Trending February 2024 # Whatsapp New Privacy Policy 2023: All Your Questions Answered # Suggested March 2024 # Top 2 Popular

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Most apps often update their terms of use, but the latest WhatsApp Privacy Policy 2023 has caused quite a stir. If you’re confused and want to make sense of the details, keep reading. I have tried to answer all your questions.

What’s notable is that WhatsApp is openly providing details around user data collection and storage for the first time. This spells some significant changes that you need to understand, and it’s mandatory to accept the policy by May 15, 2023, to continue using the messaging platform.

UPDATE: At the start of May 2023, WhatsApp announced that you will not lose your account if you do not accept the new policy. However, you will have only limited access to your account.

There are three main kinds of changes coming to WhatsApp in 2023. They center around how:

WhatsApp processes your data.

businesses use Facebook services to store and manage WhatsApp chats.

WhatsApp will integrate with other Facebook products.

So let’s clarify the answers to the most pressing questions you might have about this.

Why do I need to accept this policy?

If you do not accept WhatsApp’s latest terms and conditions, you will get only limited access to WhatsApp features post May 15, 2023. Your account will not be deleted, but you will see a persistent reminder to accept the new terms. So, you must accept the policy to continue using WhatsApp as usual.

To do so, whenever you see the new policy popup on your screen, tap on AGREE to continue using the messaging platform as usual.

What personal data will WhatsApp collect and store?

According to its new policy, WhatsApp will collect hardware data such as:

mobile network, connection information (including phone number, mobile operator or ISP),

your phone’s battery level and signal strength,

app version,

browser information,

language and time zone,

your IP address,

device operations information, and identifiers (including identifiers unique to Facebook Company Products associated with the same device or account).

None of this was part of the previous policy.

What information will WhatsApp share with Facebook?

According to the policy changes, WhatsApp can share almost all of the information mentioned above with Facebook. The terms clearly state that your phone number, IP address, mobile device information, how you interact with others and businesses, etc.

Why you won’t be able to use WhatsApp if you don’t accept the new T&C?

WhatsApp has made it mandatory for all users to accept the new policy changes. If you do not agree to the updates by May 15, 2023, your account will begin to get restricted access to features such as chats and calls. So, there are no two ways about it. If you want to continue using WhatsApp, you will eventually have to accept the new terms and conditions.

How do I maintain privacy on WhatsApp?

Well, from now on, your data from WhatsApp, such as your phone number, businesses you interact with, etc., will be shared with Facebook. However, your chats will continue to be encrypted end-to-end, so they are still private.

Can a third party access my WhatsApp?

Going by the official policy, third parties may access the information you share with businesses on WhatsApp. However, regardless of the policy changes, third parties can also access your WhatsApp account through unlawful means like hacking. However, this is a rare case scenario and not something you should worry about. After all, any app or device is susceptible to hacking. It’s just part of living in the technological age.

Does WhatsApp sell data?

Can anyone see my WhatsApp chats?

The short answer is no. WhatsApp chats remain end-to-end encrypted, so your messages are private for now.

What about WhatsApp Business?

If you interact with businesses on WhatsApp, they may provide the platform with information about you. The updated policy states that any content shared with a business on WhatsApp will be accessible by “several people in that business.”

Moreover, businesses may work with third-party service providers to manage communications with customers. Such providers might also include Facebook. To better understand this, WhatsApp recommends that you read the “business’ privacy policy or contact the business directly.”

This is undoubtedly a call to action to be more vigilant about how you interact with businesses on WhatsApp.

What about WhatsApp Payments data?

WhatsApp recently rolled out payments in many countries, and the new privacy policy talks about this too. It says that if you use WhatsApp payments services, additional information about you will be processed, such as your account and transaction information. However, this might differ from country to country according to local regulations.

Should I delete my WhatsApp account?

If you are highly concerned and don’t want Facebook accessing your data, you should delete your WhatsApp account and use alternatives like Telegram or Signal. However, do bear in mind that deleting your account will not necessarily delete all your data from the servers. WhatsApp is vague about what data it will continue to store after you delete your account.

WhatsApp privacy policy explained!

We hope this has answered all your questions about the changes in the WhatsApp privacy policy 2023. In a nutshell, it implies that WhatsApp is clearly a Facebook product now and will not retain the same kind of experience it has given over the years of its growing popularity.

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Mehak

Mehak has a master’s degree in communication and over ten years of writing experience. Her passion for technology and Apple products led her to iGeeksBlog, where she specializes in writing product roundups and app recommendations for fellow Apple users. When not typing away on her MacBook Pro, she loves being lost in a book or out exploring the world.

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Google Answers G+ Privacy Questions, Declines Others

Google Answers G+ Privacy Questions, Declines Others

Dan Gillmore, writer, teacher, and Google+ member has been in communication with Google over the past few weeks, asking questions about security and safety of information as it pertains to Google+. As he says in his own words, “I find Google’s responses (and non-responses) disappointing.” As you’ll see below, Google answered some key questions and uncovered a few rocks we’re sure you’ll be interested in seeing under. There’s also a list of questions they did not reply to, and assuming Gillmore actually DID send these questions in and Google DID decline to answer, the implications are immense.

One of Gillmore’s first questions is about chat and video chat, and how much Google – or anyone else not in the chat – is able to see. Google replied that the only piece of information or media collected from Hangouts (video chat) were the names of the participants, and then only so that participants could easily add these new friends to their Circles should they so wish. This, and “other usage stats” for debugging and improving the service. In the case of Chat, transcripts, says Google, are stored in your account so that YOU can search across them. By default your chat transcripts are stored, and if you do not want them stored at all, you can choose to chat “off the record.”

Gillmore then submits a series of questions, each of them one after the other as follows:

Follow-up: To be clear, then: Google can record video, even though by default it does not. Correct? If a user is “off the record” can Google record it anyway?

Has Google been asked to make this service comply with CALEA (federal law requiring certain kinds of communications to be easily “wiretapped”)?

Is G+ compliant with CALEA, by creating backdoor for law enforcement to see/hear/record communications?

Does Google plan to make G+ compliant with CALEA?

Is there a web page at Google that addresses all of this?

Google replies that of course there is a website, right over at [PRIVACY POLICY PAGE] for all to see. Google then goes on to say that like all law-abiding companies, they “comply with applicable laws and valid legal process, such as court orders and subpoenas.” They go on to speak about data requests and how they notify affected users about requests for user data that may effect them. They go on to note the following about their 2006 court case against a Department of Justice Subpoena:

[The subpoena was for] millions of search queries on the grounds that it invaded our users’ privacy. The judge ultimately ruled in Google’s favor, establishing an important precedent for user privacy. And because we believe in transparency, in 2009 we launched our Transparency Report, which shows the number and types of requests we get for user data from different governments.

Gillmore follows up with a question on the matter which Google does not reply to:

Follow-up: To clarify: So Google can and will enable a government to tap/record conversations and review stored ones if a government (US or otherwise) requires this in a “valid legal process” — and the company cannot assure people that their communications are not being intercepted or otherwise reviewed. Correct?

Finally, Gillmore ends his conversation with Google with two questions on Google+ posts, asking if there’s a retention policy/privacy plan, asking also if users will be able to define a purge/preserve policy for their own posts. Google replies that Google+ posts will be retained indefinitely unless a user decides to delete them. Google notes that when a user deletes data, they remove it from their systems, but that due to “various regulations and the complexity of [their] infrastructure,” the total removal of said data may take some time. Google notes furthermore that in rare cases, they couple be “required by to retain data that a user has deleted.”

We must assume that there’s a missing word between “required by” and “to”, more than likely it being “law.” When pushed to answer what “various regulations” and “rare cases” were, Google again said the same thing in so many words, this final reply more than likely coming straight from their legal department:

We believe strongly that users’ data belongs to users and not Google, so when you delete your data, we remove it from our systems. Note that due to various regulations and the complexity of our infrastructure, the complete removal of data may take some time, and in rare cases, we may be required by to retain data that a user has deleted. We also believe that people should be able to control the data they store in any of our products, so our Data Liberation Front has created a tool called Google Takeout, to easily download a copy of your data from Google+. Visit chúng tôi to learn more.

Sound alright to you?

[via G+]

9 Frequently Asked Questions About Yandex Seo & Ppc, Answered

Russia is home to 146 million consumers and with 100 million internet users, Russia is the seventh largest audience in the world.

As of this writing, Yandex is averaging 56.2 percent market share in comparison to Google.

After over 10 years of doing both organic and paid media on Yandex, I am still surprised how few in the international search industry consider it.

If you are one of the ones that tried it and that thought, “Oh..just port over my Google Russian campaigns and it will work” then discount it after it fails, maybe you ought to give it another look. It’s truly awesome and only getting better.

In this article, I will answer nine questions about Yandex organic and paid search that I get asked most often.

Hopefully, it will show how we, as an industry, can rethink our attitudes when it comes to putting Yandex high on our list of search engines to work on.

1. How Does Yandex Differentiate Itself from Google?

The biggest difference is that Yandex provides a better local language experience than Google in Russia.

Yandex knows Russian habits better, so their search results are more precise based on its own learning engine.

Another differentiator is usage.

Yandex has both non-urban and urban users. Non-urban users tend to use Yandex as their core Russian search engine, whereas urban users tend to use both Google and Yandex intermittently.

So you might be getting a Google impression for the same user, but when they go to Yandex and see you there as well it’s a double whammy.

Now if I asked Yandex the same question, it will tell me what happened and sources to find out more about the situation.

What about this query: [I need onion’s and carrot’s for my Borsch, where can I find them?]

Google will respond with recipes to make Borsch. On Yandex, local grocery stores feed their products into the engine. Boom…down the street! They even have a laxative for later.

All this provided by IP signals, WiFI, mobile device providers, etc.

2. Is Google Yandex’s Only Competitor?

In search, yes.

In digital ad dollars, VK (Vkontakte) competes with other social ad networks like Facebook.

Surprisingly, VK has been around longer but is more used by a younger crowd than Facebook. (Yes… I know my Russian friends are embarrassed by me bringing this up, but it’s true, so reactivate your VK accounts old ladies and gents.)

3. What Can Advertisers Expect in Terms of ROI?

Yandex can be more efficient on ad spend because it actually has more targeting data.

If you optimize for Google it won’t work as well. Yandex could easily outperform Google RU if you know what you’re doing.

Outside of that, not much is different between the two search engines.

If you spend time and adjust the campaigns settings regularly, both can work well.

4. How Does Yandex Ads Work for Partners?

Yandex has an ad network similar to Google’s. It is smaller in terms of size, yet better in quality sites. They filter much better in terms of ad revenue for good Russian publishers.

So Yandex has higher revenue, but is smaller in the number of sites.

5. What Are the Key Drivers for Ad Growth in Russia?

They have cooled their burners in terms of international growth in other markets, like Turkey and Brazil, so audience growth outside of Russia is smaller now.

Yandex is still growing their ad network and growing in mobile usage, as well as their version of Google Assistant.

6. What Are Some Examples of Usage Between PC and Mobile on Yandex?

When you buy any Android device in Russia, you have to choose which search engine you want to represent your searches (Yandex or Google). This is due to a huge lawsuit settlement reached between Google and the Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service.

This is now in every device by law. Google’s lock on the search default has been broken.

If you look at data since August of last year, Russians are clearly showing a preference for Yandex as their default engine.

7. What About Yandex’s Ad Tech Capabilities in Comparison to Google?

In terms of the flexibility of campaign settings and ease of use, Google is ahead of Yandex.

Google has many more options for facilitating your objectives. However, for the Russian market, it may have too many options that aren’t all used.

Yandex isn’t sitting there thinking they are going to duplicate every new feature and setting Google comes up with.

8. Who Is Alice?

Alice is the name of Yandex’s voice assistant. It will allow you to calls for a taxi or get news and other updates. It’s similar to Google Assistant’s features.

Google Assistant is on par with them in terms of technology and quality, but it doesn’t work in Russia. Neither does Amazon.

Alice also has what they call “ChitChat,” which is like talking to a person.

9. Any Regulatory Concerns on the Horizon Like GDPR?

GDPR doesn’t affecr Yandex search per se in Russia because servers and users are in Russia.

However, data protection laws do protect the rights of Russians.

GDPR mostly impacts Yandex Metrica, their analytics platform.

Read this information if you want to dig deeper.

Other SEO Tidbits You Should Know Regarding Yandex

Yandex is going after link farms big time. Think again if your plan is to game their system.

If you have good content, then make sure it’s Russian and written to the Russian market.

Machine translated content – that will get you. As I tell everyone that does international work, do not duplicate and speak to your audience as if you are a local.

Trust me, don’t mess with Russians.

Korolyov is Yandex’s new intelligent search algorithm. It updates how Yandex provides results for long-tail queries by examining every page in their entirety, not just their headings in real time.

Add machine learning with a continuous analysis of like content in real time, you can only imagine what kind of parameters it’s able to interpret.

Also, check out Yandex Radar, a great free tool that will let you cut and slice data around market share.

Learn more: The Ultimate Guide to Yandex SEO.

Conclusion

If you were to go into Google in Mountain View, California, you might find yourself thinking you are in a Russian speaking technology company. They know what they are doing whether they are at Yandex or Google.

More International Search Resources:

How To Make Your Equity Policy A Reality

In the past two years, school districts across the country have been moved to write equity policies or pass resolutions to publicly commit to being a more equitable district. Unfortunately, for some districts, the work stopped there. Now, many community members inside and outside of the district are likely to see the approval as nothing more than a symbolic gesture. But this doesn’t have to be the case.

As an equity officer, I’ve partnered with districts and organizations at many stages of readiness to make their policies a reality. However, no matter where a district is in their quest to become an equitable organization, some key components are necessary in the process.

Have a Common Language and Shared Beliefs

My first step of working with district leaders is to make sure that there’s a common definition of equity they all use and that everyone believes all students can be successful in their school system—especially those who have been minoritized. This coming together is launched by a training where leaders are asked to unpack their own journeys to racial consciousness.

During a training I facilitated in Tennessee, district leaders walked through the cycle of socialization created by Bobbie Harro in order to see the impact of socialization on them growing up and how it manifested in their current leadership roles. This exercise led us into a conversation about what they may consciously and unconsciously be doing that gets in the way of students’ success.

This may look like making quick budget, personnel, and/or transportation decisions without talking to those who are impacted the most by the decision. It could also include not speaking up when you know a new policy or program will be detrimental to a particular group of students. Leaders essentially make decisions on an hourly basis that have a direct impact on students. Focusing inward is fundamental to helping leaders articulate what they actually want the experience of their district to be and motivates them to take on individual and collective responsibility in making it happen. The conversation around shared beliefs doesn’t end with training.

Between and after trainings, I spend a lot of time talking with individual district leaders as they balance their own personal journeys to racial consciousness with being public spokespersons and decision makers in equity work. I often support them in drafting a set of questions that they can use in conversations as well as for personal reflection, such as, “What impact will this decision have on those who are the most minoritized?” or “Whose perspective do we need to hear from before making this decision?” or “How can I ensure equity of voice in every meeting?”

Leverage Acquired Data

I’ve led several districts through a community-centered equity audit that provides districts with actionable data. These audits aren’t just quantitative but also include discussion groups and voices from a variety of stakeholders. With a district in Florida, we leveraged an equity group of over 50 people that included students, community organizations, teachers, and families to lead the audit.

This group grappled with how we’d manage getting input across a very diverse district and ensure that those voices were the ones that weren’t always being asked for feedback. This meant offering focus groups and surveys in multiple languages and having facilitators that were known and respected by the community to ensure honest responses. These facilitators were teachers, principals, parent coordinators, or community liaisons whose role was to connect the school to the community. Once the surveys and focus groups were analyzed along with artifacts, a clear story was being told about the district that couldn’t be ignored.

The story that materialized in the audit wasn’t just about student achievement gaps or lack of access. The compelling story highlighted a systemic issue. The story showed a lack of access for students of color, which was the same as lack of teachers of color, which was the same as lack of access for paraprofessionals of color. These systemic sentiments were shared by a variety of stakeholders across the district. The feedback catapulted the district to create a plan that leveraged the shared data and positioned equity as a top priority. 

Craft an Action Plan for Accountability

After data is gathered from an audit, an action planning process can commence. My push to districts is to ensure that they put into place short-term actions that can be easily measured and monitored. When I worked with an education agency in Iowa, small groups brainstormed a variety of next steps based on their data and then narrowed their focus down to one or two high-leverage action steps.

One of those next steps was to create an equity officer position and office. However, before they could do that, they needed clarity and agreement on what the person in the position would be asked to do and how the role would be set up for success (in terms of funding and access to resources). I can’t stress enough how important it is to ensure that the plan is created in collaboration with a cross-section of roles, including community members, teachers, and students.

Each school district and organization will bring its own unique set of challenges—especially if they’re in a community (and/or state) that has been pushing against any work labeled “equity.” However, successful leaders stay focused on the need to serve all students and ensure that they’re academically, emotionally, and socially successful. Once the focus is there, challenges can be seen as opportunities, and the next steps can fall into place.

All The New Features Facebook Announced At The 2023 F8 Conference

Zuck is laying out a rough plan to try and build up Facebook’s reputation on privacy. Facebook

It has been a rough couple of years for Facebook. There have been privacy breeches and even Congressional hearings. But, the annual F8 developers conference kicks off today, so we’re about to hear what’s coming down the road for the company. We expect to hear about everything from software to hardware and security features. Here are the high-notes of what you need to know.

“Today we’re going to talk about building a privacy-focused social platform.” Zuck is aware that Facebook doesn’t have a great track record for privacy. He says that there are wide-spread changes coming on all of the company’s platforms. We’ll go through them one at a time.

Messenger

Zuck is heavily focusing on private communication instead of the public “town square” content that we’re used to posting on typcial social media feeds like Facebook and Instagram. For Messenger, the company wants to make it faster. Messenger will now exist as a desktop app on Mac and Windows. That means people won’t have to keep a Facebook tab open in a browser if you just want to use Messenger.

Over the next year, Facebook claims it will make Messenger the “fastest messaging app on the planet.” It will be less than 30 MB in size and start in 1.3 seconds, which is considerably smaller and faster than the current version.

Ephemeral content is also coming to Messenger. The idea of self-destructing messages is appealing for people worried that things will come back to bite them later on down the road.

Messenger will also now let users text and video chat with Instagram and Whatsapp users. It’s an interesting move to entangle all these users in a time when some regulators would like to break up the massive company.

The Facebook app and site are getting redesigns to take emphasis off of the News Feed. Facebook

Facebook

When it comes to the bigger “public” spaces like Facebook, the Communities feature will get more attention. The Communities now will be “as central as friends.” The redesigned app will put Communities and groups front and center. The Facebook site redesign will match the app. The News Feed feels a lot less important now with the new look on both platforms.

The new app design is rolling out today for U.S. users.

This focus on Groups is likely going to mean you’re about to get a lot more invitations to groups based around brands. Fewer people cruising the News Feed will mean marketers will have to find new places to share links.

Shopping communities work a lot like eBay now. You can check out through the app, pay for your item, and arrange shipping.

Facebook Dating is coming to the U.S. by the end of the year. It’s an opt-in program that lets you find other people to, um, date. You can now set a “secret crush” on Facebook and if the person you chose adds you as a Secret Crush, it will connect you.

If you thought buying stuff you don’t need because you saw it on Instagram was easy before, get ready. Facebook

Instagram

The presentation here starts with shopping. that shouldn’t come as much of a surprise. There’s a new shopping channel in Explore and users will now be able to send money directly to creators.

Stories now don’t require you to start with a picture or video. You can pull up a blank canvas and slack stickers and text all over it. There’s also now a donation sticker that lets users to donate directly within the app. Facebook would like as much money as possible moving directly through the app.

The app will soon have less incentive to treat Instagram like a contest. The company is testing a feature that will hide “like” counts from the audience. The update will also downplay displaying the number of followers a person has.

Portal

Zuck says that Facebook’s in-home video calling device, Portal, has done better than the company expected. In fact, now it’s going global this year and will include Whatsapp video calling so your video chats are encrypted end-to-end.

Augmented reality games and stories are the big new feature here. This is more time than I expected the company to spend on Portal.

There’s now a Portal app that lets you share photos to a Portal device from your phone.

Oculus

When it comes to VR, we already had a pretty good idea about what was coming after the new Oculus Rift and the Oculus Quest first showed up last year. Oculus Quest is shipping on May 21st, and you can check out our review of it here.

Oculus for Business helps the tech support large-scale deployments. Right now, this space feels more important than the home entertainment stuff, even if it’s not as fun.

Whatsapp is staying focused on private communication and its end-to-end encryption is rolling out across Facebook’s platform. Facebook

Whatsapp

The big new feature on Whatsapp is called Product Catalogs. Businesses can show users what they sell so people can browse items. Then, they can send and receive money to buy goods. Facebook is already testing this in India with more than a million users.

Whatsapp seems to be the role model for future Facebook products. It has 1.5 billion users worldwide at the moment.

Top 20 Conceptual Questions To Test Your Data Science Skills In 2023

Introduction

In this article, I have curated a list of 20 Questions on Data Science Concepts consisting of MCQs(One or more correct), True-False, and Integer Type Questions to check your understanding.

 

Let’s Get Started. Question Context: 1- 3 Suppose we want to use an automatic classification system to differentiate between COVID-19 negative (Negative class) and Covid-19 positive(Positive class). We have evaluated two pattern classification systems and the data obtained is given below – 

 

 

1.  The number of False Positives(FP) and False Negatives(FN) for both systems respectively are:

(a) System A: FP = 20,FN = 25 ; System B: FP = 15, FN = 30

(b) System A: FP = 15,FN = 30 ; System B: FP = 20, FN = 25

(c) System A: FP = 15,FN = 25 ; System B: FP = 20, FN = 30

(d) System A: FP = 30,FN = 20 ; System B: FP = 15, FN = 25

Answer: [ a ]

Hint: Read the confusion matrix carefully and use basic concepts.

2. The Sensitivity and Specificity for System-A respectively are:

(a) Sensitivity = 0.75, Specificity = 0.80

(b) Sensitivity = 0.70, Specificity = 0.85

(c) Sensitivity = 0.75, Specificity = 0.85

(d) Sensitivity = 0.70, Specificity = 0.80

Answer: [ a ]

Hint: Use the formula to calculate sensitivity and specificity for a given confusion matrix.

3.  Which system should we use to rule out the presence of COVID-19?

(a) System-A

(b) System-B

(c) Anyone can be preferred

(d) Can’t be determined

Answer: [ b ]

Explanation: The reason being system B has more specificity than system A.

 

4. If N is the number of rows/instances in the training dataset, then what is the time complexity of the K- nearest neighbors algorithm run in Big-O notation?

(a) O(1)

(b) O( N )

(c) O( log N )

(d) O( N2 )

Answer: [ b ]

Explanation: K-Nearest neighbors need to compute distances of points to each of the N training instances. Hence, the classification run time complexity is O(N).

5. A company manager wants to predict the time before a break-down of its production machines. As a Machine Learning student, you are asked to solve the problem. How will you formulate it? 

(a) as a classification problem statement

(b) as a regression problem statement

(c) as a clustering problem statement

(d) as an association rule-based problem statement

Answer: [ b ]

Explanation: For a regression problem statement our target column is numerical(continuous).

6. Which of the following statements are correct about the Regression line?

(a) The Regression line always goes through the mean of the data.

(b) The sum of the deviation of the values from their regression line is always zero.

(c) The sum of the squared deviation of the values from their regression line is always minimum.

(d) If regression lines coincide with each other, then there is no correlation.

Answer: [ a, b, c ]

Explanation: If regression lines coincide with each other, it shows perfect correlation i.e, r=1.

7. Which of the following options are incorrect about the Mahalanobis distance?

(a) It transforms the columns into correlated variables.

(b) It changes the values of the features so that the standard deviation becomes zero.

(c) It calculates the mean and variance with the help of new columns.

(d) It includes only variances in its formula while calculating the distance

Answer: [a, b, c, d ]

Explanation: Mahalanobis distance takes Covariance into account while calculating distances.

8. Choose the correct options for Random Variables X1 and X2:

1, X2)=0, then the random variables X1 and X2 are independent

(a) If Cov(X, X)=0, then the random variables Xand Xare independent

(b) If random variables X1 and X2 are independent, then Cov(X1, X2)=0

(c) if Cov(X1, X2)=0 and X1 and X2 are normally distributed, then X1 and X2 are independent.

(d) If Cov(X1, X2)=0, then Corr(X1, X2)=0

Answer: [ b, c, d ]

Explanation: Independence implies zero covariance but zero covariance not necessarily implies Independence.

9. Which of the following statements are TRUE?

(a) Supervised learning does not require target attributes while unsupervised learning requires it.

(b) In a supermarket, categorization of the items to be placed in aisles and on the shelves can be an application of unsupervised learning.

(c) Sentiment analysis can be posed as a classification task, not as a clustering task.

(d) Decision trees can also be used to do clustering tasks.

Answer: [ b, d ]

Explanation: Unsupervised machine learning does not require target attributes while supervised machine learning requires it.

 

10. The algorithm which can only be used when the training data are linearly separable is:

(a) Linear hard-margin SVM

(b) Linear Logistic Regression

(c) Linear soft-margin SVM

(d) The centroid method

Answer: [ a ]

Explanation: Hard margin SVM can work only when data is completely linearly separable without any errors(outliers/noise). In hard margin SVM, we have very strict constraints to correctly classify data points.

11. Which of the following statements are correct about the Backpropagation Algorithm?

(a) It is also known as the Generalized delta rule

(b) In Backpropagation, error in output is propagated backward only to determine weight updates

(c) Backpropagation learning is based on gradient descent along the surface of the defined loss function.

(d)It is an algorithm for unsupervised learning of artificial neural networks

Answer: [ a, b, c ]

Explanation: Backpropagation algorithm is used for supervised learning of artificial neural networks

12. Integer Answer Type Question:

 How many of the following statements are incorrect about the K-Means Clustering algorithm?

(a) In presence of possible outliers in the data, one should not go for ‘complete link’ distance measures during the clustering tasks

(b) Two different runs of k-means clustering algorithms always result in the same clusters

(c) It is always better to assign 10 to 20 iterations as a stopping criterion for k-means clustering

(d) In k-means clustering, the number of centroids change during the algorithm run

(e) It tries to maximize the within class-variance for a given number of clusters.

(f) It converges to the global optimum if and only if the initial means(initialization) is chosen as some of the samples themselves.

(g) It requires the dimension of the feature space to be no bigger than the number of samples.

Answer: [ {b, c, d, e, f, g} – 6 ]

Explanation: The objective of the K-Means clustering algorithm is to minimize total intra-cluster variance(inside clusters). Within-cluster-variance is simple to understand the measure of compactness(compact partitioning).

13. Which of the following statements are correct about the characteristics of Hierarchical clustering? 

(a) It is a Merging approach

(b) Measuring distance between two clusters

(c) Divisive hierarchical clustering works in a bottom-up approach

(d) It is a semi-unsupervised clustering algorithm

Answer: [ a, b ]

Explanation: Divisive hierarchical clustering works in a top-down approach.

14. Which of the following statements are correct about Bayesian Classification?

(a) Decision boundary in Bayesian classification depends on evidence

(b) Decision boundary in Bayesian classification depends on priors

(c) Bayes classification is a supervised machine learning algorithm

Answer: [ b, c ]

Explanation: Decision boundary in Bayesian classification doesn’t depend on evidence.

15. Integer Answer Type Question: 

How many of the following statements are incorrect about neural networks?

(a) An activation function must be monotonic in neural networks

(b) The logistic function is a monotonically increasing function

(c) A non-differentiable function can not be used as an activation function

(d) They can only be trained with stochastic gradient descent

(e) Optimize a convex objective function.

(f) Can use a mix of different activation functions

Answer: [ {a, c, d, e} – 4 ]

Explanation: Neural networks can use a mix of different activation functions like sigmoid, tanh, and RELU functions.

(a) Increases

(b) Decreases

(c) Remain same

(d) First decreases and then increases

Answer: [ b ]

Answer: The capacity of a neural network model decreases with the increase in the dropout rate.

For further reference, refer to the link

Integer Answer Type Question: 17. How many of the following options are TRUE about Support Vector Machines(SVMs)?

(a) Support vectors only have non-zero Lagrangian multipliers in the formulation of SVMs.

(b) SVMs linear discriminant function focuses on a dot product between the test point and the support vectors.

(c) In soft margin SVM, we give freedom to model for some misclassifications.

(d) Support vectors are the data points that are farthest from the decision boundary.

(e) The only training points necessary to compute f(x) in an SVM are support vectors.

Answer: [ {a, b, c, d, e} – 5 ]

Explanation: A support vector machine(SVM) performs classification by choosing the hyperplane that maximizes the margin between the two classes. The vectors that define the Hyperplane are the support vectors and they have non-zero Lagrangian multipliers.

 

True or False

18. The linear discriminant function(classifier) with the maximum margin in SVMs is the best since it is robust to outliers and has a strong generalization ability.

Answer: [ True ]

[ True ]

Explanation: A support vector machine tries to find the line that “best” separates two classes of points. By “best”, we mean the line that gives the largest margin between the two classes.

 

19. 

For the given Dendrogram, if you draw a horizontal line on the y-axis for y=0.50. What will be the number of clusters formed?

(a) 1          (b) 3              (c) 4                (d) 7

Answer: [ c ]

Hint: Self Explanatory.

 

20. How do you handle missing values or corrupted data in a dataset for categorical variables?

(a) Drop missing rows or columns

(b) Replace missing value with the most frequent value

(c) Develop a model to predict those missing values

(d) All of the above

Answer: [ d ]

Hint: For reference, refer to the link

 

End Notes

Thanks for reading!

Please feel free to contact me on Linkedin, Email.

About the author Chirag Goyal

Currently, I pursuing my Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) in Computer Science and Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur(IITJ). I am very enthusiastic about Machine learning, Deep Learning, and Artificial Intelligence.

The media shown in this article are not owned by Analytics Vidhya and is used at the Author’s discretion. 

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