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Broken Bat

Then San Diego Padres third baseman Russel Branyan breaks a bat during the 2007 season.

Pop quiz: What kind of wood are baseball bats made of? Until about 1999 the correct answer would’ve been ash. But long before pundits noticed Barry Bonds’ head inflating from steroids, players spotted his maple bat. In a sport where adults inject their own buttocks for a chance at glory, switching to a different bat caught on quick.

But what players didn’t realize was that while ash bats might crack, maple has a tendency to snap sending splintered projectiles into the infield, the stands and the dugout. And snap is what it did last month when a chunk flew into a dugout and pierced the cheek of Pirates’ hitting coach Don Long.

Suddenly, Major League Baseball is paying a bit more attention.

Commissioner Bud Selig said that “very premature” discussions about the bats occurred last week at the owners’ meetings in Milwaukee, adding that “It’s been a source of concern for me.”

Really? After Don Long’s face suffered nerve damage and required ten stitches or before?

Louisville Slugger Supervisor Matt Bynum conceded that maple bats break differently.

“When fans see a bat explode, that’s always a maple bat,” said Bynum. “Maple fatigues catastrophically. If you see a player tapping the bat because something sounds different, that’s a broken ash bat.”

While Bynum noted that 60% of players prefer maple over ash, Lousiville’s internal data is consistent with Sherwood’s regarding ball exit speed. He also added that they have no data suggesting that maple bats will last any longer than ash.

So then why are so many ballplayers sticking with maple?

“A lot baseball players go off the way the impact sounds to decide whether it’s a good bat or not,” said Bynum. “Baseball players are strange. The way that it cracks off the bat affects their thoughts.”

Bynum also noted that the grain in maple is much less visible creating a smoother more visually appealing piece of lumber. Maple has the potential for a higher modulus of elasticity according to Bynum and data from the department of forestry, but the expected ranges for both woods overlap. Their densities are nearly identical and lower than that of harder woods which would weigh too much for practical usage.

So while baseball appeases its players’ finicky nature, spectators who bring a glove to the game might want to shift their focus from the ball to the bat. Baseball won’t allow the manufacturers to impregnate or reinforce the wood to reduce breakages. A total ban seems highly unlikely and protective netting was scoffed at previously by MLB. Increasing the handle thickness to reduce snapping is the most likely option, but Bynum is pessimistic about its potential.

“It may help some. I don’t know. I think that’s sort of knee jerk reaction,” said Bynum. “Most the time they break it’s because they hit it off the end of the bat or they get jammed and it hits off the handle. In those cases it doesn’t matter how thick the handle is, it’s going to break the bat.”

Anything definitive will require an agreement with the player’s association. Those casually familiar with the steroid debacle know how quickly those two groups take action. Let’s hope we won’t have to wait for congressional hearings on this mess.

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When Will Star Citizen Release?

When Will Star Citizen Release?

Star Citizen has been in development for over 7 years now, with no set release date in sight. The game was first announced back in 2011, and since then, the developers have continued to push the boundaries of what is possible in a video game. From the massive scale of the universe to the detailed physics and gameplay, everything about Star Citizen is ambitious.

With such an ambitious game, it’s no wonder that the release date has been pushed back multiple times. The developers have said that they want to make sure that the game is perfect before releasing it, and that takes time.

So, when can we expect Star Citizen to finally release? Unfortunately, there is no set date yet. Bethesda has confirmed that Starfield is delayed to early 2023. The developers have only said that it will be ready “when it’s ready.”

While this may be frustrating for some gamers who have been waiting for years, it’s important to remember that Star Citizen is an incredibly complex game. The developers are essentially building two games at the same time (Star Citizen and Squadron 42), and they want to make sure that everything is perfect before releasing it.

What Is Star Citizen?

Star Citizen is an ambitious project that kicked off in 2011 by Roberts Space Industries. The idea behind the game was to produce a spiritual successor the other games made by Chris Roberts, the head of RSI (Roberts Space Industries).

The game was set to follow on from where his previous projects like Wing Commander and Freelancer left off, with Chris taking the game to Kickstarter to not only raise awareness but financial backing via crowdfunding – and this is where the real intrigue of Star Citizen begins.

Tipped as a “Multiplayer space trading and combat simulator”, the game was met with a huge level of success based on Chris’ vision, and the game received a whopping $2.1 Million dollars within its first Kickstarter campaign. Slated for release in 2014, RSI began development immediately and by 2013 had only released what they called the “Hangar Module”.

In the Hangar Module, players were able to explore their ships in a first-person view entirely within a virtual hangar – no real flying, combat or other sorts of gameplay were allowed, so it was a very restricted demo of what was to come. Then, in 2014 the Arena Commander module was released, which allowed players to fly their ships within a controlled environment, battling against other players or AI ships to test out the physics and gameplay of ship to ship combat.

Finally, in 2023 Star Marine was released to players, which allowed them to engage in the FPS elements of Star Citizen. All of these different modules have since been wrapped up into one comprehensive experience; Alpha 2.0 This is where all the future releases and updates would be built into the game, and where players would go to play the latest version of Star Citizen.

Don’t be fooled though. Alpha 2.0 wasn’t the finished product. Instead, it was more a demo ground for the latest features to be implemented. At the time of writing, Star Citizen is yet to receive its 3.9 patch, slated for release in Q1 of 2023 (we’re in the last month of Q1 as I type). Yes, there are further patches planned, but right now the actual release of these updates is tenuous and the content within doesn’t represent a finished game by any stretch of the imagination.

Squadron 42 was a side project that has been headed up by Erin Roberts, Chris Roberts’ brother who helped him work on games in the past, leading to his position as Head Developer on Squadron 42.

But, what is Squadron 42? It’s a single-player story-driven game set within the universe of Star Citizen, that is being launched as a separate game developed by Foundry 42 that was originally slated for release in…2014.

Apparently developments and changing goals led to the monumental delay in the game’s launch, with an expected release date for a beta now slated for Q4 2023. Whether or not the game will actually be playable on this date is questionable, but the footage we have seen so far makes Squadron 42 look…pretty great.

I’ll admit, a few years ago I bought in. The game features a cast with names like Sigourney Weaver, Mark Hamill, Gary Oldman, John Rhys-Davis, Liam Cunningham, Andy Serkis, and more, as well as riveting gameplay in a universe that has by all accounts been fleshed out to an insane degree in terms of storytelling.

The physics of the game look great too, you can check out a trailer for yourself below – but Squadron 42 looks insanely appealing and it’s playerbase cannot wait for it to finally be launched. Like Star Citizen though, there is a hitch.

The developers have now announced that they plan to release Squadron 42 episodically. The first episode is said to have over twenty hours of gameplay, and feature 71 missions – but it still isn’t the fully finalized product.

In fact, none of the products that RSI originally slated for release in 2014 have been brought to market in a state that could properly represent a fully finished game. And herein lies the problem for a lot of people.

Why Hasn’t Star Citizen Been Finished?

The real answer to this question might not be as easy to pin down as you might hope.

When it comes to kickstarting games, a lot of the time we are talking about lone developers working to get their passion project off of the ground. Traditionally, a developer would put their pitch into Kickstarter, announce a release date and a tiered reward system in return for funding and work to deliver their finalized product as it was originally envisioned by their initial release date.

That’s how most kickstarted games work.

A portion of the games rasied money went on an all star cast of in game characters

Star Citizen, however, has operated completely differently. I mentioned before that Star Citizen received $2.1 million dollars in its initial crowdfunding campaign. Well, after that initial round of investment RSI decided to add stretch goals to their Kickstarter, promising more and more from their game as more and more money was added to the campaign.

In fact, take World of Warcraft. World of Warcraft was developed on a budget of $20 million dollars and released n 2004. Adjusting the inflation for 2014, that means that World of Warcraft had a comparative budget to Star Citizen of $252,901,790. Or in more real terms, WoW was made with $213,221,214 more dollars than Star Citizen initially received.

Or was it? Because that level of funding only accounted for the pledges made up to that 2014. Private donations, investments, and share trading meant that at the end of 2023 Star Citizen has amassed over $250 million in funding.

Star Citizen broke world records with its crowd sourced funding campaign

So, yes. Star Citizen has now received as much money as World of Warcraft initially, so the question becomes “If Star Citizen has received the same level of funding as the biggest MMORPG of all time, why haven’t they been able to produce anything at a quality level?”.

Really, the answer might be ambition.

We all have experience with projects that tend to spiral when it comes to ambition. What starts as something simple can quickly skyrocket as it gathers interest, momentum, expectations, and support – but how does this apply to Star Citizen?

How Long Until Star Citizen Is Finished?

When I talk about projects spiraling in relation to Star Citizen, I’m talking about their stretch goals. What started as a project with the best of intentions quickly became something so immense and ambitious that it saw millions of backers coming to the project based on the scope of what the developers wanted to achieve.

For example, at the $50 million mark of the stretch goal, RSI promised to develop three distinct, unique, and fully realized alien languages for the game. What impact will this have on gameplay? Minimal. What will this milestone realistically contribute to the overall quality of the product? That’s negligible, depending on the story. What is the real cost of this in terms of production? Probably a drag on scriptwriters, story devs, and a slight drain on the financial side of RSI’s resources.

A screenshot by user ‘LETSFAILCHRIS!’ demonstrates just how amazing the game can look

But you can easily see how this type of promise makes the game into something of a white whale for the gaming community. A fully independent space simulator, with in-game economics and realistic languages, a fully realized story and a cast of characters played by award-winning actors, with entire planets designed by the dev team that…

The list goes on and on. And, as RSI keeps adding to the stack of things possible in their game, the launch date is pushed further and further back. Their ever-growing pot of money can’t be any help either.

For argument’s sake, let’s say that RSI received $1, and realized that they could produce a game about flying one specific spaceship. They plan out their goals, make a development plan and get to work. Then, a week later as work is underway and completely in motion, they receive an additional $5 and learn that with their new budget they can make a game about flying four different spaceships, and introduce a new element to their physics engine.

Star Cittizen has promised a great deal from its gameplay, and seems to keep expanding its promises

This means that their initial development cycle now has to be completely reworked, and (as is the case in most of these situations) a lot of their already completed work is unusable. So, development begins again on this new incarnation of the game. But then they receive another $10, and now they can begin adding unique locations and characters, and the cycle repeats.

I use this as an example to help illustrate the way in which a constantly expanding budget could have a negative effect on a project, while still having all the appearance of it being a positive thing to happen.

That being said, it’s hard to say when RSI should have turned off their options to pump money into the game, and started to focus on a version of Star Citizen and Squadron 42 to complete.

As I write this, it’s possible to buy Star Citizen and an in-game ship for the sum of $1,320 – and that’s just an easily accessible way to ensure a private donation to RSI in exchange for the furthering of the game’s production. Personally, I find it understandable that when people talk about Star Citizen, many mention that they believe it’s a scam, or that the games will never be properly finished and in a state equivalent to what the producers promised when they began their production.

And, I can’t speak for those in control of RSI. I can’t speak for the devs either, but as an actual backer of the project and a fan of the vision of Squadron 42 I can speak for myself, and say that I firmly believe that RSI has every intention of putting out a product that they think will rock the world of RPGs, FPS’, MMOs and all the other genres they want to take on – but they are victims of their own hype.

I think that as long as RSI continues to allow funding, their vision will continue to grow and they will keep thinking of things to string into their game that were never originally promised or that add to the production time.

A few of the different ships and game packages available for mass purchase.

That’s not to say there isn’t fun to be had with the products currently on sale from RSI, but that in the future as the game continues to expand it will hit the milestones backers have been screaming for slowly and eventually, rather than giving them what they want in one package and then expanding from this in timely updates and expansions that only enhance their experience.

I can’t speak to development slowdowns, or inter-company issues (though there have been numerous reports of micromanagement and chaotic managerial practices from the top down that have contributed significantly to the games delayed progress), but from a financial and historical standpoint concerning game development, it’s hard to believe that Star Citizen will ever fail, or that it could stop at this stage. Instead, it will continue to grow, slowly and steadily until at one point gamers finally have the finished space exploration behemoth of a game to enjoy – but who knows when that will be.

What other games are similar to Star Citizen, and why is it unique?

Star Citizen is a highly anticipated space trading and combat simulation game that is currently in development by Cloud Imperium Games. The game is unique in its size, scope, and ambition, and has been described as a “massively multiplayer online first-person universe.” Star Citizen is currently in alpha testing, with a release date for the final game yet to be announced. However, there are a number of other games that share similar features and gameplay mechanics. 

EVE Online is a space-based MMO that has been running for over 15 years. It features a vast, shared universe where players can engage in trading, mining, combat, and exploration. Elite: Dangerous is another space trading and combat simulator that allows players to trade, bounty hunt and explore an entire galaxy of over 400 billion stars.

Other games that feature space trading and combat include Star Trek Online, Star Conflict, and Vendetta Online. Star Citizen is unique in its size and scope, but there are a number of other games that offer similar gameplay mechanics.

However, what sets Star Citizen apart is the level of detail and care that has gone into its development. With an incredibly ambitious vision and an impressive team of developers working on the game, Star Citizen looks set to be one of the most impressive space simulators ever made.

Tricolored Bats Are Imperiled By Deadly Fungal Disease

For tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), hibernation can be anything but relaxing. It can be deadly. A fungal disease called white-nose syndrome thrives in cold, damp, and dark conditions, like the caves bats where hibernate. The disease, which causes multiple symptoms including wing damage, excessive hibernation activity, and fungal growth on the wings is nearly driving the vulnerable species to near extinction. The disease has a fatality rate often as high as 90 to 100 percent.

Yesterday, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) announced a proposal to place the tricolored bat on the endangered species list due to this disease. “White-nose syndrome is decimating hibernating bat species like the tricolored bat at unprecedented rates,” said USFWS Director Martha Williams in a press release. “Bats play such an important role in ensuring a healthy ecosystem. The (USFWS) is deeply committed to continuing our vital research and collaborative efforts with partners to mitigate further impacts and recover tricolored bat populations.”

According to the USFWS, bats contribute at least $3 billion annually to agriculture economy through pest control and pollination. If put on the endangered species list, the tricolored bat will be protected by the Endangered Species Act (ESA). A review from the USFWS shows that white-nose syndrome has caused “estimated declines of more than 90 percent in affected tricolored bat colonies and is currently present across 59 percent of the species’ range.”

[Related: One cave’s losing battle against a deadly bat fungus.]

Tricolored bats are found in 39 states east of the Rocky Mountains, eight Canadian provinces, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, and Nicaragua. They are one of North America’s smallest native species and spend the majority of the year in forest habitats before spending the winter in caves and mines. Winter is the most common time for the fungus to sicken bat populations, however, the disease can be detected even before hibernation season. The Canadian province of Saskatchewan reported a case in Grasslands National Park in July.

The fungus that causes this disease (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) resembles a white fuzz on a the bare skin of a bat’s wings and snout. USFWS’s White-nose Syndrome Response Team says that the fungus makes the bats more active while they should be hibernating, burning off too much of the critical energy needed to survive the cold winter months.

A southeastern bat (Myotis austroriparius) from Alabama showing signs of white-nose syndrome in 2023. CREDIT: Dottie Brown Ecological Solutions, Inc./USGS

[Related: “The secret to these bats’ hunting prowess is deep within their ears.”]

Scientists are still unsure what causes the disease. According to the USFWS, white-nose syndrome is by far the most serious threat to the tricolored bat, but other threats now have a large effect on bat populations as well. Some of these other threats include disturbance to the bats’ roosting, foraging, commuting, and wintering habitats and mortality at wind energy facilities. Changes in temperature and precipitation due to climate change are also exacerbating these threats.

The White-nose Syndrome Response Team suggests many ways to help protect bats, including building backyard bat houses, never disturbing bats, and staying out of caves and mines while they migrate.

How To Get Primal Crystal And Tame A Crystal Wyvern

Taming a Crystal Wyvern and harvesting primal crystal is endgame content for experienced players who have the weapons, armor, and building skills to complete the task. However, it’s also a lot of fun to prepare for!

If you want to go wyvern hunting and are hoping to tame a crystal wyvern of your own, make sure you’re ready to tangle with such a fierce creature before you engage. 

About Primal Crystal

Primal crystal is a resource that you can only get on the Crystal Isles map. It doesn’t spawn on other maps. Also, it degrades over time and doesn’t keep the primal status forever, so it’s something you want to get when you have a use for it. 

Primal crystal is difficult to obtain because it can only be harvested from an unconscious or dead crystal wyvern. Since you might need a great deal of it, the best way to get primal crystal is to create a trap where you can have the upper hand over the dangerous wyverns.

How to Get Primal Crystal

You have to harvest a primal crystal from a dead alpha wyvern or take it out from the inventory of an unconscious wyvern. One of the best ways to do this without dying is to create a trap to lure a crystal wyvern into. Once they’re in the trap, you can stand above them and tranquilize or kill them as needed to get the crystal.

You can also kill the alpha crystal wyverns and harvest their bodies to get the primal crystal. 

If you aren’t sure where to build your trap, explore the map and find where the crystal wyverns live. Patrol the area for a while and watch where they travel. Once you find a space that you think might work, think about constructing a small base where you can rest, get warm, refresh your needs, and craft new weapons and armor if needed.

Make the trap near the base but far enough away that the wyvern you lure in won’t damage your building when you lure it in. I speak from experience when I say that you can lose hours of work very quickly if multiple wyverns get grumpy around your base. 

Uses for Primal Crystal

There are a few different things you can do with primal crystal, the most common of which have to do with taming wyverns.

When they come out of their eggs, you use primal crystal to feed baby crustal wyverns.

Baby wyverns continue to eat primal crystals until they’re fully mature, and if they aren’t fed, they can die.

Use primal crystal as the passive taming food to tame adult crystal wyverns. 

If you want to fight the Crystal Wyvern Queen, primal crystals are one of the items you need to summon her.

Primal crystals lose health over time and become standard crystals. Crystal isn’t a difficult resource to obtain, so don’t do this on purpose. 

How to Tame a Crystal Wyvern in ARK

While you can steal an egg and hatch a crystal wyvern as a baby, you can tame these majestic creatures as adults. Unlike some other wyverns, they are tamable.

About Crystal Wyverns

There are three kinds of crystal wyverns. 

Blood crystal wyverns use blood to attack. The attack continues to do damage over time and returns health to the wyvern as it disappears from its targets. 

Tropical crystal wyverns use water instead of fire to attack enemies. It knocks enemies back and drains your health and stamina. 

Ember crystal wyverns have a long and fierce breath attack. While it doesn’t sweep quite as wide as the other wyvern variants, it does start to do more damage over time as you continue to use the fire breath. 

You may want to decide which you want first before taming one since the process can take a while. Other crystal wyverns take more damage from a tamed wyvern who matches their subtype. 

Also, it’s important to remember that crystal wyverns aren’t aggressive until you attack them. Once attacked, though, they become fierce foes.

Taming a Crystal Wyvern

One of the exciting things about taming a crystal wyvern is that it’s a passive tame. You don’t have to knock it out or fight with it to tame it. The hard part is getting the primal crystal you need to befriend it.

Your character must also be a level 65 to passive tame a crystal wyvern. If you’re a lower level, the option to feed it won’t appear even if you have plenty of primal crystal in your inventory.

This works for all varieties of basic crystal wyvern. You cannot tame the heirs, though you can steal their eggs, hatch a baby crystal wyvern, and feed it primal crystal until it’s mature. 

Other people use a grappling hook to cling to the crystal wyvern. They pull themselves up as close to it as they can to feed it when the option appears. Keep medical brew on your hotbar to ensure environmental damage doesn’t kill you as the wyvern flies around. 

If you do one of these methods, slot your parachute or another device that will help you make it from the sky to the ground without damage. You may find yourself abruptly launched into the air. 

At the end of the day, taming a crystal wyvern isn’t hard as long as you’re willing to take the time to make a trap so that you have a source of primal crystal. Once you do, you have a strong and valuable tame who can move you quickly across the map or help you defeat large and scary enemies. 

How To Fix A Broken Tv Screen?

If you see horizontal and vertical lines running through your screen, it is a sign that you have a broken TV screen. Fixing a broken TV is a sophisticated job and may cost you some bucks.

So, if you are not technically sound, we recommend you consult the TV technician and get it fixed. Otherwise, we have prepared this article with some helpful methods to fix a broken TV screen.

The possibility of fixing the broken TV screen depends upon the severity of the damage. The DIY (Do It Yourself) method can somehow fix minor scratches and dead pixels. However, it does not guarantee that it will get your TV screen back.

Warning: Before fixing a TV screen, please check if you are still on a warranty period. If you tend to repair the TV while still on warranty, it may void the agreement, and you may run into a problem.

If you just dealing with a horizontal lines issues on your TV screen and not a broken screen, you can read this comprehensive article to fix it.

If the cracks on your TV screen do not affect your viewing experience and you are comfortable with it, you don’t need to replace the entire screen.

If you have a screen with the following types of damages, we recommend you to stay away from DIY fixes as it could do more damage.

Hairline cracks can be somewhat fixed with the DIY method, but spiderweb cracks may be complex to repair if the damage has been done to the internal parts as well.

To see if the crack is fixable, take a mushy cloth and run it on top of the crack. If you sense some sort of roughness in the screen, it is likely not fixable by yourself. Make sure you don’t use your bare hands to run over the crack. Else, you might end up hurting.

The first DIY fix is to use the eraser at the back of your pencil. Many users reported that they could fix the hairline cracks by gently rubbing the eraser over the cracked area. If you don’t have one, buy a new pencil eraser. Do not use the eraser out of your kid’s geometry box if you want better results.

Turn your TV on while doing this method as you need to see the improvements. Also, don’t forget to be gentle. If you press hard on your screen, it might further get damaged. If you see improvement in the crack, you may continue the rubbing till the crack disappears. 

You can also purchase a crack repair spray or a scratch remover from the nearby store and use it in the affected area. It costs only around $15 to $20 for you. You can save hundreds of dollars if it works.

If you see some black spots on your screen, the pixels of that area are probably damaged. If you have spots covering a large area of the screen, it is almost non-repairable. However, small spots may be repaired by a DIY method.

You can take an earbud and rub over the dead pixels for a few minutes to see if it fixes the issue. Please make sure you are gentle with it.

Before fixing a broken TV screen, you should know about the fundamental circuit boards attached to your TV chassis. Depending upon your TV model and manufacturer, the position of the circuit boards may vary, but they have things in common. Some of the components in your LCD / LED TV are the Power Supply Unit, Main Board, Backlight Inverter, and T-Con Board.

Since we are discussing the screen, let’s learn about the TV parts in terms of display:

T-Con board, also called the Timing Controller board, is a display component on your TV that connects the display panel with the main board of the TV. It generates signals for the row and column elements of your TV screen. If your T-Con board is damaged, you see greyscales on your screen or some kind of regular pattern. 

The T-Con board normally lies at the lower end of the screen. If your TV is broken from the lower side, the T-Con board may also be damaged.

LVDS cable connects the T-Con board with the main board of your TV. The even and odd signals from the board pass to the T-Con board via the LVDS cable, and you see graphics on your screen. LVDS cable is too fragile, so you must deal with it with care during the repair process.

The ribbon cable runs through the T-Con board to the display panel of your screen. They are normally flat in shape, shielded with tapes. They are flexible and, at the same time, easily get damaged. Depending upon the severity of your TV screen damage, you may also need to replace the ribbon cable.

But most of the modern TV screens come with a T-Con board attached to the display panel, not requiring you to change the Ribbon cable.

The display panel is the outermost part of your TV and the first thing to get damaged when anything comes in contact with the screen. You may have an LCD or LED display panel on your TV screen.

The components we discussed, like T-Con and LVDS, may or may not require a replacement, but when the display panel is broken, there is no option except to replace it.

As we already suggested, replacing a TV screen is quite a complex and sophisticated process; you may end up further damaging your TV components trying to replace it. But if you have one and want to replace it yourself, we have provided the steps to replace a TV screen below.

Here, we are replacing the broken LCD screen of a Samsung TV for elucidation:

Since prevention is better than cure, there are certain workarounds you can apply to protect your TV screen from breaking. They not only prevent your TV screen from disaster but also potentially safeguards you from costing hundreds of dollars. Let’s discuss some of the measures:

The first preventive measure you can apply is not allowing anyone to touch your TV. Pets are the main reason for breaking your TV screen most of the time. If you keep a dog or cat at your home, limit them from coming around the TV. Don’t allow them to go near your TV if they have to. Consider trimming their nails as well since they are responsible for causing scratches.

Similarly, if you have kids, they tend to run around and play in the TV room. They may accidentally hit the TV screen with a ball or other toys and get damaged. Please prevent your kids from playing in the TV room.

TV screens mostly break when it is placed on a table-top. Minor shocks or bumps might get off your TV from the table, and you might damage the screen. Or, if you have a narrow room, you may stumble with your TV table while walking or shifting things and hurt your TV.

You can mount your TV on the wall to prevent this from happening. Mounting efficiently protects your TV from those kicks and bumps.

Using a TV screen guard is the best option if you think other preventive measures are hard to apply. You can purchase anti-shock and anti-breaking screen protectors and install them on your TV. 

Screen protectors work as a barrier and prevent anything from hitting the screen. Additionally, they are also waterproof and help your TV protect from the spill of any liquids. If you have a cupboard with a TV casing or a cabinet, please place the TV in it for safety.

Many insurance companies nowadays provide the facility of TV insurance under home insurance schemes. Depending upon your TV models and price, they offer you insurance on an installment basis. In case you get your TV broken and need a repair, it will help you save money.

Your TV is almost useless if your damage the screen. Replacing a TV screen almost costs as much as buying a new one. However, if you have knowledge of hardware, you may unscrew the TV and use the Power Supply Unit (PSU), backlight Inverter, and audio components like speakers.

Dismantling the TV requires some expertise, so it would be better to sell your broken TV to the recycling or a refurbishing center. You can get a good amount if you only have minor cracks and dead pixels and want to sell it. But if the damage is extreme, even the refurbish center may not purchase your TV.

If your TV is damaged such that you can not repair it, or say if the repair center technician suggests you buy a new one instead of repairing it, you need to dispose of it properly.

Since the TVs contain chemicals like lead and mercury, you should not dispose of them directly in your backyard or dumping site. There are many recycling centers around that take care of e-wastes. Consider taking your TV there.

Moreover, instead of throwing your TV in the garbage, you can ask the repair center if they can buy your damaged TV. They can take out the components like the T-con board, power supply, or audio components and use them in other TVs.

You can get a few bucks for your old TV that can help you buy a new TV to some extent. You can even use eBay or Facebook marketplace to sell it. Some people buy used and damaged TVs for refurbishing; maybe you will find a person to buy them.

If you are curious, how much does your broken TV screen repair cost, it depends upon several factors. Costs vary depending upon the size of your TV screen and whether it needs to be replaced or can be repaired. Moreover, if other TV parts along with the TV screen are damaged, it may cost you more.

According to research, repairing an LCD or LED TV costs anywhere between $50 to $200 in case the damage is not severe. However, it can cost you a bit more if you have an OLED or a 4K TV.

How To Find Broken Links In Selenium

What are Broken Links?

Broken links are links or URLs that are not reachable. They may be down or not functioning due to some server error

An URL will always have a status with 2xx which is valid. There are different HTTP status codes which are having different purposes. For an invalid request, HTTP status is 4xx and 5xx.

4xx class of status code is mainly for client side error, and 5xx class of status codes is mainly for the server response error.

Why should you check Broken links?

You should always make sure that there are no broken links on the site because the user should not land into an error page.

The error happens if the rules are not updated correctly, or the requested resources are not existing at the server.

Manual checking of links is a tedious task, because each webpage may have a large number of links & manual process has to be repeated for all pages.

An Automation script using Selenium that will automate the process is a more apt solution.

How to check the Broken Links and Images in Selenium

For checking the broken links, you will need to do the following steps.

Send HTTP request for the link and read HTTP response code.

Find out whether the link is valid or broken based on HTTP response code.

Repeat this for all the links captured.

Code to Find the Broken links on a webpage

Below is the web driver code which tests our use case:

package automationPractice; import; import; import; import; import java.util.Iterator; import java.util.List; import org.openqa.selenium.By; import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver; import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement; import; public class BrokenLinks { private static WebDriver driver = null; public static void main(String[] args) { String url = ""; HttpURLConnection huc = null; int respCode = 200; driver = new ChromeDriver(); driver.manage().window().maximize(); driver.get(homePage); while(it.hasNext()){ url ="href"); System.out.println(url); System.out.println("URL is either not configured for anchor tag or it is empty"); continue; } if(!url.startsWith(homePage)){ System.out.println("URL belongs to another domain, skipping it."); continue; } try { huc = (HttpURLConnection)(new URL(url).openConnection()); huc.setRequestMethod("HEAD"); huc.connect(); respCode = huc.getResponseCode(); System.out.println(url+" is a broken link"); } else{ System.out.println(url+" is a valid link"); } } catch (MalformedURLException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } driver.quit(); } } Explaining the code of Broken Links Step 1: Import Packages

Import below package in addition to default packages:


Using the methods in this package, we can send HTTP requests and capture HTTP response codes from the response.

Step 2: Collect all links in web page

Identify all links in a webpage and store them in List.

Obtain Iterator to traverse through the List.

Step 3: Identifying and Validating URL

In this part, we will check if URL belongs to Third party domain or whether URL is empty/null.

Get href of anchor tag and store it in url variable.

url ="href");

Check if URL is null or Empty and skip the remaining steps if the condition is satisfied.

System.out.println(“URL is either not configured for anchor tag or it is empty”); continue; }

Check whether URL belongs to a main domain or third party. Skip the remaining steps if it belongs to third party domain.

if(!url.startsWith(homePage)){ System.out.println("URL belongs to another domain, skipping it."); continue; }

HttpURLConnection class has methods to send HTTP request and capture HTTP response code. So, output of openConnection() method (URLConnection) is type casted to HttpURLConnection.

huc = (HttpURLConnection)(new URL(url).openConnection());

We can set Request type as “HEAD” instead of “GET”. So that only headers are returned and not document body.


On invoking connect() method, actual connection to url is established and the request is sent.

huc.connect(); Step 5: Validating Links

Using getResponseCode() method we can get response code for the request

respCode = huc.getResponseCode();

Based on response code we will try to check link status.

System.out.println(url+” is a broken link”); } else{ System.out.println(url+” is a valid link”); }

Thus, we can obtain all links from web page and print whether links are valid or broken.

Hope this tutorial helps you in checking Broken links using selenium.

How to get ALL Links of a Web Page

One of the common procedures in web Testing is to test if all the links present within the page are working. This can be conveniently done using a combination of the Java for-each loop, findElements() & By.tagName(“a”) method.

The findElements() method, returns a list of Web Elements with tag a. Using a for-each loop, each element is accessed.

The WebDriver code below checks each link from the Mercury Tours homepage to determine those that are working and those that are still under construction.

import org.openqa.selenium.By; import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver; import; import java.util.List; import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit; import org.openqa.selenium.*; public class P1 { public static void main(String[] args) { System.setProperty("","G:\chromedriver.exe"); WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(); String underConsTitle = "Under Construction: Mercury Tours"; driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(5, TimeUnit.SECONDS); driver.get(baseUrl); String[] linkTexts = new String[linkElements.size()]; int i = 0; for (WebElement e : linkElements) { linkTexts[i] = e.getText(); i++; } for (String t : linkTexts) { if (driver.getTitle().equals(underConsTitle)) { System.out.println(""" + t + """ + " is under construction."); } else { System.out.println(""" + t + """ + " is working."); } driver.navigate().back(); } driver.quit(); } }

The output should be similar to the one indicated below.

Accessing image links are done using By.cssSelector() and By.xpath() methods.


In an isolated case, the first link accessed by the code could be the “Home” Link. In such case, driver.navigate.back() action will show a blank page as the 1st action is opening a browser. The driver will not be able to find all other links in a blank browser. So IDE will throw an exception and rest of the code will not execute. This can be easily handled using an If loop.

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