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Here are C Programming interview questions and answers for fresher as well as experienced candidates to get their dream job.

1) How do you construct an increment statement or decrement statement in C?

There are actually two ways you can do this. One is to use the increment operator ++ and decrement operator –. For example, the statement “x++” means to increment the value of x by 1. Likewise, the statement “x –” means to decrement the value of x by 1. Another way of writing increment statements is to use the conventional + plus sign or – minus sign. In the case of “x++”, another way to write it is “x = x +1”.

2) What is the difference between Call by Value and Call by Reference?

When using Call by Value, you are sending the value of a variable as parameter to a function, whereas Call by Reference sends the address of the variable. Also, under Call by Value, the value in the parameter is not affected by whatever operation that takes place, while in the case of Call by Reference, values can be affected by the process within the function.

4) What is the equivalent code of the following statement in WHILE LOOP format? for (a=1; a<=100; a++) printf ("%dn", a * a);

Answer:

a=1; while (a<=100) { printf ("%dn", a * a); a++; } 5) What is a stack?

A stack is one form of a data structure. Data is stored in stacks using the FILO (First In Last Out) approach. At any particular instance, only the top of the stack is accessible, which means that in order to retrieve data that is stored inside the stack, those on the upper part should be extracted first. Storing data in a stack is also referred to as a PUSH, while data retrieval is referred to as a POP.

6) What is a sequential access file?

When writing programs that will store and retrieve data in a file, it is possible to designate that file into different forms. A sequential access file is such that data are saved in sequential order: one data is placed into the file after another. To access a particular data within the sequential access file, data has to be read one data at a time, until the right one is reached.

7) What is variable initialization and why is it important?

This refers to the process wherein a variable is assigned an initial value before it is used in the program. Without initialization, a variable would have an unknown value, which can lead to unpredictable outputs when used in computations or other operations.

8 What is spaghetti programming?

Spaghetti programming refers to codes that tend to get tangled and overlapped throughout the program. This unstructured approach to coding is usually attributed to lack of experience on the part of the programmer. Spaghetti programing makes a program complex and analyzing the codes difficult, and so must be avoided as much as possible.

9) Differentiate Source Codes from Object Codes

Source codes are codes that were written by the programmer. It is made up of the commands and other English-like keywords that are supposed to instruct the computer what to do. However, computers would not be able to understand source codes. Therefore, source codes are compiled using a compiler. The resulting outputs are object codes, which are in a format that can be understood by the computer processor. In C programming, source codes are saved with the file extension .C, while object codes are saved with the file extension .OBJ

10) In C programming, how do you insert quote characters (‘ and “) into the output screen?

This is a common problem for beginners because quotes are normally part of a printf statement. To insert the quote character as part of the output, use the format specifiers ’ (for single quote), and ” (for double quote).

11) What is the use of a ‘’ character?

It is referred to as a terminating null character, and is used primarily to show the end of a string value.

12) What is the difference between the = symbol and == symbol?

The = symbol is often used in mathematical operations. It is used to assign a value to a given variable. On the other hand, the == symbol, also known as “equal to” or “equivalent to”, is a relational operator that is used to compare two values.

13) What is the modulus operator?

The modulus operator outputs the remainder of a division. It makes use of the percentage (%) symbol. For example: 10 % 3 = 1, meaning when you divide 10 by 3, the remainder is 1.

14) What is a nested loop?

A nested loop is a loop that runs within another loop. Put it in another sense, you have an inner loop that is inside an outer loop. In this scenario, the inner loop is performed a number of times as specified by the outer loop. For each turn on the outer loop, the inner loop is first performed.

16) Compare and contrast compilers from interpreters.

Compilers and interpreters often deal with how program codes are executed. Interpreters execute program codes one line at a time, while compilers take the program as a whole and convert it into object code, before executing it. The key difference here is that in the case of interpreters, a program may encounter syntax errors in the middle of execution, and will stop from there. On the other hand, compilers check the syntax of the entire program and will only proceed to execution when no syntax errors are found.

17) How do you declare a variable that will hold string values?

The char keyword can only hold 1 character value at a time. By creating an array of characters, you can store string values in it. Example: “char MyName[50]; ” declares a string variable named MyName that can hold a maximum of 50 characters.

18) Can the curly brackets { } be used to enclose a single line of code?

While curly brackets are mainly used to group several lines of codes, it will still work without error if you used it for a single line. Some programmers prefer this method as a way of organizing codes to make it look clearer, especially in conditional statements.

19) What are header files and what are its uses in C programming?

Header files are also known as library files. They contain two essential things: the definitions and prototypes of functions being used in a program. Simply put, commands that you use in C programming are actually functions that are defined from within each header files. Each header file contains a set of functions. For example: stdio.h is a header file that contains definition and prototypes of commands like printf and scanf.

20) What is syntax error?

Syntax errors are associated with mistakes in the use of a programming language. It maybe a command that was misspelled or a command that must was entered in lowercase mode but was instead entered with an upper case character. A misplaced symbol, or lack of symbol, somewhere within a line of code can also lead to syntax error.

21) What are variables and it what way is it different from constants?

Variables and constants may at first look similar in a sense that both are identifiers made up of one character or more characters (letters, numbers and a few allowable symbols). Both will also hold a particular value. Values held by a variable can be altered throughout the program, and can be used in most operations and computations. Constants are given values at one time only, placed at the beginning of a program. This value is not altered in the program. For example, you can assigned a constant named PI and give it a value 3.1415 . You can then use it as PI in the program, instead of having to write 3.1415 each time you need it.

22) How do you access the values within an array?

Arrays contain a number of elements, depending on the size you gave it during variable declaration. Each element is assigned a number from 0 to number of elements-1. To assign or retrieve the value of a particular element, refer to the element number. For example: if you have a declaration that says “intscores[5];”, then you have 5 accessible elements, namely: scores[0], scores[1], scores[2], scores[3] and scores[4].

23) Can I use “int” data type to store the value 32768? Why?

No. “int” data type is capable of storing values from -32768 to 32767. To store 32768, you can use “long int” instead. You can also use “unsigned int”, assuming you don’t intend to store negative values.

24) Can two or more operators such as n and t be combined in a single line of program code?

For example: you can have a code like printf (“Hellonn’World'”) to output the text “Hello” on the first line and “World” enclosed in single quotes to appear on the next two lines.

25) Why is it that not all header files are declared in every C program?

The choice of declaring a header file at the top of each C program would depend on what commands/functions you will be using in that program. Since each header file contains different function definitions and prototype, you would be using only those header files that would contain the functions you will need. Declaring all header files in every program would only increase the overall file size and load of the program, and is not considered a good programming style.

26) When is the “void” keyword used in a function?

When declaring functions, you will decide whether that function would be returning a value or not. If that function will not return a value, such as when the purpose of a function is to display some outputs on the screen, then “void” is to be placed at the leftmost part of the function header. When a return value is expected after the function execution, the data type of the return value is placed instead of “void”.

27) What are compound statements?

Compound statements are made up of two or more program statements that are executed together. This usually occurs while handling conditions wherein a series of statements are executed when a TRUE or FALSE is evaluated. Compound statements can also be executed within a loop. Curly brackets { } are placed before and after compound statements.

28) What is the significance of an algorithm to C programming?

Before a program can be written, an algorithm has to be created first. An algorithm provides a step by step procedure on how a solution can be derived. It also acts as a blueprint on how a program will start and end, including what process and computations are involved.

When storing multiple related data, it is a good idea to use arrays. This is because arrays are named using only 1 word followed by an element number. For example: to store the 10 test results of 1 student, one can use 10 different variable names (grade1, grade2, grade3… grade10). With arrays, only 1 name is used, the rest are accessible through the index name (grade[0], grade[1], grade[2]… grade[9]).

30) Write a loop statement that will show the following output:

1

12

123

1234

12345

Answer:

for (a=1; a<=5; i++) { for (b=1; b<=a; b++) printf("%d",b); printf("n"); } 31) What is wrong in this statement? scanf(“%d”,whatnumber);

An ampersand & symbol must be placed before the variable name whatnumber. Placing & means whatever integer value is entered by the user is stored at the “address” of the variable name. This is a common mistake for programmers, often leading to logical errors.

32) How do you generate random numbers in C?

Random numbers are generated in C using the rand() command. For example: anyNum = rand() will generate any integer number beginning from 0, assuming that anyNum is a variable of type integer.

33) What could possibly be the problem if a valid function name such as tolower() is being reported by the C compiler as undefined?

35) What is debugging?

Debugging is the process of identifying errors within a program. During program compilation, errors that are found will stop the program from executing completely. At this state, the programmer would look into the possible portions where the error occurred. Debugging ensures the removal of errors, and plays an important role in ensuring that the expected program output is met.

36) What does the && operator do in a program code?

The && is also referred to as AND operator. When using this operator, all conditions specified must be TRUE before the next action can be performed. If you have 10 conditions and all but 1 fails to evaluate as TRUE, the entire condition statement is already evaluated as FALSE

37) In C programming, what command or code can be used to determine if a number of odd or even?

There is no single command or function in C that can check if a number is odd or even. However, this can be accomplished by dividing that number by 2, then checking the remainder. If the remainder is 0, then that number is even, otherwise, it is odd. You can write it in code as:

if (num % 2 == 0) printf("EVEN"); else printf("ODD"); 38) What does the format %10.2 mean when included in a printf statement?

This format is used for two things: to set the number of spaces allotted for the output number and to set the number of decimal places. The number before the decimal point is for the allotted space, in this case it would allot 10 spaces for the output number. If the number of space occupied by the output number is less than 10, addition space characters will be inserted before the actual output number. The number after the decimal point sets the number of decimal places, in this case, it’s 2 decimal spaces.

39) What are logical errors and how does it differ from syntax errors?

Program that contains logical errors tend to pass the compilation process, but the resulting output may not be the expected one. This happens when a wrong formula was inserted into the code, or a wrong sequence of commands was performed. Syntax errors, on the other hand, deal with incorrect commands that are misspelled or not recognized by the compiler.

40) What are the different types of control structures in programming?

There are 3 main control structures in programming: Sequence, Selection and Repetition. Sequential control follows a top to bottom flow in executing a program, such that step 1 is first perform, followed by step 2, all the way until the last step is performed. Selection deals with conditional statements, which mean codes are executed depending on the evaluation of conditions as being TRUE or FALSE. This also means that not all codes may be executed, and there are alternative flows within. Repetitions are also known as loop structures, and will repeat one or two program statements set by a counter.

42) Can the “if” function be used in comparing strings?

No. “if” command can only be used to compare numerical values and single character values. For comparing string values, there is another function called strcmp that deals specifically with strings.

43) What are preprocessor directives?

Preprocessor directives are placed at the beginning of every C program. This is where library files are specified, which would depend on what functions are to be used in the program. Another use of preprocessor directives is the declaration of constants.Preprocessor directives begin with the # symbol.

44) What will be the outcome of the following conditional statement if the value of variable s is 10?

45) Describe the order of precedence with regards to operators in C. 46) What is wrong with this statement? myName = “Robin”;

You cannot use the = sign to assign values to a string variable. Instead, use the strcpy function. The correct statement would be: strcpy(myName, “Robin”);

47) How do you determine the length of a string value that was stored in a variable?

To get the length of a string value, use the function strlen(). For example, if you have a variable named FullName, you can get the length of the stored string value by using this statement: I = strlen(FullName); the variable I will now have the character length of the string value.

48) Is it possible to initialize a variable at the time it was declared?

Yes, you don’t have to write a separate assignment statement after the variable declaration, unless you plan to change it later on. For example: char planet[15] = “Earth”; does two things: it declares a string variable named planet, then initializes it with the value “Earth”.

49) Why is C language being considered a middle level language?

This is because C language is rich in features that make it behave like a high level language while at the same time can interact with hardware using low level methods. The use of a well structured approach to programming, coupled with English-like words used in functions, makes it act as a high level language. On the other hand, C can directly access memory structures similar to assembly language routines.

50) What are the different file extensions involved when programming in C?

Source codes in C are saved with .C file extension. Header files or library files have the .H file extension. Every time a program source code is successfully compiled, it creates an .OBJ object file, and an executable .EXE file.

51) What are reserved words?

Reserved words are words that are part of the standard C language library. This means that reserved words have special meaning and therefore cannot be used for purposes other than what it is originally intended for. Examples of reserved words are int, void, and return.

52) What are linked list?

A linked list is composed of nodes that are connected with another. In C programming, linked lists are created using pointers. Using linked lists is one efficient way of utilizing memory for storage.

53) What is FIFO?

In C programming, there is a data structure known as queue. In this structure, data is stored and accessed using FIFO format, or First-In-First-Out. A queue represents a line wherein the first data that was stored will be the first one that is accessible as well.

54) What are binary trees?

Binary trees are actually an extension of the concept of linked lists. A binary tree has two pointers, a left one and a right one. Each side can further branch to form additional nodes, which each node having two pointers as well. Learn more about Binary Tree in Data Structure if you are interested.

55) Not all reserved words are written in lowercase. TRUE or FALSE?

FALSE. All reserved words must be written in lowercase; otherwise the C compiler would interpret this as unidentified and invalid.

56) What is the difference between the expression “++a” and “a++”?

In the first expression, the increment would happen first on variable a, and the resulting value will be the one to be used. This is also known as a prefix increment. In the second expression, the current value of variable a would the one to be used in an operation, before the value of a itself is incremented. This is also known as postfix increment.

57) What would happen to X in this expression: X += 15; (assuming the value of X is 5)

X +=15 is a short method of writing X = X + 15, so if the initial value of X is 5, then 5 + 15 = 20.

58) In C language, the variables NAME, name, and Name are all the same. TRUE or FALSE?

FALSE. C language is a case sensitive language. Therefore, NAME, name and Name are three uniquely different variables.

59) What is an endless loop?

An endless loop can mean two things. One is that it was designed to loop continuously until the condition within the loop is met, after which a break function would cause the program to step out of the loop. Another idea of an endless loop is when an incorrect loop condition was written, causing the loop to run erroneously forever. Endless loops are oftentimes referred to as infinite loops.

60) What is a program flowchart and how does it help in writing a program?

A flowchart provides a visual representation of the step by step procedure towards solving a given problem. Flowcharts are made of symbols, with each symbol in the form of different shapes. Each shape may represent a particular entity within the entire program structure, such as a process, a condition, or even an input/output phase.

61) What is wrong with this program statement? void = 10;

The word void is a reserved word in C language. You cannot use reserved words as a user-defined variable.

62) Is this program statement valid? INT = 10.50;

Assuming that INT is a variable of type float, this statement is valid. One may think that INT is a reserved word and must not be used for other purposes. However, recall that reserved words are express in lowercase, so the C compiler will not interpret this as a reserved word.

63) What are actual arguments?

When you create and use functions that need to perform an action on some given values, you need to pass these given values to that function. The values that are being passed into the called function are referred to as actual arguments.

64) What is a newline escape sequence?

A newline escape sequence is represented by the n character. This is used to insert a new line when displaying data in the output screen. More spaces can be added by inserting more n characters. For example, nn would insert two spaces. A newline escape sequence can be placed before the actual output expression or after.

65) What is output redirection? 66) What are run-time errors?

These are errors that occur while the program is being executed. One common instance wherein run-time errors can happen is when you are trying to divide a number by zero. When run-time errors occur, program execution will pause, showing which program line caused the error.

67) What is the difference between functions abs() and fabs()? 68) What are formal parameters?

In using functions in a C program, formal parameters contain the values that were passed by the calling function. The values are substituted in these formal parameters and used in whatever operations as indicated within the main body of the called function.

69) What are control structures?

Control structures take charge at which instructions are to be performed in a program. This means that program flow may not necessarily move from one statement to the next one, but rather some alternative portions may need to be pass into or bypassed from, depending on the outcome of the conditional statements.

70) Write a simple code fragment that will check if a number is positive or negative

printf(“number is positive”);

else

printf (“number is negative”);

71) When is a “switch” statement preferable over an “if” statement?

The switch statement is best used when dealing with selections based on a single variable or expression. However, switch statements can only evaluate integer and character data types.

72) What are global variables and how do you declare them?

Global variables are variables that can be accessed and manipulated anywhere in the program. To make a variable global, place the variable declaration on the upper portion of the program, just after the preprocessor directives section.

73) What are enumerated types?

Enumerated types allow the programmer to use more meaningful words as values to a variable. Each item in the enumerated type variable is actually associated with a numeric code. For example, one can create an enumerated type variable named DAYS whose values are Monday, Tuesday… Sunday.

74) What does the function toupper() do? 75) Is it possible to have a function as a parameter in another function?

Yes, that is allowed in C programming. You just need to include the entire function prototype into the parameter field of the other function where it is to be used.

76) What are multidimensional arrays?

Multidimensional arrays are capable of storing data in a two or more dimensional structure. For example, you can use a 2 dimensional array to store the current position of pieces in a chess game, or position of players in a tic-tac-toe program.

77) Which function in C can be used to append a string to another string?

The strcat function. It takes two parameters, the source string and the string value to be appended to the source string.

78) What is the difference between functions getch() and getche()?

Both functions will accept a character input value from the user. When using getch(), the key that was pressed will not appear on the screen, and is automatically captured and assigned to a variable. When using getche(), the key that was pressed by the user will appear on the screen, while at the same time being assigned to a variable.

79) Dothese two program statements perform the same output? 1) scanf(“%c”, &letter); 2) letter=getchar()

Yes, they both do the exact same thing, which is to accept the next key pressed by the user and assign it to variable named letter.

80) What are structure types in C?

Structure types are primarily used to store records. A record is made up of related fields. This makes it easier to organize a group of related data.

81) What does the characters “r” and “w” mean when writing programs that will make use of files?

“r” means “read” and will open a file as input wherein data is to be retrieved. “w” means “write”, and will open a file for output. Previous data that was stored on that file will be erased.

82) What is the difference between text files and binary files?

Text files contain data that can easily be understood by humans. It includes letters, numbers and other characters. On the other hand, binary files contain 1s and 0s that only computers can interpret.

83) is it possible to create your own header files?

Yes, it is possible to create a customized header file. Just include in it the function prototypes that you want to use in your program, and use the #include directive followed by the name of your header file.

84) What is dynamic data structure?

Dynamic data structure provides a means for storing data more efficiently into memory. Using dynamic memory allocation, your program will access memory spaces as needed. This is in contrast to static data structure, wherein the programmer has to indicate a fix number of memory space to be used in the program.

85) What are the different data types in C?

The basic data types in C are int, char, and float. Int is used to declare variables that will be storing integer values. Float is used to store real numbers. Char can store individual character values.

86) What is the general form of a C program?

A C program begins with the preprocessor directives, in which the programmer would specify which header file and what constants (if any) to be used. This is followed by the main function heading. Within the main function lies the variable declaration and program statement.

If the amount of data stored in a file is fairly large, the use of random access will allow you to search through it quicker. If it had been a sequential access file, you would have to go through one record at a time until you reach the target data. A random access file lets you jump directly to the target address where data is located.

88) In a switch statement, what will happen if a break statement is omitted?

If a break statement was not placed at the end of a particular case portion? It will move on to the next case portion, possibly causing incorrect output.

89) Describe how arrays can be passed to a user defined function

One thing to note is that you cannot pass the entire array to a function. Instead, you pass to it a pointer that will point to the array first element in memory. To do this, you indicate the name of the array without the brackets.

90) What are pointers?

Pointers point to specific areas in the memory. Pointers contain the address of a variable, which in turn may contain a value or even an address to another memory.

91) Can you pass an entire structure to functions?

Yes, it is possible to pass an entire structure to a function in a call by method style. However, some programmers prefer declaring the structure globally, then pass a variable of that structure type to a function. This method helps maintain consistency and uniformity in terms of argument type.

92) What is gets() function? 93) The % symbol has a special use in a printf statement. How would you place this character as part of the output on the screen?

You can do this by using %% in the printf statement. For example, you can write printf(“10%%”) to have the output appear as 10% on the screen.

94) How do you search data in a data file using random access method?

Use the fseek() function to perform random access input/ouput on a file. After the file was opened by the fopen() function, the fseek would require three parameters to work: a file pointer to the file, the number of bytes to search, and the point of origin in the file.

96) Is there a built-in function in C that can be used for sorting data?

Yes, use the qsort() function. It is also possible to create user defined functions for sorting, such as those based on the balloon sort and bubble sort algorithm.

98) How do you convert strings to numbers in C?

You can write you own functions to do string to number conversions, or instead use C’s built in functions. You can use atof to convert to a floating point value, atoi to convert to an integer value, and atol to convert to a long integer value.

99) Create a simple code fragment that will swap the values of two variables num1 and num2. int temp; temp = num1; num1 = num2; num2 = temp; 100) What is the use of a semicolon (;) at the end of every program statement?

It has to do with the parsing process and compilation of the code. A semicolon acts as a delimiter, so that the compiler knows where each statement ends, and can proceed to divide the statement into smaller elements for syntax checking.

These interview questions will also help in your viva(orals)

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Top 91 Laravel Interview Questions And Answers (2023)

Here are Laravel interview questions and answers for fresher as well as experienced candidates to get their dream job.

1) What is Laravel?

Laravel is an open-source widely used PHP framework. The platform was intended for the development of web application by using MVC architectural pattern. Laravel is released under the MIT license.

Therefore, its source code is hosted on GitHub. It is a reliable PHP framework as it follows expressive and accurate language rules.

2) What is the latest Laravel version?

The latest Laravel version is version 8, which was released on September 8th, 2023.

3) Define composer.

It is an application-level package manager for PHP. It provides a standard format for managing PHP software dependencies and libraries.

4) What is HTTP middleware?

HTTP middleware is a technique for filtering HTTP requests. Laravel includes a middleware that checks whether application user is authenticated or not.

5) Name aggregates methods of query builder.

Aggregates methods of query builder are: 1) max(), 2) min(), 3) sum(), 4) avg(), and 5) count().

6) What is a Route?

A route is basically an endpoint specified by a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier). It acts as a pointer in Laravel application.

Most commonly, a route simply points to a method on a controller and also dictates which HTTP methods are able to hit that URI.

7) Why use Route?

Routes are stored inside files under the /routes folder inside the project’s root directory. By default, there are a few different files corresponding to the different “sides” of the application (“sides” comes from the hexagonal architecture methodology).

8) What do you mean by bundles?

In Laravel, bundles are referred to as packages. These packages are used to increase the functionality of Laravel. A package can have views, configuration, migrations, routes, and tasks.

9) Explain important directories used in a common Laravel application.

Directories used in a common Laravel application are:

App/: This is a source folder where our application code lives. All controllers, policies, and models are inside this folder.

Config/: Holds the app’s configuration files. These are usually not modified directly but instead, rely on the values set up in the .env (environment) file at the root of the app.

Database/: Houses the database files, including migrations, seeds, and test factories.

Public/: Publicly accessible folder holding compiled assets and of course an chúng tôi file.

10) What is a Controller?

A controller is the “C” in the “MVC” (Model-View-Controller) architecture, which is what Laravel is based on.

11) Explain reverse routing in Laravel.

Reverse routing is a method of generating URL based on symbol or name. It makes your Laravel application flexible.

12) Explain traits in Laravel.

Laravel traits are a group of functions that you include within another class. A trait is like an abstract class. You cannot instantiate directly, but its methods can be used in concreate class.

13) Explain the concept of contracts in Laravel.

They are set of interfaces of Laravel framework. These contracts provide core services. Contracts defined in Laravel include corresponding implementation of framework.

14) How will you register service providers?

You can register service providers in the config/app.php configuration file that contains an array where you can mention the service provider class name.

15) Where will you define Laravel’s Facades?

All facades of Laravel have defined in IlluminateSupportFacades namespace.

16) State the difference between get and post method.

Get method allows you to send a limited amount of data in the header. Post allows you to send a large amount of data in the body.

17) List default packages of Laravel 5.6.

Default packages of Laravel 5.6 are: 1) Envoy, 2) Passport, 3) Socialite, 4) Cashier, 5) Horizon, and 6) Scout.

18) What is service container in Laravel?

Service container is a tool used for performing dependency injection in Laravel.

19) How can you enable query log in Laravel?

You can use enableQueryLog method to enable query log in Laravel.

20) Explain the concept of events in Laravel.

An event is an occurrence or action that help you to subscribe and listen for events that occur in Laravel application. Some of the events are fired automatically by Laravel when any activity occurs.

21) Explain dependency injection and their types.

It is a technique in which one object is dependent on another object. There are three types of dependency injection: 1) Constructor injection, 2) setter injection, and 3) interface injection.

Here are important benefits of Laravel:

Laravel has blade template engine to create dynamic layouts and increase compiling tasks.

Reuse code without any hassle.

The framework has an auto-loading feature, so you don’t do manual maintenance and inclusion paths

The framework helps you to make new tools by using LOC container.

Laravel offers a version control system that helps with simplified management of migrations.

23) Explain validation concept in Laravel.

Validations are an important concept while designing any Laravel application. It ensures that the data is always in an expected format before it stores into the database. Laravel provides many ways to validate your data.

Base controller trait uses a ValidatesRequests class which provides a useful method to validate requests coming from the client machine.

24) What does ORM stand for?

ORM stands for Object Relational Mapping

25) How can you reduce memory usage in Laravel?

While processing a large amount of data, you can use the cursor method in order to reduce memory usage.

26) List available types of relationships in Laravel Eloquent.

Types of relationship in Laravel Eloquent are: 1) One To One 2) One To Many 3) Many To Many 4) Has Many Through, and 5) Polymorphic Relations.

27) Name the Template Engine utilized by Laravel.

Blade is a powerful template engine utilized by Laravel.

28) Name databases supported by Laravel.

Laravel supports the following databases:

PostgreSQL

SQL Server

SQLite

MySQL

29) Why are migrations important?

Migrations are important because it allows you to share application by maintaining database consistency. Without migration, it is difficult to share any Laravel application. It also allows you to sync database.

30) Define Lumen

Lumen is a micro-framework. It is a smaller, and faster, version of a building Laravel based services, and REST API’s.

31) Explain PHP artisan

An artisan is a command-line tool of Laravel. It provides commands that help you to build Laravel application without any hassle.

32) How can you generate URLs?

Laravel has helpers to generate URLs. This is helpful when you build link in your templates and API response.

33) Which class is used to handle exceptions?

Laravel exceptions are handled by AppExceptionsHandler class.

34) What are common HTTP error codes?

The most common HTTP error codes are:

Error 404 – Displays when Page is not found.

Error- 401 – Displays when an error is not authorized

35) Explain fluent query builder in Laravel.

It is a database query builder that provides convenient, faster interface to create and run database queries.

36) What is the use of dd() function?

This function is used to dump contents of a variable to the browser. The full form of dd is Dump and Die.

37) List out common artisan commands used in Laravel.

Laravel supports following artisan commands:

PHP artisan down;

PHP artisan up;

PHP artisan make:controller;

PHP artisan make:model;

PHP artisan make:migration;

PHP artisan make:middleware;

38) How to configure a mail-in Laravel?

Laravel provides APIs to send an email on local and live server.

39) Explain Auth.

It is a method of identifying user login credential with a password. In Laravel it can be managed with a session which takes two parameters 1) username and 2) password.

40) Differentiate between delete() and softDeletes().

delete(): remove all record from the database table.

softDeletes(): It does not remove the data from the table. It is used to flag any record as deleted.

41) How can you make real time chúng tôi file in Laravel?

You can create all web pages of a website to tell the search engine about the organizing site content. The crawlers of search engine read this file intelligently to crawl a website.

42) Explain faker in Laravel.

It is a type of module or packages which are used to create fake data. This data can be used for testing purpose.

It is can also be used to generate: 1) Numbers, 2) Addresses, 3) DateTime, 4) Payments, and 5) Lorem text.

43) How will you check table is exists or in the database?

Use hasTable() Laravel function to check the desired table is exists in the database or not.

44) What is the significant difference between insert() and insertGetId() function in Laravel?

Insert(): This function is simply used to insert a record into the database. It not necessary that ID should be autoincremented.

InsertGetId(): This function also inserts a record into the table, but it is used when the ID field is auto-increment.

45) Explain active record concept in Laravel.

In active record, class map to your database table. It helps you to deal with CRUD operation.

46) List basic concepts in Laravel?

Following are basic concepts used in Laravel:

Routing

Eloquent ORM

Middleware

Security

Caching

Blade Templating

47) Define Implicit Controller.

Implicit Controllers help you to define a proper route to handle controller action. You can define them in chúng tôi file with Route:: controller() method.

48) How to use the custom table in Laravel Model?

In order to use a custom table, you can override the property of the protected variable $table.

49) What is MVC framework?

It is Model, View, and Controller:

Model: Model defines logic to write Laravel application.

View: It covers UI logic of Laravel application.

Controller: It is work as an interface between Model, and View. It is a way how the user interacts with an application.

50) Define @include.

@include is used to load more than one template view files. It helps you to include view within another view. User can also load multiple files in one view.

51) Explain the concept of cookies.

Cookies are small file sent from a particular website and stored on PC by user’s browser while the user is browsing.

52) Which file is used to create a connection with the database?

To create a connection with the database, you can use .env file.

53) What is Eloquent?

Eloquent is an ORM used in Laravel. It provides simple active record implementation working with the database. Each database table has its Model, which used to interact with the table.

54) Name some Inbuilt Authentication Controllers of Laravel.

Laravel installation has an inbuilt set of common authentication controllers. These controllers are:

RegisterController

LoginController

ResetPasswordController

ForgetPasswordController

55) Define Laravel guard.

Laravel guard is a special component that is used to find authenticated users. The incoming requested is initially routed through this guard to validate credentials entered by users.

56) What is Laravel API rate limit?

It is a feature of Laravel. It provides handle throttling. Rate limiting helps Laravel developers to develop a secure application and prevent DOS attacks.

57) Explain collections in Laravel.

Collections is a wrapper class to work with arrays. Laravel Eloquent queries use a set of the most common functions to return database result.

58) What is the use of DB facade?

DB facade is used to run SQL queries like create, select, update, insert, and delete.

59) What is the use of Object Relational Mapping?

Object Relational Mapping is a technique that helps developers to address, access, and manipulate objects without considering the relation between object and their data sources.

60) Explain the concept of routing in Laravel.

It allows routing all your application requests to the controller. Laravel routing acknowledges and accepts a Uniform Resource Identifier with a closure.

61) What is Ajax in Laravel?

Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML is a web development technique that is used to create asynchronous Web applications. In Laravel, response() and json() functions are used to create asynchronous web applications.

62) What is a session in Laravel?

Session is used to pass user information from one web page to another. Laravel provides various drivers like a cookie, array, file, Memcached, and Redis to handle session data.

63) How to access session data?

Session data be access by creating an instance of the session in HTTP request. Once you get the instance, use get() method with a “Key” as a parameter to get the session details.

64) State the difference between authentication and authorization.

Authentication means confirming user identities through credentials, while authorization refers to gathering access to the system.

65) Explain to listeners.

Listeners are used to handling events and exceptions. The most common listener in Laravel for login event is LoginListener.

66) What are policies classes?

Policies classes include authorization logic of Laravel application. These classes are used for a particular model or resource.

67) How to rollback last migration?

Use need to use artisan command to rollback the last migration.

68) What do you mean by Laravel Dusk?

Laravel Dusk is a tool which is used for testing JavaScript enabled applications. It provides powerful, browser automation, and testing API.

69) Explain Laravel echo.

It is a JavaScript library that makes possible to subscribe and listen to channels Laravel events. You can use NPM package manager to install echo.

70) What is make method?

Laravel developers can use make method to bind an interface to concreate class. This method returns an instance of the class or interface. Laravel automatically inject dependencies defined in class constructor.

71) Explain Response in Laravel.

All controllers and routes should return a response to be sent back to the web browser. Laravel provides various ways to return this response. The most basic response is returning a string from controller or route.

72) What is query scope?

It is a feature of Laravel where we can reuse similar queries. We do not require to write the same types of queries again in the Laravel project. Once the scope is defined, just call the scope method when querying the model.

73) Explain homestead in Laravel.

Laravel homestead is the official, disposable, and pre-packaged vagrant box that a powerful development environment without installing HHVM, a web server, and PHP on your computer.

74) What is namespace in Laravel?

A namespace allows a user to group the functions, classes, and constants under a specific name.

75) What is Laravel Forge?

Laravel Forge helps in organizing and designing a web application. Although the manufacturers of the Laravel framework developed this toll, it can automate the deployment of every web application that works on a PHP server.

76) State the difference between CodeIgniter and Laravel.

Parameter CodeIgniter Laravel

Support of ORM CodeIgniter does not support Object-relational mapping. Laravel supports ORM.

Provide Authentication It does provide user authentication. It has inbuilt user authentication.

Programming Paradigm It is component-oriented. It is object-oriented.

Support of other Database Management System It supports Microsoft SQL Server, ORACLE, MYSQL, IBM DB2, PostgreSQL, JDBC, and orientDB compatible. It supports PostgreSQL, MySQL, MongoDB, and Microsoft BI, but CodeIgniter additionally supports other databases like Microsoft SQL Server, DB2, Oracle, etc.

HTTPS Support CodeIgniter partially support HTTPS. Therefore, programmers can use the URL to secure the data transmission process by creating PATS. Laravel supports custom HTTPS routes. The programmers can create a specific URL for HTTPS route they have defined.

77) What is an Observer?

Model Observers is a feature of Laravel. It is used to make clusters of event listeners for a model. Method names of these classes depict the Eloquent event. Observers classes methods receive the model as an argument.

78) What is the use of the bootstrap directory?

It is used to initialize a Laravel project. This bootstrap directory contains chúng tôi file that is responsible for bootstrapping the framework.

79) What is the default session timeout duration?

The default Laravel session timeout duration is 2 hours.

80) How to remove a complied class file?

Use clear-compiled command to remove the compiled class file.

81) In which folder chúng tôi is placed?

Robot.txt file is placed in Public directory.

82) Explain chúng tôi route.

Its routes correspond to an API cluster. It has API middleware which is enabled by default in Laravel. These routes do not have any state and cross-request memory or have no sessions.

83) What is named route?

Name route is a method generating routing path. The chaining of these routes can be selected by applying the name method onto the description of route.

84) what is open source software?

Open-source software is a software which source code is freely available. The source code can be shared and modified according to the user requirement.

85) Explain Loggin in Laravel.

It is a technique in which system log generated errors. Loggin is helpful to increase the reliability of the system. Laravel supports various logging modes like syslog, daily, single, and error log modes.

86) What is Localization?

It is a feature of Laravel that supports various language to be used in the application. A developer can store strings of different languages in a file, and these files are stored at resources/views folder. Developers should create a separate folder for each supported language.

87) Define hashing in Laravel.

It is the method of converting text into a key that shows the original text. Laravel uses the Hash facade to store the password securely in a hashed manner.

88) Explain the concept of encryption and decryption in Laravel.

It is a process of transforming any message using some algorithms in such way that the third user cannot read information. Encryption is quite helpful to protect your sensitive information from an intruder.

Encryption is performed using a Cryptography process. The message which is to be encrypted called as a plain message. The message obtained after the encryption is referred to as cipher message. When you convert cipher text to plain text or message, this process is called as decryption.

89) How to share data with views?

To pass data to all views in Laravel use method called share(). This method takes two arguments, key, and value.

Generally, share() method are called from boot method of Laravel application service provider. A developer can use any service provider, AppServiceProvider, or our own service provider.

90) Explain chúng tôi route.

Web.php is the public-facing “browser” based route. This route is the most common and is what gets hit by the web browser. They run through the web middleware group and also contain facilities for CSRF protection (which helps defend against form-based malicious attacks and hacks) and generally contain a degree of “state” (by this I mean they utilize sessions).

91) How to generate a request in Laravel?

Use the following artisan command in Laravel to generate request:

php artisan make:request UploadFileRequest

These interview questions will also help in your viva(orals)

Top 10 Appium Interview Questions And Answers In 2023

Appium Interview Questions And Answers

Appium interview questions help test one’s knowledge in the domain before appearing for an actual interview. It involves questions of varying difficulties on Appium, an open-source testing automation framework used for hybrid, native, and mobile web applications.

It is important to note that Appium is one of the most desired skills among mobile test automation engineers and QA engineers. As such, the average base salary of a mobile test automation engineer knowing Appium, is around $98,141 per year.

Appium supports iOS, Android, and Windows with the help of the WebDriver protocol. Appium can automate any mobile application in any language which uses any test framework. The APIs and databases can also integrate with this tool.

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Table of Contents

Introduction

Appium Interview Questions (Basic)

Appium Interview Questions (Advanced)

Final Thoughts

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Recommended Articles

Key Highlights

Appium interview questions are essential for preparing for mobile app testing job interviews.

These questions cover various topics related to Appium, such as its architecture, working principles, and various components.

Knowing the answers to common Appium interview questions can help one showcase their expertise and experience in mobile app testing, which can increase chances of landing a job in this field.

Appium interview questions can also help identify gaps in your knowledge and skills related to mobile app testing, which the candidate can work on to improve one’s proficiency.

Appium interview questions can cover different types of testing scenarios, such as functional testing, performance testing, and UI testing.

Part 1 – Appium Interview Questions (Basic) Q1. What is Appium, and what is it used for?

Answer:

Appium is an open-source automation testing framework that allows the testing of mobile applications.

It also supports different third-party tools and other applications to integrate and perform various operations.

It is an open-source tool and is available for free, and is hosted on the Github repository.

Test suites or cases can be written and run using any language or framework irrespective of the OS or platform support, providing greater interoperability.

Q2. What are the different types of apps?

Answer:

Different types of apps include

Native apps: Native apps are the ones that can be built using either iOS or Android SDK or development kits.

Hybrid apps: Hybrid Apps are a kind of common APIs that can be used to establish any interaction or communication with the web elements in a generic form.

Mobile apps: Mobile apps are the ones that are installed on mobile or portable devices, and those can be accessed using mobile browsers.

Answer:

It is used for cross-platform mobile applications and testing.

It is open-source and free to use.

Any programming language is compatible with it.

It mainly supports Selenium WebDriver.

It does not have a dependency on mobile devices.

Both testing on emulators and actual mobile devices are supported.

It has ample developer community support.

Q4. What are the limitations of using Appium?

Answer:

Working with the mobile testing application requires a minimum Android version of 4.2 or above.

It has limitations in supporting the testing of hybrid apps.

The functionality of adding an inspector feature is not available in the Windows operating system.

It is not easier to perform testing on larger applications in the early stages. One has to implement slowly in the later stages by gradually writing test cases for the smaller modules.

Q5. What is the architecture of Appium? What are its design features and functionalities?

Answer:

The architecture of the Appium includes different components such as HTTP Server, Node platform, etc.

The HTTP server for the Appium will be on top of the chúng tôi platform.

Node.js handles the iOS and Android sessions using the Web Driver wire protocol (JSON).

Different client libraries are written using programming languages such as JavaScript, PHP, Python, Ruby, C#, etc.

The Appium servers establish the connections using the REST APIs from the clients. The automation testing will be carried out in a session.

The responses will be in the form of HTTP formats.

Part 2 – Appium Interview Questions (Advanced) Q6. What are the methods for carrying out tests on Appium?

Answer:

Appium allows for mobile app testing across various platforms using different programming languages. Methods for carrying out tests in Appium include-

Record and playback: Record a test script by performing actions on the mobile app and then play it back to ensure it functions correctly.

Writing test scripts: Write test scripts using programming languages like Java, Python, Ruby, or JavaScript.

Integration with testing frameworks: Integrate Appium with popular testing frameworks like TestNG, JUnit, or NUnit.

Use of Appium GUI: Use the Appium GUI to inspect elements of the mobile app, set up desired capabilities, and run test scripts.

Execution on a cloud-based platform: Use cloud-based platforms like Sauce Labs, BrowserStack, or AWS Device Farm to execute Appium tests on various mobile devices and operating systems.

Parallel execution: Use Appium to run multiple tests in parallel, which can save time and increase efficiency.

Q7. What are the different testing frameworks supported by Appium?

Answer:

TestNG: TestNG is a popular testing framework for Java that allows for powerful testing features such as grouping, prioritizing, and parallel execution.

JUnit: JUnit is another popular testing framework for Java that allows for creating simple and readable tests.

NUnit: NUnit is a testing framework for .NET languages such as C# and chúng tôi that provides a range of testing features, such as parameterized tests, test fixtures, and test suites.

XCTest: XCTest is a testing framework for iOS and macOS apps that provides powerful testing features such as asynchronous testing, UI testing, and performance testing.

Robot Framework: Robot Framework is a testing framework for Python that supports a range of testing libraries and allows for the creation of high-level test cases.

Mocha: Mocha is a testing framework for chúng tôi that provides a range of testing features, such as asynchronous testing and test timeouts.

Jasmine: Jasmine is a testing framework for JavaScript that provides a range of testing features, such as behavior-driven development and asynchronous testing.

Q8. What are the requirements for writing Appium test cases?

Answer:

Mobile device and Appium server: A mobile device or emulator to run the mobile app and an Appium server installed on the system.

Appium client library: The Appium client library allows to write test cases.

Desired Capabilities: Define desired capabilities, such as the platform name, device name, and app package name, to run the test on a specific mobile device.

Element locators: Identify unique element locators like IDs or XPaths to interact with mobile app elements.

Test scenarios: Define test scenarios that cover different features and functions of the mobile app and ensure they are executable.

Test data: Prepare test data, such as usernames and passwords, to simulate real-world usage of the mobile app.

Assertions: Define assertions to verify that the mobile app is functioning correctly and meeting the requirements.

Q9. What is the Appium Inspector?

Answer:

The Appium inspector is similar to the Selenium Web Driver plugin, which gives recording and playback support features.

It supports the inspection of native or hybrid apps by inspecting the DOM and its performance concerning the application.

Q10. What are the different prerequisites for setting up Appium?

Answer:

To set up the Appium test environment, one requires-

Android SDK or XCode for iOS.

Java Development Kit.

Eclipse.

Test NG Framework.

Selenium Web Driver.

Selenium Server Jars or Libraries.

Final Thoughts

Appium is a popular open-source tool used for mobile app automation testing. As more and more organizations adopt mobile app development, the demand for skilled Appium developers is on the rise. As a result, preparing for an Appium interview is essential to familiarize oneself with the tool and its features. With proper preparation and practice, one can ace their Appium interview and secure a rewarding mobile app automation testing career.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is the most difficult scenario to test with Appium?

2. What tests are suitable for Appium?

Answer: Appium is suitable for different types of tests, such as functional testing, regression testing, performance testing, and UI testing.

3. Which language Appium does not support?

Answer: Appium supports many programming languages, such as Java, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, and C#. Currently, Appium does not support Perl.

4. What is Appium’s most considerable limitation?

Answer: Appium’s most considerable limitation is that it cannot test apps that use native libraries or system apps. It can only test apps with a WebView or accessed through the Android or iOS accessibility frameworks.

Recommended Articles

This article is an EDUCBA guide to Appium interview questions. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information:

Top 9 Bitbucket Interview Questions And Answers {Update For 2023}

Introduction to Bitbucket Interview Questions

Bitbucket plays a very important role in the software development process to make development easy. From your career point of view, it is very important to under what Bitbucket is and what type of questions they can ask during the interview. Bitbucket is a git-based tool that provides developers different services, such as hosting source code. It also allows the developer to create a new repository, etc. During the interview, they can ask questions based on the Bit Bucket tool, such as what is pull request, what is merging and creating a repo, etc.

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Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Part 1 – Server interview questions and answers (Basic)

This first part covers basic Interview Questions and Answers.

1. What is the pipeline in Bitbucket?

Answer:

Bitbucket Pipelines is another CI/CD mechanical assembly, particularly like CircleCI or Travis CI. It’s a construction where you can plan and execute express systems on your vaults each time you push code to the start. We can run tests, manufactures, and SSH into our creation servers, moving code or restarting processes in the interim, wired up with illuminating catches to stay informed. At the same time, Pipelines achieves everything essential for you.

CI/CD contraptions are fundamental for an item gathering’s progression cycle. Whether or not you’re using it to robotize tests, a conveyance cycle, or associations to customers, everything gatherings can benefit by joining CI/CD into their work interaction. Bitbucket Pipelines is CI/CD for Bitbucket Cloud that is consolidated in the UI and sits nearby your storage facilities, simplifying it for gatherings to get a design, testing, and send their code. Bunches new to CI/CD the entire way through to those with present-day movement and planned pipelines.

Q2. What is server in Bitbucket?

Answer:

The Bitbucket server is also called a stash; basically, the Bitbucket server combines the git server and interface of the web that was created with the help of maven. By using this combination, we can perform the git operation as well as we are also able to review the code as per our requirement.

q3. What is the repository, and how can we create it in Bitbucket?

Answer:

First, we need to create a repository in Bitbucket that will be empty with no code. That is OK since we will start adding a few records soon. After making a store, you’ll copy a version to your close-by structure; that way, you can invigorate it from one repo, then move those movements to the following.

For making a Bitbucket vault, we want to follow similar strides as follows.

In Bitbucket, we want to tap on the + image and select the Repository tab.

Inside the Repository tab, we have made another storehouse.

Select that choice and fill in required data, for example, the name of the archive, level of access, and project name, and we additionally have the high-level setting choice that contains the portrayal of the vault.

Q4. What is the Bitbucket DevOps tool?

Answer:

We know that Bitbucket is a part of Atlassian. That provides different services such as development, operation, and business teams with third-party tools.

Q5. What is an ssh key, and how can we generate it in Bitbucket?

Ordinarily, an SSH key is utilized to set up a secure connection between the Bitbucket and the server. During the action of the SSH key, we want to make a couple of keys: the private key and the public key. That private key is dealt with on the nearby machine, and the public key is continued on the Bitbucket. The later strategy of the SSH key Bitbucket affirms the essential pair and, as per that, gives the passage.

The SSH key generation depends on the operating system; here, we discussed windows as follows.

While creating an SSH Key, we need to check the existing key on our local machine. If an SSH key is available, we can directly utilize it; otherwise, we need to create it using the following command.

cd *specified user profile*.ssh

dir id_*

ssh-keygen –t specified key – c “specified email id”

Part 2 – Bitbucket Interview questions and answers (Advanced) Q6. What is the distributed system in Bitbucket?

Bitbucket supports the distributed system, making the easy development process easy in a collaborative manner.

Q7. What are the features of Bitbucket?

Answer:

Bitbucket provides the following features as follows.

Hosting of a git repository.

Bitbucket provides smart Mirroring.

It provides a built-in delivery process.

One of the important features is clustering.

We can easily track the issues in Bitbucket.

Bitbucket allows us to integrate the Jira.

In bitbucket, we add some third-party tools as per our requirement.

Q8. How can we manage code in Bitbucket?

Answer:

We know Bitbucket provides the central repository to the developer to handle their code, and they easily host code.

Q9. What is the basic difference between Bitbucket and GIT?

Answer:

GIT operates on the local machine instead of the cloud, and on the other hand, Bitbucket is a cloud-based GIT repository service that combines team members. It also provides a web-based interface. Finally, Bitbucket is an open-source tool in which we can maintain code on a centralized repository so anyone can easily access the code whenever required.

Conclusion

We hope from this article you learn more about the bitbucket interview question.  From the above article, we have taken in the essential idea of the different bitbucket questions and see the representation. From this article, we learned different questions about bitbucket.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to the Bitbucket Interview Questions and Answers list so that the candidate can easily crack down on these interview questions. Here in this post, we have studied the top Bitbucket interview Questions, which are often asked in interviews. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

Top 7 Java Developer Interview Questions And Answers Updated For 2023

Introduction to Java Developer Interview Questions And Answer

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

So if you have finally found your dream job as a Java Developer but are wondering how to crack the 2023 Java Developer Interview and what could be the probable Java Developer Interview Questions, every interview is different, and the scope of a job is different too. Keeping this in mind, we have designed the most common Java Developer Interview Questions and answers to help you get success in your interview.

Below are the 10 important 2023 Java Developer Interview Questions and Answers that are frequently asked in an interview. These questions are divided into parts are as follows:

Part 1 –Java Developer Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Interview Questions and Answers

1. What is the difference between JVM, JDK, and JRE?

JDK is the superset here, which engulfs and contains JRE and is really a framework where compilation and documentation of Java programs are performed into packages.

2. Explain the ‘Platform independence ‘properties of java.

The very essence of the platform independence of Java lies in the way the code is stored, parsed and compiled – bytecode. Since these bytecodes run on any system irrespective of the underlying operating system, Java truly is a platform-independent programming language.

3. Differentiate between heap and stack memory in Java on the grounds of the use of the memory, the basic features, and the validity.

DIFFERENTIATING PARAMETER STACK MEMORY HEAP

Memory uses

Lifetime and validity of the use Stack memory, which is dedicated to a particular thread, is only actively useable until the time that the thread lasts. The heap can be used globally, and hence its useable active lifetime is the entire time during the program execution.

Overall use Whenever an object is created for a particular thread, the local primitive and reference variables are associated with the object. These very variables are stored in the stack memory.

4. Explain the meaning and the use of the static keyword in java.

These are the basic Java Developer Interview Questions asked in an interview. Static is a commonly used keyword, which is associated with variables, methods, and nested classes in java. The real use of the keyword is for memory management of these constructs, as detailed next.

1. Static variables in java: When a variable is created as static in Java, it gets memory allocated to it only once, and that too when the class in which it is declared gets loaded. This is why these variables are used to declare properties of other variables shared amongst them and do not change.

2. Static methods in java: Methods in java can also be declared as static, and as such, these are then connected to the entire class without being limited to any single object of the class. Invocation of such a method declared as static does not require the instance of the class, and these methods can work on the static data of the class and can even make updates to the value of static constants and variables.

Part 2 –Java Developer Interview Questions (Advanced) 5. Explain the use of the ‘this’ keyword in java

The ‘this’ keyword is widely observed in all java codes and scripts, and it, in fact, is a reference variable that programmers use to refer to the current object in use. The method of the current class can be suitable invoked using the ‘this’ keyword. The java compiler implicitly adds the keyword to the method if you do not specify the same.

6. Explain what pointers are and elaborate if they can be used in java?

Pointers are, however, not supported or available within Java, as they can get quite complex with the segregation of the stack and the heap memory in java.

Let us move to the next Java Developer Interview Questions.

7. Explain the concept of object cloning and how is this used in java?

The clone() methods of the object class implement object cloning and require the implementation of the java.lang.A cloneable interface of the object class whose clone you are trying to create. Devoid of this, a CloneNotSupportedException is generated by the clone() method of the class.

Recommended Article

This has been a guide to a List Of Java Developer Interview Questions and answers so that the candidate can crackdown these Java Developer Interview Questions easily. You may also look at the following articles to learn more.

Top 23 Jmeter Interview Questions & Answers (2023 Update)

Here are JMeter interview questions and answers for fresher as well experienced candidates to get their dream job.

1) Explain what is JMeter?

JMeter is a Java tool, which is used for performance Load Testing.

2) Explain how JMeter works?

JMeter acts like a group of users sending requests to a target server. It collects response from the target server and other statistics which show the performance of the application or server via graphs or tables.

👉 Free PDF Download: JMeter Interview Questions & Answers

3) Explain where you can use functions and variables?

Variables and functions can be written into any field of any test component

4) Mention what are regular expressions in JMeter?

Based on the pattern, a regular expression is used to search and manipulate text. JMeter is useful in interpreting forms of regular expression or patterns being used throughout a JMeter test plan.

5) Explain what is Samplers and Thread groups?

Thread group: For any test plan, JMeter is the beginning part of thread group elements. It is an important element of JMeter, where you can set a number of users and time to load all the users given in the thread group

Samplers: Sampler generates one or more sample results; these sample results have many attributes like elapsed time, data size, etc. Samplers allow JMeter to send specific types of requests to the server, through samplers, thread group decides which type of request it needs to make. Some of the useful samplers are HTTP request, FTP request, JDBC request and so on.

6) Whether the test plans built using JMeter are OS dependent?

Usually, Test Plan are saved in their XML format, so there is nothing to do with any particular O.S. It can be run on any OS where JMeter can run.

7) Mention what are the types of a processor in JMeter?

The types of a processor in JMeter are

Pre-processor

Post processor

8) Explain what are Pre-processor Elements? List some of the pre-processor elements?

A pre-processor is something that will happen before the sampler executes. To configure the sample request prior to its execution or to update variables that are not extracted from response text pre-processor elements are used.

Some of the pre-processor elements are

HTTP URL re-writing modifier

HTTP user parameter modifier

HTML link parser

BeanShell PreProcessor

9) Mention the execution order of Test Elements?

The test plans elements execution order is

Configuration elements

Pre-processors

Timers

Samplers

Post-processors

Assertions

Listeners

10) What does “contain” and “matches” indicates in the regular expression?

11) Explain what is the configuration elements?

A configuration element works parallel with a Sampler. To set up defaults and variables for later use by samplers configuration elements can be used. At the start of the scope, these elements are processed before any samplers in the same scope.

12) Explain what is a timer in JMeter and what are the types of it?

A JMeter thread by default will send requests continuously without any pause. To get a pause between the request, Timers are used. Some of the Timers used are Constant Timer, Gaussian Random Timer, Synchronizing Timer, Uniform Random Timer and so on.

13) Explain what is Test Fragment?

Test fragment is also a type of element like Thread Group element. The only difference is test fragment is not implemented unless it is referenced by either a Module controller or an Include controller.

14) Explain what is Assertion in JMeter? What are the types of assertion?

Assertion helps to verify that your server under test returns the expected results

Some commonly used Assertion in JMeter are

Response Assertion

Duration Assertion

Size Assertion

XML Assertion

HTML Assertion

15) Explain how you can reduce the resource requirement in JMeter?

To reduce the resource requirements in JMeter

Use non-GUI mode: jmeter –n –t chúng tôi –l test.jtl

During the load, a test doesn’t use “view results tree” or “view results in table” listeners, use them only during the scripting phase

Don’t use functional mode

Instead of using lots of similar samplers, use the same sampler in a loop and use the variable to vary the sample

16) Explain how you can perform spike testing in JMeter? 17) Explain how you can capture the script of the authentication window in JMeter?

Normally, you can capture script by recording.

First, you have to Threadgroup in Testplan and then make HTTPProxyServer in Workbench

18) List out few JMeter Listeners?

Some of the JMeter Listeners are

Spline Visualizer

Aggregate Report

View Result Tree

View Result in Table

Monitor Results

Distribution Graph

BeanShell Listener

Summary Report and so on

19) What is distributed load testing? How can it be achieved?

Distributed load testing is the process through which numerous systems can be used for simulating a load of a large number of users. By using the master-slave configuration, JMeter can do distribute load testing.

20) In JMeter is it necessary to call embedded resources explicitly?

You can eliminate all embedded resources from being explicitly called. Requests have a checkbox at the bottom that says “retrieve embedded resources.” It would grab all CSS, JPG, etc. It is a brilliant way to find resources and broken link in a web App.

21) Explain what is the role of Timer in JMeter?

With the help of a timer, JMeter can delay the time between each request, which a thread makes. It can solve the overload problem of the server.

22) Explain what is Post-processor?

To perform any action after making a request, Post-processor is used. For example, if JMeter sends an HTTP request to the web server, and if you want JMeter to stop sending the request if the web server shows an error, then you will use post-processor to perform this action.

23) What are the benefits that JMeter offers for performance testing?

JMeter offers benefits on Performance Testing like

It can be used to test performance for both, static resources as well as dynamic resources

It can handle a maximum number of concurrent users then your website can handle

It provides the graphical analyses of performance reports

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