication

To propagate the ground wave: This specific type of propagation of radio wave allows getting the transmission of a signal with up to 30 MHz frequency from one end to another. Using the layer of the troposphere of the earth’s atmosphere, the artificial satellites present in the space or orbit of the earth help to propagate such wave transmission.

To propagate sky waves: These specific types of radio waves are generally used in order to transmit a specific signal that falls in the range of up to 40MHz. The main difference that is shared with ground wave is that such radio waves can be propagated by getting refracted through the ionospheric layer (An et al. 2023). In order to make this propagation stable, the distance that needs to be maintained between the ground and the space station is 1500 km otherwise the activation of the satellite communication cannot be activated successfully.

Work Process of Satellite Communication

Figure 2: Satellite communication system

In order to understand in a very basic manner, the first step that is taken for activating satellite-based communication is receiving a signal from a ground-based station by satellite. Aftermath, the artificial satellite performs amplification and conducts the required processing in order to retransmit it towards one or multiple stations that are earth-based which receive the incoming signals (Lalbakhsh et al. 2023). In this process, it needs to be kept in mind that the signals exchanged between two stations based on the earth are neither transmitted nor originated at the satellite that is present in the earth’s orbit in space. In order to establish satellite communication, two major components are required to be in the communication structures that are the space segment and the earth segment.

Passive Satellite: Explanation

The satellites that are used to transmit or propagate away from one earth-based station to another earth-based station are referred to as positive satellites (Khawaja et al. 2023). In a simpler diction, if a hydrogen balloon is lifted into the atmosphere by attaching a metallic layer upon its surface, such kind of balloon will be able to transmit or reflect microwave signals, technically will be recognised as passive satellites.

Active Satellite: Explanation

The active satellites, unlike passive satellites, after receiving a signal from an earth-based station, amplify it and retransmit it to another earth-based station. In the case of active satellites, the signal strength is excellent. Where passive satellites are considered the earliest medium of building satellite communication, active satellites are considered the modern mediums of building satellite communication with high signal strength.

Categories of Satellite Communication

Satellite communication is classified into two distinct categories as follows:

One-way satellite communication: In such communication, the communication is generally established between two earth stations using the artificial satellite present in the earth’s orbit where the transmitted signal is unidirectional.

Two-way satellite communication: Such kind of communication is established based on point-to-point connectivity, within two particular earth stations and two uplinks and downlinks happen between these two earth stations.

Satellite Communication Block Diagram

Figure 3: Satellite Communication Block Diagram

Advantages: The instalments of circuits are easy along with excellent elasticity which helps to cover every corner of the earth to build a user-controllable network.

Conclusion FAQs

Q1. What are the two crucial components of satellite communication?

Ans. Two main components of satellite communication are the space segment and the ground segment, and the space segment. The ground segment comprises the ancillary equipment and either mobile or fixed transmission and reception whereas, the satellite itself is considered a space segment.

Q2. What are the applications of satellite communication?

Ans. In order to establish long-distance telephony-related applications, satellite communications are applied. The other application of satellite communication involves remote sensing, meteorological surveys and many more.

Q3. What was the name of the first artificial satellite in the world?

Ans. According to the information, the name of the world’s first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1. The Soviet Union launched it on 4 October 1957.

Q4. What is radio propagation?

Ans. The specific behaviour of the radio waves propagation to another place from one place through various parts of the atmosphere is recognised as radio propagation.

Panasonic 3D Speaker Bar And Blu

Panasonic 3D speaker bar and Blu-ray 3D home theater kit unveiled

It’s not just LCDs and plasmas on Panasonic’s mind today; the company also wants your home entertainment to sound better. Hitting the market in April is the Panasonic SC-HTB520, a slim-bar audio system with wireless subwoofer, and the Panasonic SC-BTT770, SC-BTT370 and SC-BTT270 Blu-ray 3D home theater systems.

Panasonic has clad the SC-HTB520 in a fingerprint-resistent black mesh and mirror-finish enclosure, and the various drivers semi-hidden behind create a virtual surround sound experience. As for the Blu-ray 3D systems, they pack integrated WiFi for VIERA Cast and BD-Live, along with a universal iPhone/iPod dock.

The BTT770 and BTT370 also throw in wireless rear speaker support (bundled with the flagship unit, a $129.95 option on the mid-range model), a down-firing subwoofer and Skype support with the optional camera. The Panasonic SC-HTB520 will be priced at $399.99 when it arrives next month, while the Panasonic SC-BTT770, SC-BTT370 and SC-BTT270 will be priced at $599.99, $499.99 and $399.99 respectively.

Press Release:

PANASONIC ANNOUNCES PRICE OF SLIM BAR AUDIO SYSTEM WITH WIRELESS SUBWOOFER AND 3D PASS THROUGH

SECAUCUS, NJ (March 1, 2011) — Panasonic today announced pricing of its new slim bar home theater speaker system, SC-HTB520, which will be available next month. The elegant system neatly mounts on a wall by a TV and offers an easy-to-install, stylish alternative to a conventional home theater sound system. The SC-HTB520 supports Stream Out for 3D image signals and Audio Return Channel, making it easy to configure a FULL HD 3D home theater system by combining it with a 3D Blu-ray DiscTM player and 3D VIERA TV. The SC-HTB520 ideally matches large panel displays 42-inches and above and includes a separate, wireless Down Firing subwoofer.

The front of the SC-HTB520 features a black stainless mesh material with a luxurious mirror finish and a special coating that resists dust and fingerprints. A unique design concept boosts the ambience of the SC-HTB520’s high-quality sounds by making the speaker units partially visible through the mesh, so listeners can almost visualize the sound.

The SC-HTB520 system delivers dialog that is crisp and clear. This is made possible by the Clear-Mode Dialog, which makes the sound seem like it is coming from the center of the TV display. With more precise linking of the picture and the sound, the result is clean, pure sound for dialog voices on video and vocals on music. Virtual surround technology also reproduces surround sounds from the front speakers that seem to wrap around the listening position. And dynamic, deep bass sounds are achieved by the Down Firing Subwoofer. The subwoofer is equipped with a wireless system, so there is no need to connect it to the main unit by cables. Lack of wiring keeps the room interior uncluttered and enables a simple and flexible layout.

Connection and installation could not be easier, thanks to the system’s compatibility with ARC* (Audio Return Channel), which allows receiving audio signals from the TV. Simply place it by the television or wall mount for a custom installation (via supplied wall mounts) and connect it with just one HDMI cable.

The SC-HTB520 will be available in April 2011 with a suggested retail price of $399.99.

* An ARC-compatible TV is required.

About Panasonic Consumer Electronics Company

Press Release:

PANASONIC ANNOUNCES PRICING AND AVAILABILITY FOR NEW BLU-RAY 3D HOME THEATER SYSTEMS

Featuring Panasonic’s renowned Full HD 3D Playback, the new systems not only deliver powerful 3D images with dramatic effects, enhanced depth, luster and texture, but allow the user to tailor the image display as desired. The 3D Effect Controller adjusts the amount of the depth effect for more expansive images and enables the viewer to enjoy 3D movies with exactly the preferred level of 3D effects.

For space-saving elegance, the sleek, ultra-slim main component measures only a mere 1.5 inches high. The systems are designed to ideally match a flat panel display. The new table-top design of the SC-BTT370 offers easy set-up and will add style to any home setting.

The SC-BTT770 is equipped with rear wireless speakers and wireless kit so there is no need for unsightly wires across the room. The SC-BTT370 is wireless-ready and can be upgraded to provide wireless rear audio with the addition of the optional SH-FX71 wireless kit for rear speakers ($129.95).

The top two models SC-BTT770 and SC-BTT370 feature VIERA CAST™ with Skype™ a new function which allows users to connect with friends and family around the world on any compatible TV. And when they are not home, a convenient Auto Answering Video Message feature answers incoming calls and records video voicemail messages.

Models SC-BTT770 and SC-BTT370 include a down-firing subwoofer, which achieves powerful bass by releasing the sound downward from the speaker unit and port and utilizes the sound reflected from the floor. These models are equipped with one HDMI output and two HDMI inputs with Standby Pass through for HD and 3D gaming and set-top box connections. Since they feature a Standby Pass Through function, signals from the connected devices can pass through the unit even when the home theater system is turned off.

All of the home theater systems feature Audio Return Channel (ARC*), which makes it possible to receive audio signals from the TV, on top of the preexisting HDMI function of sending audio/video signals to the TV with just one cable. This feature simplifies connection by eliminating the audio cable connection between the TV audio output and the main unit’s audio input.

The new models boast improved easy-to-use features, such as an internal wireless LAN system so IP content, such as VIERA CAST2 and BD-Live, can be enjoyed without having a LAN cable*** connection. VIERA CAST has been further enhanced with CinemaNow and Vudu, allowing viewers to stream movies. Other content can also be accessed from the special VIERA CAST screen to check weather, stocks and other information.

Panasonic’s Blu-ray 3D home theater systems bring a new dimension to home entertainment and will be available in April 2011. The SC-BTT770 will carry a suggested retail price (SRP) of $599.99. The SC-BTT370 will have an SRP of $499.99, and the SC-BTT270 will have an SRP of $399.99.

1 Skype video calling requires access to a broadband Internet connection as well as a Skype-compatible camera available from Panasonic, sold separately, to make video calls.

2 Not all VIERA CAST features are available on both VIERA Connect-enabled VIERA® HDTVs and VIERA CAST-enabled Blu-ray DiscTM players due to specific requirements necessary to activate certain applications. Specific app availabilities and compatibilities will be announced at a later date. Access to a broadband Internet connection is required to access VIERA CAST features. There is no fee to use the VIERA CAST functionality however some VIERA CAST services such as Netflix and Amazon VOD have a separate fee structure.

* An ARC compatible TV is required.

** “Made for iPod” and “Made for iPhone” mean that an electronic accessory has been designed to connect specifically to iPod or iPhone respectively, and has been certified by the developer to meet Apple performance standards. Apple is not responsible for the operation of this device or its compliance with safety and regulatory standards. Please note that the use of this accessory with iPod or iPhone may affect wireless performance. iPhone, iPod, iPod classic, iPod nano and iPod touch are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries.

***A wireless LAN environment is required.

About Panasonic Consumer Electronics Company

Know All About 2D And 3D Pose Estimation!

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.

Introduction

Let’s find out how to use pose estimation for such Snapchat filters, shall we? Have you ever wondered how Snapchat uses its filters and engages people so much? The filters on Snapchat are of various kinds, from funny to using makeup filters on people’s faces. It’s more like swiping up the filters and choosing one for takings photos.

After reading this article, one will get all the information related to 2D pose estimation and 3D pose estimation and a mini project of 2D human pose estimation with the OpenPose algorithm.

What is Pose Estimation?

A computer vision technique that detects the position and tracks of an object or a person in an image or video is called a pose estimation. The process is carried out by looking at the combination of orientations of the pose for a given object or a person. Based on the orientation of the points, we can compare various moments and postures of a person or an object and draw some insights.

Pose estimation is mostly done by identifying the key points from an object/person or even by identifying the location.

For objects

: The key points will be the corners or edges of an object.

For Images

: The image containing humans where the key points can be elbows, wrist, fingers, knees, etc.

One of the most exciting areas of research in computer vision that has gained a lot of attraction is various types of pose estimation. There are lots of benefits of using pose estimation techniques.

Applications of Pose Estimation

Nowadays, in the market, there are a plethora of apps that use computer vision technology. Especially the hype about pose estimation is on an insane level due to the efficient tracking system and measurement of pose estimation. Let’s see some applications of pose estimation with the example.

1) Augmented Reality Metaverse

Metaverse breaks through the science and technology community and attracts universal attention from youth to old people. The illusions pin the 3D elements to an object/person in the real world to make them look real. Metaverse creates an environment for people to go into another universe and helps to experience amazing things. The application suitable for metaverse solutions is Pose Estimation, Eye Tracking, and Voice & Face Tracking.

One of the useful use cases of pose estimation is used in the US Army, where they can differentiate between enemies and friendly troops.

2) Healthcare and Fitness Industry

The rapid growth in the fitness industry in covid times has increased, and there are numerous consumers who join the craziness of fitness. The rapid growth of fitness apps provides efficient health monitoring charts and plans to get in shape. And also, some apps provide incredible results in error detection and feedback to the consumers. These apps utilize the pose estimation technique in computer vision to minimize the possibility of an injury while working out.

3) Robotics

Pose Estimations are integrated into robotics. It is applied in the training of robots where they learn the movements of the persons.

Why do we Use Pose Estimation?

Detection of people plays a major role in the part of detection. With recent development in machine learning (ML) algorithms, it is easy to use pose detection and pose tracking.

To track human movements and activity, pose estimations have several applications ranges such as Augmented reality, Health care sectors, and Robotics. For example, Human pose estimation can be used in various ways, such as maintaining the social distance in bank queues by combining human pose estimation and distance projection heuristics. It will assist people in maintaining the rules and regulations of proper hygiene in banks and also helps in maintaining the physical distance in an overcrowded place.

Another example where pose tracking and pose estimation will work is in self-driving cars. Most accidents are caused by self-driving cars when vehicles cannot understand pedestrian behaviour. With the help of pose estimation, now the model will be trained better.

Methods for Multi-Person Pose Estimation

Two common methods used for pose estimation: 

1) Top-Down Approach:

First, we will detect the person and make the bounding box around each person. Then we will estimate the parts of the body. After that, we can classify each joint as the correct person. This method is known as the top-down approach.

2) Bottom-up Approach:

First, we will detect all parts in the image, followed by associating/grouping parts belonging to distinct persons. This method is known as the bottom-up approach. 

In general situation, the Top-down approach consumes time much more than the Bottom-up approach.

Models for Pose Estimation

There are several models present for pose estimation. The model choice depends on the requirement of the problem. There are also countless factors that we need to consider while choosing the models. The requirements can be running time, the size of the model, and many more.

Here, I will be listing the most popular pose estimation libraries available on the internet. We can easily customize them as per our use case.

OpenPose

High-Resolution Net (HRNet)

Blaze pose

Regional Multi-Person Pose Estimation (AlphaPose)

Deep Pose

PoseNet

Dense pose

Deep cut

1) OpenPose

OpenPose is known as opensource video-based human pose estimation. OpenpPose architecture is popular for predicting multi-person pose estimation. One of the amazing things is Openpose is its open-sourced, real-time multi-person detection architecture. It uses a bottom-up approach for multi-person human pose estimation.

One of the best things about OpenPose is its high accuracy without compromising on execution performance. The slight tradeoff between speed and accuracy (i.e. R-CNN runs faster)

The OpenPose research paper you can find here, and the documentation you can find here. The Github link for checking the code you can find here.

2) HRNet

HRNet is known as High-Resolution Net. For human pose estimation, we use HRNet neural network. HRNet is a state-of-the-art algorithm in the field of human pose estimation. HRNet is highly used in the detection of human posture in televised sports.

HRNet uses Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), which are similar to Neural Networks, but the main difference comes in the model’s architecture. Normal Neural Networks do not scale well using images dataset, whereas Convolutional Neural Networks give a great output.

Even the normal Neural Networks work very slowly as all the hidden layers are connected to each other, which results in a slower run of the model. For example, if we have images sizes 32323, then we would have 3072 weights which are way too large. While feeding this data, it would slow down the neural network.

The HRNet research paper you can find here. The Github link for checking the code you can find here.

3) BlazePose

BlazePose is a machine learning (ML) model that can be used with ailia SDK. BlazePose is developed by Google that can compute up to 33 skeleton key points, and it is mainly used in fitness applications. BlazePose gives the 33 key points as an output of the model according to the below chart ordering convention. This allows us to determine body semantics from pose prediction alone that is consistent with face and hand models. We can easily use the BlazePose model to create AI applications using ailia SDK as well as many other ready-to-use ailia MODELS.

The Blaze Pose research paper you can find here, and the documentation you can find here. The Github link for checking the code you can find here. To read more about the BlazePose follow this blog.

                                Image Source: BlazePose

4) Regional Multi-Person Pose Estimation (AlphaPose)

AlphaPose is a Real-Time multi-person human pose estimation system. A popular method of top-down approach uses the AplhaPose dataset for human pose estimation. Aplhapose comes into the picture when there are inaccurate human bounding boxes, and it is very accurate.

We can detect a single person or multi-person from images or videos, or image lists with the help of AplhaPose. It is the pose tacker known as PoseFlow, and it is also open-sourced. AlphaPose is the tracker that can both satisfy 60+ mAP (66.5 mAP) and 50+ MOTA (58.3 MOTA) on the PoseTrack Challenge dataset.

Image Source: AplhaPose

Categorization of Pose Estimation

Generally, pose estimations are divided into two groups:

Single Pose Estimation

: Detecting a single object or person from an image or videos

Multi Pose Estimation

: Detecting multiple objects or people from an image or videos

There are various types of pose estimation

Human pose estimation

Rigid pose estimtaion

2D pose estimation

3D pose estimation

Head Pose Estimation

Hand Pose Estimation

1) Human Pose Estimation

The estimation of key points while working with human images or videos where the key points can be elbows, fingers, knees, etc. This is known as human pose estimation.

2) Rigid Pose Estimation

The objects that do not fall into account of the flexible object category are rigid objects. For instance, the edges of bricks are always going to be at the same distance regardless of the brick’s orientation, so predicting the position of these objects is known as rigid pose estimation.

3) 2D

 Pose Estimation

It predicts the key points estimation from the image in terms of pixel level. In 2D estimation, we simply estimate the key points of the location in 2D space that is relative to input data. The location of key points is represented as X and Y.

4) 3D

 Pose Estimation

It predicts a three-dimensional spatial arrangement of all the objects/persons as its final output. First, the object is transformed into a 3D image from a 2D image by additional z-axis to the prediction of the output.

5)

Head Pose Estimation

Finding the position of the head pose of a person is becoming a popular use case in computer vision. One of the best applications of head pose estimation is made by Snapchat, where we use various kinds of filters on our faces to make us look funny. In addition, we use head pose estimation in Instagram filters and Snapchat, and we can also use it in self-driving cars to track the activities of drivers while driving.

Head pose estimation has multiple applications, such as modelling attention in 3D games and performing face alignment. To do the head pose estimation in 3D poses, we need to find the facial key points from 2D image poses with the help of deep learning models.

You can read about the head pose estimation from this blog here.

6)

Hand Pose Estimation

Hand Pose Estimation aims to predict the position of joints on a hand from an image, and it has become popular because of the emergence of VR/AR/MR technology. In the hand pose estimation, the key points are the location of joints in the hands. In total hand has 21 key points, which consist of the wrist, and 5 fingers for the location of key points.

You can read more about hand pose estimation from this blog here.

Human Pose Estimation Dataset

Various datasets are available for the pose estimation of human images and videos. Here, I am listing some datasets for you to make a model and explore. I will explain what the dataset contains in terms of categories of images and videos. Additionally, it will give some basic information about the dataset and its performance.

MPII

COCO

HumanEva

Human3.6M

SURREAL – 

S

ynthetic h

U

mans fo

R REAL

tasks

1) MPII

The MPII human pose dataset contains data of numerous human poses, which includes around 25K images containing over 40K people with annotated body joints. The MPII human pose dataset is a state-of-the-art benchmark for the evaluation of articulated human pose estimation.

The first dataset to launch a 2D Pose estimation challenge in 2014 was the MPII human poses, and it’s also the first dataset to contain such a diverse range of poses. The data contained images of human activities collected from Youtube videos. There are overall 410 human activities images having the activity label on them. Each image was extracted from a YouTube video and provided with preceding and following un-annotated frames. In addition, for the test set, we obtained richer annotations, including body part occlusions and 3D torso and head orientations.

You can find MPII human pose dataset here.

Image Source: MPII Human Pose Dataset

2) COCO

One of the largest 2D Pose Estimation datasets to date is COCO and is considering a benchmark for testing 2D Pose Estimation algorithms. You can find the COCO dataset here.

Image Source: COCO

  3) HumanEva

The HumanEva dataset consists of video sequences of 3D pose estimation of humans which are recorded using a different cameras such as multiple RGB and grayscale cameras. HumanEva was the first 3D Pose Estimation dataset of substantial size.

The HumanEva-I dataset contains 7 video sequences which are: 4 grayscale and 3 colors. The amazing thing is that they are synchronized with 3D body poses obtained from a motion capture system. The HumanEva database contains 4 subjects performing 6 common actions (e.g. walking, jogging, gesturing, etc.). The error metrics for computing error in 2D and 3D poses are provided to participants. The dataset contains training, validation, and testing (with withheld ground truth) sets.

You can find the HumanEva dataset here.

4) Surreal

The name SURREAL is derived from Synthetic hUmans foR REAL tasks. SURREAL contains virtual video animations for single-person in 2D/3D Pose Estimation data. It is created using mocap data recorded in the lab. The first large-scale person dataset to generate depth, body parts, optical flow, 2D/3D pose, surface normal ground truth for RGB video input.

The dataset contains 6M frames of synthetic humans. The images are photo-realistic renderings of people under large variations in shape, texture, viewpoint, and pose. To ensure realism, the synthetic bodies are created using the SMPL body model, whose parameters are fit by the MoSh method given raw 3D MoCap marker data.

You can find the 3d human pose estimation SURREAL dataset here.

Code for Human Pose Estimation in ML

Let’s start the implementation of pose estimation

The first step is to make a new folder where you will store the project. It’s better to make a virtual environment and then load the OpenPose algorithm rather than download it into your normal environment.

Create an Anaconda environment for pose estimation. Here in ‘myenv’ put any name for the environment.

conda create --name myenv

Now let’s work in this environment for which we will activate the environment

conda activate myenv

Install the latest version of python

conda create -n myenv python=3.9

The code for human pose estimation is inspired by the OpenCV example for the OpenPose algorithm.

Now we will write the code for human pose estimation. Let’s download the zip file from this link.

First, let’s import all the libraries.

import cv2 as cv import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

Now, we will load the weights. Weights are stored in graph_opt.pb file and stored the weights into a net variable.

net = cv.dnn.readNetFromTensorflow(r"graph_opt.pb")

Initialize, the height, width, and threshold for the images.

inWidth = 368 inHeight = 368 thr = 0.2

We will be using 18 points model for doing human pose estimation. The model is trained on the COCO dataset where the numbering of the key points is done in the below format.

BODY_PARTS = { "Nose": 0, "Neck": 1, "RShoulder": 2, "RElbow": 3, "RWrist": 4, "LShoulder": 5, "LElbow": 6, "LWrist": 7, "RHip": 8, "RKnee": 9, "RAnkle": 10, "LHip": 11, "LKnee": 12, "LAnkle": 13, "REye": 14, "LEye": 15, "REar": 16, "LEar": 17, "Background": 18 }

Defining the pose pairs used to create the limbs that will connect all the key points.

POSE_PAIRS = [ ["Neck", "RShoulder"], ["Neck", "LShoulder"], ["RShoulder", "RElbow"], ["RElbow", "RWrist"], ["LShoulder", "LElbow"], ["LElbow", "LWrist"], ["Neck", "RHip"], ["RHip", "RKnee"], ["RKnee", "RAnkle"], ["Neck", "LHip"], ["LHip", "LKnee"], ["LKnee", "LAnkle"], ["Neck", "Nose"], ["Nose", "REye"], ["REye", "REar"], ["Nose", "LEye"], ["LEye", "LEar"] ]

Let’s see how does the original picture look like.

img = plt.imread("image.jpg") plt.imshow(img)

To generate the confidence map for each key point we will call the forward function on the original input images.

net.setInput(cv.dnn.blobFromImage(frame, 1.0, (inWidth, inHeight), (127.5, 127.5, 127.5), swapRB=True, crop=False))

This is the main code where the prediction of human pose estimation is done.

def pose_estimation(frame): frameWidth = frame.shape[1] frameHeight = frame.shape[0] net.setInput(cv.dnn.blobFromImage(frame, 1.0, (inWidth, inHeight), (127.5, 127.5, 127.5), swapRB=True, crop=False)) out = net.forward() out = out[:, :19, :, :] assert(len(BODY_PARTS) == out.shape[1]) points = [] for i in range(len(BODY_PARTS)): # Slice heatmap of corresponging body's part. heatMap = out[0, i, :, :] _, conf, _, point = cv.minMaxLoc(heatMap) x = (frameWidth * point[0]) / out.shape[3] y = (frameHeight * point[1]) / out.shape[2] # Add a point if it's confidence is higher than threshold. # combining all the key points. for pair in POSE_PAIRS: partFrom = pair[0] partTo = pair[1] assert(partFrom in BODY_PARTS) assert(partTo in BODY_PARTS) idFrom = BODY_PARTS[partFrom] idTo = BODY_PARTS[partTo] if points[idFrom] and points[idTo]: cv.line(frame, points[idFrom], points[idTo], (0, 255, 0), 3) cv.ellipse(frame, points[idFrom], (3, 3), 0, 0, 360, (0, 0, 255), cv.FILLED) cv.ellipse(frame, points[idTo], (3, 3), 0, 0, 360, (0, 0, 255), cv.FILLED) t, _ = net.getPerfProfile() freq = cv.getTickFrequency() / 1000 cv.putText(frame, '%.2fms' % (t / freq), (10, 20), cv.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 0.5, (0, 0, 0)) return frame

Calling the main function to generate the key points on the original unedited image.

estimated_image = pose_estimation(img)

Let’s see how does the picture looks

plt.imshow(img)

If we want to see the images in the RGB format on the key points.

plt.imshow(cv.cvtColor(estimated_image, cv.COLOR_BGR2RGB))

Conclusion

Going through the article, one will understand the concept of pose estimation. And also, why is the demand for pose estimation is skyrocketing? One will learn by reading the article. What is the application of pose estimation? Are there and where we have already used pose estimation, we will get to see in this article.

We will see how many types of pose estimations are there, such as Human Pose Estimation, Rigid Pose Estimation, 2D Pose Estimation, 3D Pose Estimation, Head Pose Estimation, Hand Pose Estimation, how we can use these types of pose estimation while using some popular algorithms for 2D and 3D pose estimation.

Lastly, we will see how to do pose estimation on human full-body images by using the Openpose estimation.  

The media shown in this article is not owned by Analytics Vidhya and is used at the Author’s discretion. 

Related

Rhinoceros 3D Is A 3D Modeling Software Based On Nurbs Geometry

Considered as one of the most sought after 3D Modeling Software, Rhinoceros is proving to be relevant, now more than ever. Rhinoceros is a 3D modelling software that is used for creating realistic and workable 3D models. Rhino is based on the Non-Uniform Rational Basis Splines, also known as NURBS geometry which is capable of creating mathematically precise figures. Rhino 3D is most commonly used due to its capability of creating free form curves and surfaces which facilitates the creation of complex and intricate designs in a workable aspect. 

Rhinoceros is commonly used in fields such as architecture, engineering, jewellery and different types of design fields like product design, industrial, graphic, automotive and mechanical design. Its technique is considered the most accurate type of modelling that is present in today’s world.

History

Rhino was originally developed in 1990 by Robert McNeel as a complementary software to Autodesk CADD. It got a stable release in 1998 the first version being known as Rhino Version 1. Applied Geometry (AG) needed assistance in integrating AGLib and NURBS geometry into CAD. Robert McNeel produced a prototype on Cadd, after which he and AG decided to develop a NURBS modelling software.

© ArchiCAD, Youtube

PATalks 45 – Robert McNeel

Michael Gibson who was hired as an intern had created Sculptura which was a mesh modeling software. After a couple of years into development, Sculptura was integrated with NURBS and its name was changed to Rhinoceros. Robert McNeel was also responsible for creating a plugin for Rhino known as Grasshopper, which integrated ‘explicit history’ into the software. 

Features of Rhinocero 3D

Rhino 3D  is essentially a freeform surface model developing software that does not require manual coding to create different models. It allows one to create complicated powerful designs that are workable and extremely precise. It provides a large number of 3D modeling tools that facilitate great precision from a 2D sketch to a 3D scan. 

Tools

The software allows a user to work with curves and splines rather than polygons.

A 3-dimensional surface is created by manipulating the curves which in turn creates an adaptive mesh that allows one to control every aspect of the surface of the object. Rhinoceros contains a wide range of options in its toolset like points, curves, curves from other objects, surfaces, solids, meshes, and other general and transformation tools as well. Once the model is created, Rhino combines the elements to make meshes that become displayable and renderable surfaces. 

© 3D Natives

Not only is Rhinoceros used for 3D modeling but it also has 2D drafting capability. This adds more versatility to this dynamic software, which has managed to be a boon for producing complex geometries through simple measures.

Interface 

Rhinoceros’ interface is divided into 2 main types, the ‘User Interface’ and the ‘Construction Aids’. 

The User interface has command areas, command controls, pop-up commands, layer managers, view managers, customizable pop-up toolbars, transparent toolbars, and other basic features. The Construction Aids have basic commands that are featured in other software like undo, redo, numeric inputs, point filters, object snaps, ortho, layer tools, object tools, color, type, etc.

A Self-Explanatory Display

Rhinoceros 3D is considered the best due to its speedy 3D graphics, different views like perspective, shaded, floating, has a full-screen display, clipping planes, and more. It is designed with an optimum display system that allows the user to maximize their efficiency and work. 

© McNeel Forum

During the design process, a file needs to be able to work on different software. This is because a project may be passed through various file types and software and must be workable in all. Rhinoceros files are in .3DM format and are supported on all Microsoft and macOS computers. Rhino files are also supported on CAD and image file formats like .dwg/dxf, .3ds, .ai, .pov, .skp to name a few. One of the most attractive features of Rhino is its file compatibility and how it can be converted to different formats. 

In addition to its plethora of functions, its low cost and the quick learning curve have many students and professionals alike trying to get the hang of it. Rhinoceros 3D forums have been created online for the exchange of software-related questions, object sharing, project sharing, and general discussions and have created an entire knowledge-sharing community that has helped thousands.

Merits

It has a well functioning internal renderer that renders models beautifully by highlighting all the necessary details.

It is the most cost-effective software for all the features it offers, on the market.

Useful in custom modelling to create complex geometries and its multiple options in no time.

In spite of being a 3D Modeling software, it can make 2D images.

3D modelling with complex geometries is made possible due to its plethora of options to explore.

Easy plugin use is self-navigation even for new users.

Rhinoceros 3D in Architecture

Rhinoceros 3D is widely used across the architecture and design profession. With architects constantly striving to create new and interesting forms, they needed software like Rhino to keep up with their ideas and watch them physically come to life before their eyes. Rhino is the perfect tool to make their design with enough precision and detail to ensure that they would be workable. Architects were able to show their clients fully completed 3D models that could be placed into the context. Global firms like Zaha Hadid Architects, Bjarke Ingels Group, Gensler, Foster & Partners, and many more are actively collaborating with Rhino 3D to generate structures.

After Rhino 3D became popular in the market, Architecture in the 2000s saw a huge turn in style. Many fluid and free designs started popping up across the world and they all had one thing in common: they were made possible by Rhinoceros 3D.

Rhino allowed architects to create dynamic forms and in turn, create some exquisite architecture that people could marvel at.

Architectural Marvels Designed with Rhino 3D

1. Heydar Aliyev Centre – Zaha Hadid Architects

© Hufton Crow

This cultural center was an architectural feat and the perfect example of dynamic architecture. The outer skin of the structure elaborately folds and bends with smooth curves and soft undulations. The skin was designed in Rhinoceros 3D which provided control to all the complexities of the form. The structure was made of concrete and the addition of a space frame allowed for column-free spaces that kept the fluidity going even in the interiors.

2. ROCA London Gallery – Zaha Hadid Architects

© ZHA

The architects wanted to use the concept of water to show the flow and dynamic nature that water exudes. The design perfectly fits its function more broadly and abstractly. Rhino 3D was used to design the interiors that were sculpted of concrete which gave the building a smooth feel.

3. Harbin Opera House – MAD Architects

© ADAM MØRK

The structure appears as if it was sculpted by water and wind, the building gently flows into its surroundings. The interiors have swooping ceilings with gigantic glass facades and a massive skylight made of pyramidal diagrids that curve over the lobby. Rhino was used to create all the interior and exterior surfaces of this project, which helped achieve the level of finesse and precision this project needed to come to life. 

Modeling the Future with Rhinoceros 3D

Creating and conveying designs require high-quality models that can make the designer and client understand them thoroughly. Rhinoceros 3D provides a solution from the working stage to the presentation and analysis stage. The software gives a solid foundation and direction for the implementation of the project since it gives a deep level of understanding of the model and its nuances. Models created in Rhino 3D come to life only because of the capabilities of this much-needed software, that catapulted 3D geometry into great success and popularity in the 21st Century. Rhino is used across multiple industries over dozens of professions since it is extremely versatile, detailed driven, and diverse.

Over the recent years, with Mass housing, vertical cities, and extra-terrestrial architecture have reached their peak, software like Rhinoceros 3D, Grasshopper 3D, Ladybug, etc have proven to be an asset. This software is helping in creating structures that are eclectic, dynamic, and one-of-a-kind!

About the Series

The series explores various software that is used globally in the 21st century, this modeling software has proven to revolutionize architecture by exploring the unexplored. They are easing out the process by finding new ways of construction through a blend of computational methods to support futurist designs. The series highlights software and tools like Rhino 3D, Grasshopper 3D, Ladybug, Honeybee, Pufferfish, Kangaroo, and much more…..

About the ParametricArchitecture

Parametric Architecture is a reputed publishing platform that has taken an innovative approach to reach and inspire our thoughts of a future, where we design to co-exist in functional, productive, and comfortable surroundings. PA is a media company that researches art, architecture, and design that are visualized through computational, parametric, and digital design paradigms. These tools define and distinctly delineate how a system interacts in a coded language that will lead to envisage better environments for a better tomorrow.

Apple’s Airpod Pro Earbuds Add Active Noise

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This story was originally published on Oct. 28th, 2023.

Apple’s AirPods Pro earbuds are the most popular Bluetooth headphones on the planet at the moment. This morning, however, the company announced its new AirPod Pro headphones, which add active noise-canceling, improved sound, and a redesigned form factor with interchangeable tips. The Pro model costs $250, which is a significant jump up from the $179 price point on the original AirPods wireless earbuds. Here’s a look at what you’ll get if you plop down the cash when they start shipping on Wednesday.

Noise-canceling technology of the AirPods Pro

Apple has clearly been spending considerable time working on its active noise-canceling tech lately. Just a few weeks ago, Beats (which Apple owns), introduced its new Solo Pro on-ear wireless headphones. The $300 phones are shaped much differently than the minuscule AirPod Pro, but the tech inside appears to be very familiar.

The Apple AirPods Pro uses a pair of built-in microphones to listen to the ambient sound around you and create enough active noise canceling (ANC) to block out what it considers an appropriate amount. So, when you’re on a plane, it’s cranked. When you’re walking around on the street, it may back off so you don’t get hit by a bus.

The ANC level adjusts 200 times every second, according to Apple. Though, if the company follows the same tactics as the Beats Solo Pro, the actual transition should be smooth and almost imperceptible to the listener.

Also, like the Solo Pro, the high-end Apple AirPods have a transparency mode that listens to your surroundings and actually pumps outside sounds in so you can talk to people or perform other hearing-intensive activities without taking the pricy little nuggets of technology out of your ears and risk losing them.

The charging case holds enough extra juice for roughly 20 more hours of listening. Apple

Swappable silicon tips

Personally, regular AirPods barely fit my ears—they just refuse to stay in. The AirPods Pro, however, use swappable silicone tips that come in three sizes out of the box. In addition to helping with the fit, these also create a tighter seal around the ear to provide some old-fashioned sound isolation to go with the active noise canceling.

While the fitness-specific Powerbeats Pro still likely provide a better workout experience, the Apple AirPod Pro is rated to endure sweat and moisture from other sources, like rain. You can’t swim in them or accidentally dunk them in the bath (or worse, the toilet), but they should stand up to typical workout activities.

When you’re wearing them, each AirPod Pro listens to the sound in and around your ear to determine if the tip is providing a tight seal and it will recommend you swap them if it thinks you need to swap for a better fit.

Apple AirPods Pro battery

If you’re hoping for lots more AirPods Pro battery life, you might be disappointed to find out that you can still expect the same five hours of listening in standard mode. Kicking on the active noise canceling drops that time down to 4.5 hours, and talking into them for calls or video chats will further drop that down to 3.5 hours.

The battery case holds several full charges, and you can get up to 24 total hours of listening if you stop to recharge it regularly. The case charges wirelessly via induction or by the standard Lightning cable, just like the latest non-pro AirPods.

The AirPod Pro has touch-sensitive controls that let you perform actions with taps. Apple

What else is new in these Apple headphones?

As with the Solo Pro headphones, you can use a series of taps to tell the Apple AirPods Pro what to do. Siri will also always listen when you summon it, as you’d expect from headphones using Apple’s H1 chip inside.

At $250, these are a big price jump from the $179 standard models, but if the noise-canceling in the Beats Solo Pro is any indicator, it will perform really well. It could make a big difference for frequent travelers or people who work in noisy environments and need more isolation than typical AirPods offer. If you decide to buy these earbuds, they price tag makes them worth taking good care of. Make sure you know how to clean AirPods to ensure prolonged use.

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