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What’s the difference between WannaCry and Petya ransomware?

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If you’ve been off the grid for some time and somehow managed to skip on all the fuzz about WannaCry and Petya ransomware, we prepared a brief explanation about the subject and enlisted the main differences between Petya (sometimes called GoldenEye) and already restrained WannaCry malicious software.

In the era where computers are governing so many economic, industrial, and social aspects, it’s not strange to expect a cyber criminal to emerge as a worthy and horrifying successor to hijacking and bank robberies that created a havoc in the past times. Data equals money and money equals money, simply put. One of those neo-crimes that’s quite present nowadays is ransomware.

Ransomware is one out of many cyber crimes. It strikes critical and sensitive victim’s data and demands a ransom, and as a leverage holds the decryption key. If you don’t agree to the terms of a cyber-thief, your data is either deleted permanently or published, depending on how secretive or personal is information that’s contained in the hijacked files.

What’s the main difference between WannaCry and Petya ransomware?

Now, as same as with its predecessors, in the ransomware ‘business’ also, we have small tricksters, wannabe hackers, and big, well-equipped and knowledgeable experts. The first group takes on an individual (or group of individuals, if you like) and the other group uses a high-end malicious software as their targets are companies and high-profile victims. We’re talking about millions of dollars in that game of cat and mouse. These folks are not joking, this is a real deal.

On short notice, about two months ago, a global ransomware event, later known as the WannaCry crisis, emerged. It struck down more than a few companies in various countries around the world, including the National Healthcare Service in England and telecom giant from Spain. With Healthcare it wasn’t just about money, the human lives were involved which makes it even more preposterous.

Hackers used leaked Windows vulnerability called EternalBlue, which, allegedly, was used by NSA for some ghost doings in the Middle East. So, basically, they used a batch file, MS Office update, or third-party program’s update to corrupt Windows-powered computers and encrypt the HDD data with the decryption key as they leverage. They asked for 300$ worth of bitcoins in order to retrieve the sensitive data on each individual’s PC.

Expert tip:

Luckily, there was also a flaw within the WannaCry’s code and it got struck down after Microsoft provided updates a week later. Moreover, the malicious program was programmed to cover a large area and instead of targeting only chosen targets, it flooded the internet. That made it hard for them to track payments. Petya or GoldenEye is similar but seemingly better organized and orchestrated. It has fewer flaws and its perpetrators goal is more a well-aimed shot than a barely controlled burst.

To date, Petya struck only around 2,500 targets and WannaCry struck, in much shorter span, hundreds of thousands before it was put down. Another difference is related to paying validation. Nasty folks behind WannaCry attacks weren’t competent enough to develop a reliable way to confirm payments of their victims. That way they missed on a lot of opportunities to profit. Petya uses a small email provider called Posteo for validation. Once they get the email with the proof of payment, they send the decryption key and that concludes the procedure.

The main difference, however, is in the software itself. It attacks in many different ways so, experts in the matter think it’s much harder to stop it. Updates and security patches won’t help, allegedly. At least not on their own. Petya inflicted malware starts with the system, it comes in different versions and there’s no simple solution that should address it, yet.

Moreover, many companies are deluded into thinking that patches or additional security measures aren’t essential, so the chance is, Petya will be even growing as the time passes until it reaches the worldwide menace levels. This is just the beginning of a massive global ransomware crisis and a test of alertness for major players. It’s a prime example that security measures are a must and that we can expect a lot of other cyber-criminals following this route.

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Go Vs. Python: What’s The Difference?

What is Golang?

Go is an open-source programming language developed by Google. It is a statically-typed compiled language. This language support concurrent programming and also allows running multiple processes simultaneously. This is achieved using channels, goroutines, etc. Go has garbage collection, which itself does the memory management and allows the deferred execution of functions.

What is Python?

Python is a high-level object-oriented programming language. It has built-in data structures, combined with dynamic binding and typing, which makes it an ideal choice for rapid application development. Python also offers support for modules and packages, which allows system modularity and code reuse.

It is one of the fastest programming language as it requires very few lines of code. Its emphasis is on readability and simplicity, which make it a great choice for beginners.

Stack overflow Trends GO vs. Python

KEY DIFFERENCES:

Go is a Procedural, functional and concurrent language while Python is an object-oriented, imperative, functional, and procedural language.

Go supports concurrency, on the other hand Python, doesn’t have any in-built concurrency mechanism.

Go is ideal for system programming while Python is a popular language that is used for solving data science problems.

Go does not provide exceptions whereas Python supports exceptions.

Go does not support inheritance while Python supports inheritance.

Why use GO Language?

Here, are important reasons for using Go language:

It allows you to use static linking to combine all dependency libraries and modules into one single binary file based on the type of the OS and architecture.

Go language performed more efficiently because of CPU scalability and concurrency model.

Go language offers support for multiple libraries and tools, so it does not require any 3rd party library.

It’s statically, strongly typed programming language with a great way to handle errors

Why use Python Language?

Here, are reasons for using Python language:

Python is a powerful object-oriented programming language.

Uses an elegant syntax, making the program you write easier to read.

Python comes with a large standard library, so it supports many common programming tasks.

Runs on various types of computers and operating systems: Windows, macOS, Unix, OS/2, etc.

Very simple syntax compared to Java, C, and C++ languages.

Extensive library and handy tools for developers

Python has its auto-installed shell

Compared with the code of other languages, python code is easy to write and debug. Therefore, its source code is relatively easy to maintain.

Python is a portable language so that it can run on a wide variety of operating systems and platforms.

Python comes with many prebuilt libraries, which makes your development task easy.

Python helps you to make complex programming simpler. As it internally deals with memory addresses, garbage collection.

Python provides an interactive shell that helps you to test the things before its actual implementation.

Python offers database interfaces to all major commercial DBMS systems.

Google Trends GO vs. Python

Features of Go

Here, are important features of Go language

Open-source project

Created at Google

Compiled language

Easy concurrency support via goroutines

Package management

Static typing

Features powerful standard library

Garbage collection called goLand

Concurrency support

Great libraries

Easy and readable code

Features of Python

Here, are important features of Python

Easy to learn, read, and maintain

It can run on various hardware platforms & using the same interface.

You can include low-level modules to the Python interpreter.

Python offers an ideal structure and support for large programs.

Python offers support for automatic garbage collection.

It supports an interactive mode of testing and debugging.

It offers high-level dynamic data types and also supports dynamic type checking.

Python language can be integrated with Java, C, and C++ programming code

High-performance

Simple, minimal syntax

Fast compilation times

Statically linked binaries which are simple to deploy

Golang Vs. Python

Here are the major differences between Go and Python:

Go Python

Go paradigms are Procedural, functional and concurrent language. Python paradigms are object-oriented, imperative, functional, and procedural language.

Statically typed language Dynamically typed language

More focused on being a system language. More focused on writing web applications.

Go also deals with memory management. Python offers memory management.

Go syntax is based on the opening and closing braces. Python syntax uses indentation to indicate code blocks.

Go web programming offers a smooth debugging process. Python is dynamically-typed, meaning that it checks for bugs at run-time.

Offers limited support for Object Orientation and functional concepts Object-Oriented programming, which supports functional concepts

Go does not provide exceptions. Python supports exceptions.

Go does not support object-oriented programming. Therefore it doesn’t have classes and objects. Python has classes and objects.

Go does not support inheritance. Python supports inheritance.

Go is ideal for system programming. Python is a popular language which is used for solving data science problems

It has more verbose compared to Python. It is less verbose compared to Go language.

It supports concurrency. It doesn’t have any in-built concurrency mechanism.

Go language is more focused on being a system language. Python language is more focused on writing web applications.

Go needs more code to perform the same number of actions. Python needs fewer code compares to Go.

28.5 K Github stars 67.5 K Github stars.

Go developer ranges from approximately $64,089 per year The average salary for a Python Developer is $120,359 per year in the United States.

Here, are cons/drawbacks of using GO language:

Go is not a generic language

API integration with Go does not have an officially supported Go SDK.

Poor Library Support

Fractured Dependency Management

Here, are cons/drawbacks of using Python language:

Used in fewer platforms.

Weak in mobile computing, hence not used in app development

As Python is dynamic, so it shows more errors at run-time

Under-developed and primitive database access layer

Absence of commercial support

Difference Between Kms And Mak

KMS and MAK are two different activation methods for Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office. KMS (Key Management Service) is a server-based activation technique that requires the setup and activation of a KMS host server. MAK (Multiple Activation Key) is a client- based activation technique that uses a unique activation key to activate individual devices.

Read this article to find out more about KMS and MAK and how they are different from each other.

What is KMS?

KMS is an abbreviation for Key Management Service, a Microsoft technology used to allow Microsoft products such as Windows and Office. KMS allows organizations to activate numerous devices on the same network without having to activate each device individually. Before KMS can be used for activation, a KMS host server must be set up and enabled.

The KMS host server is a computer that operates a KMS service and comes with a unique KMS host key. The KMS host key is used to activate the KMS host server, allowing the KMS service to accept activation queries from client devices on the same network. The KMS service then verifies the activation requests and activates the client devices if the minimal activation threshold is met.

The minimum activation threshold is the number of client devices that must be activated in order for KMS to operate properly. The minimum activation threshold for Windows products is 25 client devices, while the minimum activation criteria for Office products is five client devices. When the minimum activation threshold is reached, KMS will automatically activate any new client devices on the same network without requiring any further activation requests.

KMS activation is also restricted in time and must be renewed every 180 days. The reactivation procedure is completely automated and requires no user intervention. KMS activation is appropriate for organisations that need to activate multiple devices because it simplifies the activation process and reduces the workload needed for individual device activation.

What is MAK?

MAK is an abbreviation for Multiple Activation Key, a Microsoft technology used to activate Microsoft programmes such as Windows and Office. MAK is a client-based activation method, as opposed to KMS, which is a server-based activation method. Each client device is individually activated with a unique activation key supplied by Microsoft.

MAK activation can be done through either online or phone registration. An internet connection is required for online activation, which can be done immediately by entering the MAK key into the activation wizard. Calling the Microsoft activation centre and giving the organization’s product key and installation ID is required for phone activation.

MAK activation is right for organizations with a smaller number of devices to activate. It also gives you more control over the activation process because each device can be activated individually. However, because each device must be activated individually and there is a limited number of activations available, the activation process can be time-consuming.

Difference between KMS and MAK

The following table highlights the major differences between KMS and MAK −

Characteristics

KMS

MAK

Stands for

Key Management Service (KMS)

Multiple Activation Key (MAK)

Definition

It is a Microsoft technology used to allow Microsoft products such as Windows and Office.

It is a Microsoft technology used to activate Microsoft programmes such as Windows and Office.

Activation Type

Server-based

Client-based

Frequency of Activation

The activation frequency of KMS is 180 days.

The activation frequency of MAK is not time-limited.

Network Requirements

It requires network infrastructure.

It doesn’t require network infrastructure.

Activation process

Automatic and transparent

Online or phone activation process

Advantages

KMS simplifies the activation process and reduces workload.

MAK provides a simpler activation process than individual device activations.

Suitable for

It is suitable for larger organizations with multiple devices.

It is suitable for smaller organizations with fewer devices.

Conclusion

In conclusion, KMS and MAK are two different activation techniques for Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office products. KMS is a server-based activation process that can activate numerous devices on the same network, whereas MAK is a client-based activation process that can activate individual devices using a unique activation key.

Difference Between Differin And Retin

Differin and Retin-A are two of the most commonly used topical acne medications. Both are retinoids, which are derivatives of vitamin A and work by promoting cell turnover and unclogging pores. While both medications have similar effects, there are some key differences between Differin and Retin-A that make them appropriate for different types of acne and skin types.

What is Differin?

Acne and other skin disorders can be treated with Differin, a topical ointment containing the chemical adapalene.

Structure − Adapalene, which has the chemical formula C28H28O3 and the molecular mass 412.52 grammes per mol, is the active component in Differin.

Mechanism of action − The active ingredient in Differin is adapalene. Indeed, this molecule binds to specific retinoic acid receptors on the nucleus membrane inside the cell. Apart from influencing inflammation and keratin deposition in the skin, this chemical also regulates the development of cells. It is yet unknown how exactly these mechanisms aid in acne treatment.

Uses − Acne vulgaris, a skin disorder often affecting those over the age of 12, is the primary target of the gel’s treatment. Using the gel all over the areas of the body affected by acne should be done once daily, before bed.

What is Retin-A?

Retin-A is a branded version of tretinoin with a very particular concentration that dermatologists use to treat acne. The effective concentration for treating acne was discovered by Dr. Albert Kligman and his colleagues via experimentation. In 1971, Johnson & Johnson, which had been granted a licence to commercialise the finding, began selling a product called Retin-A. Dr. Kligman found that the same concentration made the skin of his patients smoother and wrinkles vanish.

Although Retin-A is still predominantly used and sold today as an acne treatment, it has since been utilised as an anti-aging medicine. In addition, Retin-A is now available in a wide range of strengths to accommodate different sensitivities. Hyperpigmentation, or skin darkening, keratosis pilaris, psoriasis, and wrinkles are some of the other conditions that Retin-A is commonly used to treat in addition to acne.

Retin-key A’s component, tretinoin, has been shown to be highly effective at accelerating the skin’s natural cell renewal process. Retin-A Micro, a gentler and slower acting version of tretinoin, and Renova, an anti-aging treatment marketed primarily for wrinkles, are two more skincare brand names that contain tretinoin as their active component.

In addition to tretinoin, the antibiotic clindamycin is occasionally recommended for acne treatment, and this is what Ziana, another brand, consists of. Side effects from tretinoin are shared by all of these topical treatments. Most people who use this condition report symptoms of skin irritation, including dryness, a stinging or burning sensation, redness, scaling, flaking, or peeling skin.

Differences: Differin and Retin-A

The following table highlights the major differences between Differin and Retin-A −

Characteristics

Differin

Retin-A

Definition

Differin is a topical ointment that has adapalene and is used to treat acne.

Retin-A is a liquid or topical ointment that has tretinoin and is used to treat acne.

Form it is available in

You can buy Differin in gel form.

You can buy Retin-A in cream, gel or liquid form.

Molecular formula of active ingredient

The active ingredient of Differin has the molecular formula of C28H28O3.

The active ingredient of Retin-A has the molecular formula of C20H28O2.

Mechanism of action

Adapalene in Differin not only controls cell development, but also has an impact on keratin formation and inflammation.

Tretinoin in Retin-A stops the cells from sticking together and increases the mitotic cell division of the cells of the skin.

Side effects

Developing an itchy, dry skin, rash, and sunburn are all possible side effects of taking Differin.

Developing an irritated, blistered, red skin, or sunburn are all side effects of taking Retin-A.

Conclusion

Differin and Retin-A are both effective retinoid treatments for acne, but they are not interchangeable. The choice between the two will depend on the severity of your acne, your skin type, and your personal preferences. Before starting any new acne treatment, it is always important to consult with a dermatologist to determine the best course of action for you.

Difference Between Nafta And Usmca

The economic justification for free trade has remained the same, even though trade agreements in the United States were mostly negotiated by a small, easily managed group of politicians and business executives. When two parties engage in free commerce, everyone wins. Even though FTAs from the good old days seldom made headlines and were negotiated out of the public view, they were nonetheless sought because of their positive effects on society.

Since the 1980s when trade agreements failed to address major issues and exacerbated divisions over issues like labor rights, human rights, public health, and most importantly, environmental protection. The worldwide economic collapse precipitated this shift. Since it was signed, the North American Free Trade Pact (NAFTA) has been the subject of more study and debate than any other trade agreement in the history of the globe. From its inception until its eventual replacement by the USMCA, NAFTA was never without its detractors.

What is NAFTA?

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was negotiated and signed by the governments of the United States of America, Mexico, and Canada in December 1992. When January 1994 rolled around, the agreement took effect. In a historic move, George H.W. Bush, Carlos Salinas, and Brian Mulroney, the leaders of Mexico and Canada, signed an accord creating a trilateral trading bloc in North America. The treaty’s stated purpose was to eliminate tariffs and other trade obstacles between signatory states as time went on. Former President Bill Clinton signed into law the North American Free Trade Deal (NAFTA), the first free trade agreement between a developing nation and industrial countries.

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was essentially a revised and enlarged version of the original Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States (CUSFTA). NAFTA completed the unfinished work of the FTA by establishing regulations to safeguard intellectual property rights, avoid investment distortions, establish a Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), regulate the labor market, and expand coverage of transportation services, among other things.

The accord drastically altered the economic ties between the member nations, leading to a considerable rise in cross−border investment and a tripling of regional commerce. However, throughout his presidential campaign, Donald Trump painted NAFTA in a negative light, suggesting that it was the worst trade agreement ever.

What is USMCA?

President Donald Trump, who took office in January 2023, immediately began working to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with the United States−Mexico−Canada Agreement (USMCA), often known as “NAFTA 2.0” or the “New NAFTA.” The new president oversaw and ordered this to be done. This contract will become effective in July 2023. The new North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) aims to govern most economic relationships in North America, including the more than $1.3 trillion worth of annual trade in goods and services, for at least the next 16 years, if not longer. It largely revises and updates the provisions of its already−signed predecessor.

Since the USMCA preserves the zero−tariff framework that NAFTA has enjoyed for the previous 25 years concerning food and agricultural items, it will provide the United States greater access to the Canadian dairy market. The most significant changes include updated provisions regarding financial services; improved environmental regulations; greater worker protection; and a provision regarding entering into free trade agreements with non−market economies; and stricter rules of origin in the textile, automobile, and apparel industries; further goods trade facilitation; and support for high−paying jobs for Americans.

Differences: NAFTA and USMCAT

The following table highlights how NAFTA is different from USMCAT −

Characteristics NAFTA USMCAT

Rules of Origin NAFTA mandates that 62.5 percent of a vehicle be manufactured in the nation of origin. 75 percent or more of an automobile must be made in the nation.

Term The NAFTA rules stipulated a maximum of 50 years. The copyright duration is the shorter of the author’s lifetime and 70 or 75 years following publication.

De Minimis Rule The minimum value threshold for taxes and customs was established at 7%. The “de minimis value level,” below which taxes and fees are not applied, has been raised to 10%.

Expanded Market Access U.S.−Canadian agriculture trade tariff removal was incomplete. Americans who manufacture dairy goods can now sell their products freely in Canada.

Sunset Clause Unlike other international trade agreements, NAFTA does not have a sunset clause. The USMCA included a review of the agreement every six months and a sunset mechanism with a lifespan of sixteen years.

Conclusion

As a result of increased trade and improved economic ties among member nations, most economists believe that the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been good for the North American economy. However, in the context of the wider debate over the benefits of free trade, NAFTA remains a contentious issue.

Due to these factors, the United States, led by President Donald Trump, renegotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with their allies, Canada and Mexico, to promote economic development and high−paying employment. The three countries’ leaders finally came together to make good on their promises by signing a new trilateral treaty known as USMCA.

Difference Between Pericarditis And Myocarditis

When the pericardial membrane becomes inflamed, it is called pericarditis. Inflammation of the heart muscle is known medically as myocarditis.

What is Pericarditis?

When the membranes around the heart become inflamed, a medical condition known as pericarditis develops.

Causes and risk factors − Pericarditis might arise from a few different sources. Inflammation may be the result of cardiac disease, heart attack, trauma, infection, or autoimmune diseases like lupus, which cause the body to mistakenly attack its own tissues. Inflammation of the pericardium is more common in men than in women.

Diagnosis − Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans can be used for diagnosis. Inflammation of the pericardium may also be detected on an electrocardiogram (ECG) trace or by listening for a pericardial rub.

Symptoms − Pericarditis is characterized by intense, stabbing pain in the middle of the chest and down both arms. When you breathe, chest pain increases.

Complications − Cardiac tamponade, caused by fluid accumulation around the heart, is a frequent consequence of pericarditis and can be fatal if untreated. The fluid between the pericardial membranes causes cardiac tamponade, which prevents the heart from expanding and contracting normally.

Treatment − Pain relievers, notably anti-inflammatory drugs, are all that is needed for mild pericarditis. Colchicine and corticosteroids are also occasionally used. Having fluid removed from the heart may be necessary if it becomes swollen.

What is Myocarditis?

When the myocardium, the muscular layer of the heart, becomes inflamed, a disease known as myocarditis develops.

Causes and risk factors − In rare cases, doctors may be at a loss to explain what brought on the patient’s myocarditis. However, viruses such as Covid-19, coxsackie virus, and influenza can also trigger this condition. Besides TB and sarcoidosis, there are a number of additional diseases that can result in myocarditis.

Myocarditis is more common in people with certain conditions, such as those who have used hazardous pharmaceuticals or who have viral infections like HIV.

Diagnosis − Abnormalities on an electrocardiogram (ECG) and other imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), help doctors make a diagnosis. Although some cardiac indicators (heart enzymes) can be helpful, a positive diagnosis can only be reached by performing an endomyocardial biopsy, in which a tiny portion of heart muscle is removed and studied.

Problems and Side-effects − The severity of the issue correlates with the severity of the symptoms. A rapid or otherwise abnormal heartbeat is a common sign. Additional symptoms include a rapid heart rate and a lack of oxygen in the blood. Myocarditis is dangerous since it can cause heart failure or even death. Myocarditis-related complications are a common cause of the need for a heart transplant.

Treatment − Medication such as beta blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may be used as part of a supportive therapy regimen for the treatment of myocarditis. Heart transplantation or ventricular assist devices are two options that may be necessary in some cases.

Differences between Pericarditis and Myocarditis

The following table highlights the major differences between Pericarditis and Myocarditis −

Characteristics

Pericarditis

Myocarditis

Definition

When the pericardium becomes inflamed, it is called pericarditis.

When the myocardium becomes inflamed, it is called myocarditis.

Causes

Pericarditis can be brought on by an infection, a physical injury, or an autoimmune disorder.

Myocarditis can be brought on by an infection or sarcoidosis.

Symptoms

Pain and tightness in the chest are common complaints among those suffering from pericarditis.

Pain in the chest and a rapid heart rate are two signs of myocarditis.

Treatment

Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, and corticosteroids are all used to treat pericarditis.

Heart medications including beta-blockers, ventricular assist devices, or heart transplants are used to treat myocarditis.

Complications

Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade are complications of pericarditis.

Myocarditis can lead to heart failure and abrupt death.

Conclusion

In this article, we explained in detail the various differences between Pericarditis and Myocarditis.

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