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What is Data Type?

A Data Type in SQL server is defined as the type of data that any column or variable can store. It is a type of data that an object holds like integer, character, string, etc. While creating any table or variable, in addition to specifying the name, you also set the Type of Data it will store.

How to use MS SQL datatype

You can make efficient use of memory by assigning an appropriate data type to variable or column which will allocate only the required amount of system memory for the respective column’s data.

MS SQL offers a broad category of basic data types in SQL as per user’s needs like Date, binary images, etc.

In this tutorial, you will learn MS SQL data types with examples:

Why use DataTypes?

Let’s, take a sample of simple Sign up page of website application.Three input fields are First Name, Last Name & Contact number.

Here we should note that in real time:

“First/Last Name” will always be alphabetic.

“Contact” will always be numeric.

Data Types Example in MS SQL

From the above picture it worth defining “First/Last Name” as a character and “Contact” as an integer.

It is evident that in any application, all fields have one or the other type of data. E.g., numeric, alphabetic, date, and many more.

Also, note that different datatype has different memory requirement. Therefore, it makes more sense to define the column or variable with the data type it will hold for efficient use of memory.

Data type available in MS SQL Server

Here is MS SQL server data types list:

MS SQL server support following categories of Data type:

Exact numeric

Approximate numeric

Date and time

Character strings

Unicode character strings

Binary strings

Other data types

MS SQL Datatypes

Exact Numeric Data Types in SQL

Exact numeric has nine types of sub data types in SQL server.

Exact Numeric Data Types

Data Type Description Lower limit Upper limit Memory

bigint It stores whole numbers in the range given −2^63 (−9,223,372, 036,854,775,808) 2^63−1 (−9,223,372, 036,854,775,807) 8 bytes

int It stores whole numbers in the range given −2^31 (−2,147, 483,648) 2^31−1 (−2,147, 483,647) 4 bytes

smallint It stores whole numbers in the range given −2^15 (−32,767) 2^15 (−32,768) 2 bytes

tinyint It stores whole numbers in the range given 0 255 1 byte

bit It can take 0, 1, or NULL values. 0 1 1 byte/8bit column

decimal Used for scale and fixed precision numbers −10^38+1 10^381−1 5 to 17 bytes

numeric Used for scale and fixed precision numbers −10^38+1 10^381−1 5 to 17 bytes

money Used monetary data −922,337, 203, 685,477.5808 +922,337, 203, 685,477.5807 8 bytes

smallmoney Used monetary data −214,478.3648 +214,478.3647 4 bytes

Exact Numeric data types in SQL server with Examples:

Query:

DECLARE @Datatype_Int INT = 2 PRINT @Datatype_Int Output:

2

Syntax:

Decimal (P,S)

Here,

P is precision

S is scale

Query:

DECLARE @Datatype_Decimal DECIMAL (3,2) = 2.31 PRINT @Datatype_Decimal Output:

2.31

Approximate Numeric Data Types in SQL

SQL Approximate Numeric category includes floating point and real values. These datatypes in SQL are mostly used in scientific calculations.

Approximate Numeric Data Type

Data Type Description Lower limit Upper limit Memory Precision

float(n) Used for a floating precision number −1.79E+308 1.79E+308 Depends on the value of n 7 Digit

real Used for a floating precision number −3.40E+38 3.40E+38 4 bytes 15 Digit

Syntax: FLOAT [(n)]

Here, n is the number of bits that are used to store the mantissa of the float number in scientific notation. By default, the value of n is 53.

When the user defines a data type like float, n should be a value between 1 and 53.

SQL Server treats n as one of two possible values. If 1<=n<=24, n is treated as 24. If 25<=n<=53, n is treated as 53.

Example Query:

DECLARE @Datatype_Float FLOAT(24) = 22.1234 PRINT @Datatype_Float Output:

22.1234

Date and Time Data Types in SQL

It stores data of type Date and time.

Date and Time Data Type

Data Type Description Storage size Accuracy Lower Range Upper Range

DateTime Used for specifying a date and time from January 1, 1753 to December 31, 9999. It has an accuracy of 3.33 milliseconds. 8 bytes Rounded to increments of .000, .003, .007 1753-01-01 9999-12-31

smalldatetime Used for specifying a date and time from January 1, 0001 to December 31, 9999. It has an accuracy of 100 nanoseconds 4 bytes, fixed 1 minute 1900-01-01 2079-06-06

date Used to store only date from January 1, 0001 to December 31, 9999 3 bytes, fixed 1 day 0001-01-01 9999-12-31

time Used for storing only time only values with an accuracy of 100 nanoseconds. 5 bytes 100 nanoseconds 00:00:00.0000000 23:59:59.9999999

datetimeoffset Similar to datatime but has a time zone offset 10 bytes 100 nanoseconds 0001-01-01 9999-12-31

datetime2 Used for specifying a date and time from January 1, 0001 to December 31, 9999 6 bytes 100 nanoseconds 0001-01-01 9999-12-31

Example Query :

DECLARE @Datatype_Date DATE = '2030-01-01' PRINT @Datatype_Date Output:

‘2030-01-01’

Character Strings Data Types in SQL

This category is related to a character type. It allows the user to define the data type of character which can be of fixed and variable length. It has four kinds of data types. Below are the character string SQL server data types with examples.

Character Strings Data Types

Data Type Description Lower limit Upper limit Memory

char It is a character string with a fixed width. It stores a maximum of 8,000 characters. 0 chars 8000 chars n bytes

varchar This is a character string with variable width 0 chars 8000 chars n bytes + 2 bytes

varchar (max) This is a character string with a variable width. It stores a maximum of 1,073,741,824 characters. 0 chars 2^31 chars n bytes + 2 bytes

text This is a character string with a variable width. It stores a maximum 2GB of text data. 0 chars 2,147,483,647 chars n bytes + 4 bytes

Example Query :

DECLARE @Datatype_Char VARCHAR(30) = 'This is Character Datatype' PRINT @Datatype_Char Output:

This is Character Datatype

Unicode Character Strings Data Types in SQL

This category store the full range of Unicode character which uses the UTF-16 character encoding.

Unicode Character String Data Types

Data Type Description Lower limit Upper limit Memory

nchar It is a Unicode string of fixed width 0 chars 4000 chars 2 times n bytes

nvarchar It is a unicode string of variable width 0 chars 4000 chars 2 times n bytes + 2 bytes

ntext It is a unicode string of variable width 0 chars 1,073,741,823 char 2 times the string length

Example Query:

DECLARE @Datatype_nChar VARCHAR(30) = 'This is nCharacter Datatype' PRINT @Datatype_nChar Output:

This is nCharacter Datatype

Binary String Data Types in SQL

This category contains a binary string of fixed and variable length.

Binary String Data Types

Data Type Description Lower limit Upper limit Memory

binary It is a fixed width binary string. It stores a maximum of 8,000 bytes. 0 bytes 8000 bytes n bytes

varbinary This is a binary string of variable width. It stores a maximum of 8,000 bytes 0 bytes 8000 bytes The actual length of data entered + 2 bytes

image This is a binary string of variable width. It stores a maximum of 2GB. 0 bytes 2,147,483,647 bytes

Example Query:

DECLARE @Datatype_Binary BINARY(2) = 12; PRINT @Datatype_Binary Output:

0x000C

Other Datatypes in SQL

These are other different SQL server datatypes with the description below-

Data Type Description

Cursor It returns the name of the cursor variable.

Row version It version stamps table rows.

Hierarchyid This datatype represents a position in the hierarchy

Uniqueidentifier Conversion from a character expression.

Sql_variant It stores values of SQL server supported Datatypes.

XML It stores XML data in a column.

Spatial Geometry type It represents data in a flat coordinate system.

Spatial Geography type It represents data in the round-earth coordinate system.

table It stores a result set for later processing.

Interesting Facts!

CHAR data type is faster than SQL VARCHAR data type while retrieving data.

Summary:

Every column in tables defines with its datatype during table creation.

There are six main categories and one other miscellaneous category. Other miscellaneous have nine subcategories of SQL server data types and sizes available.

You're reading Sql Server Data Types With Examples

Sql Foreign Key: How To Create In Sql Server With Example

What is a FOREIGN KEY?

A Foreign Key provides a way of enforcing referential integrity within SQL Server. In simple words, foreign key ensures values in one table must be present in another table.

Rules for FOREIGN KEY

NULL is allowed in SQL Foreign key.

The table being referenced is called the Parent Table

The table with the Foreign Key in SQL is called Child Table.

The SQL Foreign Key in child table references the primary key in the parent table.

This parent-child relationship enforces the rule which is known as “Referential Integrity.”

The Below Foreign Key in SQL example with diagram summarizes all the above points for FOREIGN KEY

How Foreign Key Works

In this tutorial, you will learn

How to Create FOREIGN KEY in SQL

We can Create a Foreign Key in SQL server in 2 ways:

SQL Server Management Studio

T-SQL

SQL Server Management Studio

Parent Table: Say, we have an existing Parent table as ‘Course.’ Course_ID and Course_name are two columns with Course_Id as Primary Key.

Child Table: We need to create the second table as a child table. ‘Course_ID’ and ‘Course_Strength’ as two columns. However, ‘Course_ID’ shall be Foreign Key.

Step 5) Select ‘Primary Key Table’ as ‘COURSE’ and the new table now being created as ‘Foreign Key Table’ from the drop down.

Step 6) ‘Primary Key Table’ – Select ‘Course_Id’ column as ‘Primary Key table’ column.

Result: We have set Parent-child relationship between ‘Course’ and ‘Course_strength.’

T-SQL: Create a Parent-child table using T-SQL

Parent Table: Reconsider, we have an existing Parent table with table name as ‘Course.’

Course_ID and Course_name are two columns with Course_Id as Primary Key.

Child Table: We need to create the second table as the child table with the name as ‘Course_Strength_TSQL.’

‘Course_ID’ and ‘Course_Strength’ as two columns for child table Course_Strength_TSQL.’ However, ‘Course_ID’ shall be Foreign Key.

Below is the syntax to create a table with FOREIGN KEY

Syntax:

CREATE TABLE childTable ( ... CONSTRAINT fkey_name FOREIGN KEY (child_column1, child_column2, ... child_column_n) REFERENCES parentTable (parent_column1, parent_column2, ... parent_column_n) );

Here is a description of the above parameters:

childTable is the name of the table that is to be created.

column_1, column_2- the columns to be added to the table.

fkey_name- the name of the foreign key constraint to be created.

child_column1, child_column2…child_column_n- the name of chidTable columns to reference the primary key in parentTable.

parentTable- the name of parent table whose key is to be referenced in the child table.

parent_column1, parent_column2, … parent_column3- the columns making up the primary key of parent table.

ON DELETE. An optional parameter. It specifies what happens to the child data after deletion of the parent data. Some of the values for this parameter include NO ACTION, SET NULL, CASCADE, or SET DEFAULT.

ON UPDATE- An optional parameter. It specifies what happens to the child data after update on the parent data. Some of the values for this parameter include NO ACTION, SET NULL, CASCADE, or SET DEFAULT.

NO ACTION- used together with ON DELETE and ON UPDATE. It means that nothing will happen to the child data after the update or deletion of the parent data.

CASCADE- used together with ON DELETE and ON UPDATE. The child data will either be deleted or updated after the parent data has been deleted or updated.

SET NULL- used together with ON DELETE and ON UPDATE. The child will be set to null after the parent data has been updated or deleted.

SET DEFAULT- used together with ON DELETE and ON UPDATE. The child data will be set to default values after an update or delete on the parent data.

Let’s see a Foreign Key in SQL example to create a table with One Column as a FOREIGN KEY:

Foreign Key in SQL example

Query:

CREATE TABLE Course_Strength_TSQL ( Course_ID Int, Course_Strength Varchar(20) CONSTRAINT FK FOREIGN KEY (Course_ID) REFERENCES COURSE (Course_ID) )

Result: We have set Parent-child relationship between ‘Course’ and ‘Course_strength_TSQL.’

Using ALTER TABLE

Now we will learn how to use Foreign Key in SQL and add Foreign Key in SQL server using the ALTER TABLE statement, we will use the syntax given below:

ALTER TABLE childTable ADD CONSTRAINT fkey_name FOREIGN KEY (child_column1, child_column2, ... child_column_n) REFERENCES parentTable (parent_column1, parent_column2, ... parent_column_n);

Here is a description of the parameters used above:

childTable is the name of the table that is to be created.

column_1, column_2- the columns to be added to the table.

fkey_name- the name of the foreign key constraint to be created.

child_column1, child_column2…child_column_n- the name of chidTable columns to reference the primary key in parentTable.

parentTable- the name of parent table whose key is to be referenced in the child table.

parent_column1, parent_column2, … parent_column3- the columns making up the primary key of parent table.

Alter table add Foreign Key example:

ALTER TABLE department ADD CONSTRAINT fkey_student_admission FOREIGN KEY (admission) REFERENCES students (admission);

We have created a foreign key named fkey_student_admission on the department table. This foreign key references the admission column of the students table.

Example Query FOREIGN KEY

First, let’s see our Parent Table Data, COURSE.

Query:

SELECT * from COURSE;

Now let’s insert some row in Child table: ‘Course_strength_TSQL.’

We will try to insert two types of rows

The first type, for which Course_Id in child table will exist in Course_Id of Parent table. i.e. Course_Id = 1 and 2

The second type, for which Course_Id in child table doesn’t exist in the Course_Id of Parent table. i.e. Course_Id = 5

Query:

Insert into COURSE_STRENGTH values (1,'SQL'); Insert into COURSE_STRENGTH values (2,'Python'); Insert into COURSE_STRENGTH values (5,'PERL');

Result: Let’s run the Query together to See our Parent and Child table

Row with Course_ID 1 and 2 exist in Course_strength table. Whereas, Course_ID 5 is an exception.

Summary:

Every value of Foreign key has to be part of Primary Key of other tables.

The MySQL Foreign Key can reference to another column in the same table. This reference is known as a self-reference.

SQL Foreign Key Constraint : is used to secure the links between tables and invalid data to be inserted into the Foreign Key column.

You can create a Foreign Key using Create Table, Alter Table, or SQL Server Management Studio.

Data Classification: Overview, Types, And Examples

Data classification defines and categorizes business data, information, and files. It is used by organizations that are required to follow stringent compliance guidelines. The primary purpose of data classification is to understand the sensitivity of stored information to build a robust security system using the right cybersecurity tools.

By classifying data, organizations can determine the following −

Who is authorized to access specific data?

What protection policies to use for storing and transferring those data?

What are regulatory standards applicable to specific data?

Data classification empowers an organization to manage its data with privacy, secured by cyberattacks, and in compliance with regulatory standards.

Types of Data Classification

Data can be classified into three types,

Content-based Classification − Classifying data based on their content, such as files, format type, etc.

Context-based Classification − Classifying data based on Metadata such as the application used to create a file, the person who made the document, or the location of the data.

User-based Classification − Classifying data based on the personal judgment of the user. You can classify the data using your decision.

Data Sensitivity Levels

You can assign sensitivity levels to data and determine their value.

High sensitive data − It includes data that can have a catastrophic impact on the organization if they are compromised, deleted, or falls into the hand of hackers. This could consist of financial records, authentication data, and intellectual property.

Example − Suppose your company collects credit card information from customers buying products or services. Data like this should follow strict authorization controls, encryption, and stringent auditing for detecting access requests. A data breach is likely to ruin the reputation of the organization and can cost a significant financial loss.

Medium sensitivity data − These data are only for internal use but can significantly impact the organization or the individual if compromised or destroyed. This includes emails, documents, and files with no high-sensitive data.

Example − Whenever you deal with a third-party vendor, you involve in a contract containing signatures of the agreement. Although a breach of these data may not harm your customers, it can divulge sensitive information about your business details.

Low-sensitive data − It is intended for public use, such as the content on a public website.

Example − You upload content, such as blogs, pictures, etc., on your website for marketing purposes. These data are not highly sensitive, so you may not need strict controls as it is publicly available for audiences.

Data Classification Levels

Once you determine the sensitivity of the data, you need to assign levels to these data that answer the questions −

Who can access these data?

How long do these data need to stay in the system?

Levels of data classification

Public data − These data are accessible to the public and are freely used, shared, and reused without any legal persecution.

Example − first and last name of an individual, job descriptions, press releases, etc.

Internal-only data − These are accessible only to specific personnel or employees of an organization who are given special access.

Examples − Internal memos, internal communications, marketing plans, etc.

Confidential data − Accessibility is only granted through special authorization or clearance.

Examples − Cardholder data, social security numbers, data protected under HIPPA, PCI DSS, etc.

Examples − Proprietary information, research, and development data protected by state and federal regulations.

Data Classification Process

To classify data to meet compliance standards, the first step is to conduct procedures involving data locations, classification, and determining adequate cybersecurity measures. Each system must be executed depending on your company’s compliance standards and infrastructure.

Steps for Data Classification Step 1: Analyse Risk Assessment

Conduct a risk assessment to determine the sensitivity level of the data. Also, you need to identify security loopholes through which a hacker can breach your network defenses.

Step 2: Develop Classification Policies and Standards

A classification policy and standard can help you streamline the process of adding data in the future to the same category to minimize mistakes.

Step 3: Categorize Your Data

Once you set the classification policies and standards, you need to assign categories to data based on their sensitivity. Also, mention penalties for non-compliance with these policies and standards.

Step 4: Find a Location to Store Data

Make sure to find a safe and secure location for data storage before deploying cybersecurity defenses. Allotting data to their site makes it easier for you to deploy the proper cybersecurity protection.

Step 5: Classify Your Data

You can do it manually or use third-party software to identify and classify data and track them.

Step 6: Employ Controls

Employ controls so that the individual must require authentication to access the data. The person must send authorization access requests to the respective authority and can only access the data if their request is approved. It will be better if an individual is only permitted to access the information if they need it to perform a task in their job.

Step 7: Monitor Data and its Access

Monitoring data is a crucial step for compliance and maintaining privacy. Without regular monitoring, you couldn’t know whether there was an unauthorized attempt to access the data. With proper monitoring controls, you can detect loopholes and anomalies in your security system and remain vigilant to eradicate a threat from the network before it could happen.

Conclusion

With accurate data classification, organizations get a crystal-clear picture of all data in the organization’s control. It gives a clear understanding of the storage location of the data, ways to access them seamlessly, and the best ways to protect them from unauthorized access. It streamlines your organization’s security framework and facilitates top-level data protection measures while promoting employing compliance with the company’s data security policies and regulations.

Examples Of Sql Port With Explanation

Introduction of SQL Port

In networking, a port is a docking endpoint through which communication is established between the server and client and information flows from a program in the user’s computer to servers on the internet. In SQL also, we have multiple types of database engines such as SQL SERVER, POSTGRESQL, MYSQL etc. which communicate through ports. When a port number is used in combination with an IP address, it determines the direction of flow of information. These ports are part of the Transport Layer and are usually of two types TCP(Transmission Control Protocol) and User Datagram Protocol(UDP). Each port in the SQL database engine has a unique service to perform. For example, TCP 1433 is the default port number in SQL Server, and it is used for managing SQL instances over the network. While PostgreSQL uses TCP 5432 to perform the same task.

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In this article, we will attempt to illustrate how you can check the port number on which your SQL database engine is running, how it can be changed, and a few other things. For this article, we have written examples for PostgreSQL and SQL Server. But once you get the hang of it in any database engine, it’s quite intuitive in others.

Examples of SQL Port

Following are the examples are given below:

Example #1

How to find the port number to which the PostgreSQL database server is listening and change it to a new port number?

We can find out the port number and other details of the port to which the server is listening using a SELECT statement on the pg_settings table as shown below.

SELECT name, setting, category , short_desc FROM pg_settings WHERE name = 'port';

In this example, we have just fetched the port number, category, and description from the table. You can use SELECT * instead and fetch all the details. Now, observe the port number ‘5432’ and the short_desc corresponding to it. TCP port 5432 is the default to which the server listens to. For the curious ones, you can find more details on networking in SQL database server from the postmaster file or use the query given below.

select * from pg_settings where context = 'postmaster';

You will set some output, as shown in the image above.

Changing Port Number to A Different Port Number.

Step 1: Open SQL shell and write the following commands in the shell.

locate postgresql.conf

port = 5433 listen_addresses='*'

The above mentioned command will change the port number to ‘5433’ corresponding to all the IP addresses. You can get specific here by mentioning a specific IP address instead of ‘*’.

Example #2

How to find the port number to which the MS SQL server is listening and how to change it?

In SQL server, we have SQL Server configuration manager where we have all the configuration details saved. If you want to see what port number your database server is listening to follow the following steps then.

Step 1: Open SQL Server configuration manager. (If you are not able to find it directly look for it in the search tab)

 Step 2: Once you have opened your SQL Server configuration manager, open SQL Server Network Configuration as shown in the image below.

Step 5: If you wish to change the TCP port number then provide a new port number in the blank space corresponding to IP address 127.0.0.1, this corresponds to your localhost. You may make a change in IPALL if you want to change it for all the addresses.

And you are done changing the port number.

Conclusion

In this post, we have covered how to find the port number to which the SQL database server is listening to and have also learned to change it to a specific port number. A SQL port is basically a TCP port that acts as the endpoint of communication between your local computer and database server on the network.

Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “SQL Port” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

Types Of Java References With Examples

Introduction to Java References Types of Java References with Examples

There are four types of java references based on the Garbage Collector’s behaviour on the references.

Strong References: This is the default reference in java. Strong references can be created when an object is defined regularly.

Weak References: This reference is to be explicitly specified. The weak references can be created by using java.lang.ref.WeakReference class.

Soft References: Soft references can be created by using lang.ref.SoftReference class.

Phantom References: the phantom references can be created by using lang.ref.PhantomReference class.

1. Strong References

A strong reference is usually we use while we write the java code or we create an object. An object which has strong reference and active in the memory is not eligible for garbage collection, an object which has strongly referenced points to null can be garbage collected. For example, the below code snippet where variable ob is the object of the type ClassA.

ClassA ob = new ClassA();

An ‘ob’ object is having a strong reference to which is pointing to class ClassA; this object can not be garbage collected because an ob is an active object.

If reference ‘ob’ point to null as below –

ob = null;

Now the object is not referencing to class ClassA; an object is eligible for garbage collection now.

Example

Code:

package p1; class ClassA { } public class Demo { public static void main( String[] arg ) { ClassA ob = new ClassA(); System.out.println(ob); ob = null; System.out.println(ob); } }

Output:

2. Weak References ClassA ob = new ClassA();

Now the object is weak referencing to class ClassA, an object is now available for garbage collection, and it is garbage collected when JVM runs garbage collection thread.

Example

Code:

package p1; import java.lang.ref.WeakReference; class ClassA { } public class Demo { public static void main( String[] arg ) { ClassA ob = new ClassA();  System.out.println(ob); ob = null; System.out.println(ob); ob = weakob.get(); System.out.println(ob); } }

Output:

3. Soft References

The object of soft reference is not eligible for garbage collection until JVM runs out of memory or JVM badly needs memory. The weak references can be created by class lang.ref.SoftReference. For example, the soft reference can create Similarly to weak reference.

Example package p1; import java.lang.ref.SoftReference; class ClassA { } public class Demo { public static void main( String[] arg ) { ClassA ob = new ClassA();// default reference or Strong Reference System.out.println(ob); ob = null; System.out.println(ob); ob = softob.get(); System.out.println(ob); } }

Output:

4. Phantom References

An object of phantom reference is available for garbage collection, but before garbage collecting it, an object is put in a reference queue named as ‘reference queue’ by the JVM; after finalize() function call on the object. The weak references can be created by class chúng tôi PhantomReference.

Example

Code:

package p1; import java.lang.ref.ReferenceQueue; import java.lang.ref.PhantomReference; class ClassA { } public class Demo { public static void main( String[] arg ) { ClassA ob = new ClassA();  System.out.println(ob); ob = null; System.out.println(ob); ob = phantomob.get(); System.out.println(ob); } }

Output:

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Java References. Here we also discuss the Introduction and types of java references along with different examples and their code implementation. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

11 Best Free Sql Courses With Certification Online (2023)

SQL is the standard language for dealing with Relational Databases. SQL can be used to insert, search, update, and delete database records. Microsoft SQL can do lots of other operations, including optimizing and maintaining databases. SQL stands for Structured Query Language, pronounced as “S-Q-L” or sometimes as “See-Quel”. Relational databases like MySQL Database, Oracle, MS SQL Server, Sybase, etc., use ANSI SQL.

Following is a handpicked list of the Top SQL Training Courses & Certifications to gather knowledge about SQL. The list contains both open source (free) and commercial (paid) courses.

Best FREE SQL Certification Courses Online

SQL Certificate for Data Science is a course designed to provide knowledge of SQL fundamentals and work with data to analyze data science purposes.

This best online SQL course begins with the basics and gradually teaches you how to write simple and complex queries, which help you select data from tables. In this course, you will also learn different data types like strings and numbers and discuss methods to filter and pare down your results.

This SQL also teaches you some common operators and how to combine the data. You will also know how to use statements and concepts like data governance and profiling. The course material discusses the topic on data and practice using real-world programming assignments.

Key topics:

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Use SQL commands to sort, filter, and summarize data.

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Learn to manipulate strings, dates, & numeric data using functions to integrate data from different sources.

Features:

Earn a certificate upon completion

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Flexible deadlines

It allows you to reset deadlines according to your prefer in the schedule.

Subtitles: French, Portuguese (Brazilian), Russian, English, Spanish

Database and SQL Certification for Data Science is a course that introduces you to the relational database concepts and learns and apply knowledge of the SQL language. You can learn this SQL course online, which helps you to get started with performing SQL access in a data science environment.

The course helps you to learn SQL online. You will also learn how to create a database instance in the cloud. With a series of hands-on labs, you will practice building and running SQL queries. You also get known how to access databases from Jupyter notebooks using SQL and Python.

Key topics:

How to create and access a database instance on the cloud.

How to write basic SQL statements: CREATE, DROP, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE.

How to filter, sort, group results, use built-in functions, access multiple tables.

Learn to access databases from Jupyter using Python and work with real-world datasets.

Features:

Flexible deadlines

Self-Paced Learning Option

Course Videos & Readings

Practice Quizzes

Graded Assignments with Peer Feedback

Graded Quizzes with Feedback

Graded Programming Assignments

Excel to MySQL: Analytic Techniques for Business is a specialization course. This SQL certification will teach you to frame business challenges as data questions. You will also learn how to use powerful tools and methods such as MYSQL, Excel, Tableau. This helps you analyze data, create forecasts and models, design visualizations, and communicate your insights.

In this SQL course, you will study how you can apply your skills to explore and improve a real-world business process.

Key topics:

Introducing Business Metrics

Working in the Business Data Analytics Marketplace

Going Deeper into Business Metrics

How to apply business Metrics to a Business Case Study

Features:

Self-Paced learning option

Course videos & readings

Practice quizzes

Programming assignments

Quizzes with feedback

In this Complete SQL Bootcamp course, you will learn how to read and write complex queries to a database using one of the most in-demand skills – PostgreSQL. This course also teaches how you will learn quickly and receive challenges and tests along the way to improve your understanding.

This free SQL training course puts you in control and helps you set up and restore databases right at the start of the course instead of watching someone else code. Every section included in this course comes with fresh challenge questions and tasks modeled after real-world tasks and situations.

Key topics:

Use SQL to query a database

Learn the basics of SQL syntax

Learn how SQL helps you to perform data analysis

Learn how to perform GROUP BY statements and use common SQL JOIN commands

How to create tables and databases with constraints on data entries

Replicate real-world situations and query reports

Features:

15 articles

10 downloadable resources

Full lifetime access

Access on mobile and TV

Introduction to Structured Query Language is a complete SQL learning course. In this online learning course, you learn all the steps to install a text editor, installing XAMPP or MAMP, create a MySql Database, etc.

In this one of the best SQL course, you will learn about single table queries and the SQL language. It helps you to learn database design, basic SQL syntax with multiple tables, foreign keys, and the JOIN operation. At the end of this course, you will know how to model many-to-many relationships like those needed to represent users, roles, and courses.

Key topics:

Installing PHP and SQL

Introduction to Structured Query Language (SQL)

Database Design

Many-To-Many relationships

Features:

This course plus the full Specialization

Shareable certificates

Self-Paced learning option

Course videos & readings

Practice quizzes

Graded assignments

Graded quizzes with instant Feedback

Graded programming assignment

Flexible deadlines

Subtitles: French, Portuguese (Brazilian), Serbian, Korean, Russian, English, Spanish

The Ultimate MySQL Bootcamp course helps you to learn SQL. It introduces you to a solid foundation in databases in an informative and engaging way.

This best online SQL course is full of exercises, challenges, projects, and opportunities to practice what you are learning. You can apply what you are learning to real-world challenges like finding a website’s power users, calculating your top students, identifying bots on a site. This SQL course is ideal for the learner who wants to find the answer of complex business queries.

Key topics:

Allows you to create your database or interact with existing databases

Helps you to write complex SQL queries across multiple tables

How to build a web app using NodeJS and MySQL

Learn how to model real-world data and generate reports by using SQL

Learn about how to answer company performance or sales questions using data

Features:

141 articles

4 downloadable resources

Full lifetime access

Access on mobile and TV

Supported languages: English, German, Italian, Spanish, etc.

SQL for NEWBS is perfect for anyone who has no or little technical background. This course teaches you the SQL concept in easy to understand language. After the end of this SQL course, you will know the skills to do some real data analysis for your company using SQL, a language virtually everyone uses.

The things you learn will be easy to apply to your own company. These queries help you run a real business and teach you the basic skills, which is a need for those queries to adapt those skills to create your custom queries for your applications.

Key topics:

Learn how to analyze user behavior

Find actionable customer/business insights

How to make data-driven decisions

Learn about the measure and track marketing efforts

Discover sexy marketing stats

Features:

9 articles

3 downloadable resources

Full lifetime access

Access on mobile and TV

Certificate of completion

The Complete Oracle SQL Bootcamp is an easy-to-learn course that helps you quickly get up to speed with Oracle SQL. The course teaches you the essential concepts of writing SQL codes easily and thinking analytically against the problem in your company.

This course is the best way to learn SQL. It has extremely easy instruction, which is extremely easy to follow and highly informative. Other students enjoy using relevant examples throughout the course, making the content even easier to comprehend.

Key topics:

You will be able to answer any SQL Interview Questions Confidently!

How to solve SQL-related Problems by Yourself Creating Analytical Solutions!

You can test your skill with Hundreds of Hands-on Examples, Quizzes, Challenges!

Lifetime support from the Instructors. Get a Well-Organized Recap Document from the lecturer!

Features:

11 articles

15 downloadable resources:

Full lifetime access

Access on mobile and TV

Assignments

In this course, you will also learn how you answer specific business questions using SQL’s aggregate functions. You can become a SQL user by writing flawless and efficient queries.

Key topics:

How to prepare yourself for real-life database management

Learn how to code in SQL

How to adopt professionally tested SQL best practices

Study RDBMS theory that you will need in your workplace every day

How to control your dataset—insert, update, and delete records from your database

Learn to handle complex SQL joins with ease

How to merge coding skills and business acumen to solve complex analytical problems

Features:

141 articles

Provide 4 downloadable resources

Full lifetime access

Allows you to have access to mobile and TV

Learn SQL is a course for beginners to learn how to communicate with relational databases through SQL. You will learn this subject with four different case study projects. Learn to manipulate data and build queries that communicate with more than one table.

The statements covered in this Online SQL course use SQLite Relational Database Management System. It also allows you to access a glossary of all the SQL commands.

Key topics:

Learn how you can use SQL to access, create, and update data stored in a database.

Learn complex database operations.

Perform complex queries by learning essential query keywords and functionality.

Learn how to expand your Microsoft SQL skills by developing and manipulating databases with multiple related tables

Features:

Unlimited access to all Codecademy content

Real-world projects designed by experts

Instructional videos led by professionals

Exclusive access to new course content

Access to an exclusive community of peers

Flexible team management with seat reassignments

Learn SQL using PostreSQL is a course that teaches you SQL along with PostgreSQL. It is the best way to learn SQL, which teaches you how to join multiple tables, selection statements.

You will also know how to group records to get aggregate and data, Inserting, updating, and deleting records, creating tables and indexes, table constraints to keep data clean, sequences to create auto-incrementing fields, Views to simply accessing complex queries, etc.

Key topics:

How to perform sophisticated queries

Join tables together

Create and modifying tables

Create indexes to improve search speed

Put in constraints to keep data clean

Use the pgAdmin tool

Learn recursive queries

How views make accessing data simpler

Subqueries

Sequences to auto-increment fields

Common Table Expressions

Conditional Expressions

Window Functions

How to handle data and time data

SQL Functions

Transactions and Concurrency Control

Composite Data Types

Array Data Types

Features:

6 Articles

159 downloadable resources

Full lifetime access

Access on mobile and TV

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FAQ ❓ Do I get a Printable Certificate?

Yes, you will get a printable certificate in many courses. Some course providers will ship a hard copy of the certificate to your desired address.

⚡ What if I miss a class?

All the classes are recorded and can be replayed later.

🏅 What if I do not like a SQL Certification course I purchased?

Most courses come with a 30 day return policy or have a 7 day free trial.

❗ How can I ask my doubts or questions?

Most courses have a forum that allows you to raise questions that are frequently answered by course authors.

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